GENETIC JOYCE STUDIES - Issue 10 (Spring 2010)
 

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Emendations to the Transcription of Finnegans Wake Notebook VI.B.14

 

Mikio Fuse, Robbert-Jan Henkes and Geert Lernout

 

Most of the new sources were found during the Post Production Proofreading process on the jj-genetic discussion group, in the period January 2008 - June 2010. Wim Van Mierlo found Caradoc Evans and published his findings in Genetic Joyce Studies 7, Spring 2007. Dirk Van Hulle found the Dictionnaire and Diderot, Aida Yared was instrumental in finding the Soirées. All new newspaper sources were found by Mikio Fuse. Emendations of the items traced in newfound sources: by the discoverer of the source. All new MS/FW locations and all other emendations: by Mikio Fuse, unless otherwise indicated. All French quotes were translated by Geert Lernout and checked by Daniel Ferrer and Françoise Antiquaro. Ferrer and Antiquario also completed and corrected some of the new draft insertions.

 

Les Soirées - Jacques Boulenger & André Thérive, Les Soirées du Grammaire-Club, Paris, Librairie Plon, 1924 [Robbert-Jan Henkes, Mikio Fuse & Aida Yared]

Traveler’s Handbook for Normandy - Cook’s Traveler’s Handbook for Normandy & Brittany (1923) [Mikio Fuse]

Les Grandes Légendes - Édouard Schuré, Les Grandes Légendes de France, Paris, Perrin et Cie, 1921 (1892) [Robbert-Jan Henkes]

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel - Étienne Dupont, Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel, Historiettes et anecdotes sur l’abbaye et les prisons, Perrin, Paris, n.d. (1924, Nouvelle édition) [Robbert-Jan Henkes] OR Joseph François Gabriel Hennequin, Esprit de L’Encyclopédie, ou recueil des articles les plus curieux et les plus intéressans de l’encyclopédie, en ce qui concerne l’histoire, la morale, la littérature et la philosophie  (1822) [Mikio Fuse] OR Diderot - Encyclopédie, première édition, tome 5 [Dirk Van Hulle] 

 

Dictionnaire - M. Sabbathier, Dictionnaire pour l’intelligence des auteurs classiques, Grecs et Latins, tant sacrés que profanes, contenant la géographie, l’histoire, la fable et les antiquités, vol. 14 (1773) [Dirk Van Hulle]

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu - Étienne Dupont, Le Mont Saint-Michel Inconnu, D’après des documents inédits, Librairie Perrin et Cie., Paris 1912 [Robbert-Jan Henkes]

Les Gaulois - Albert Grenier, Les Gaulois, Collection Payot, 1923 [Robbert-Jan Henkes]

Annales, 1911 - Eugène Herpin, La Croix du Fief (article in the Annales de la société historique et archéologique de l'arrondissement de Saint-Malo, 1911) [Robbert-Jan Henkes]

 

Miscellanies - Edward FitzGerald, Miscellanies, London, MacMillan and Co, 1900 [Robbert-Jan Henkes]

 

Apocryphal New Testament - The Apocryphal New Testament, being the Apocryphal Gospels, Acts, Epistles, and Apocalyses, with Other Narratives and Fragments Newly Translated by Montague Rhodes James, Litt.D, F.B.A., F.S.A., Provost of Eton; Sometime Provost of King’s College, Cambridge, Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1924 [Robbert-Jan Henkes & Mikio Fuse]

 

Revue des Traditions Populaires - Yves Sébillot, Traditions et coutumes de Basse-Bretagne, X, Le mariage au pays Trégorrois, article in: Revue des Traditions Populaires, Recueil mensuel de mythologie, littérature orale, ethnographie traditionelle et art populaire,  p.348-356, Paris 1904 [Robbert-Jan Henkes]

 

[• La Bretagne et ses Traditions 2 - Paul-Yves Sébillot, La Bretagne et ses Traditions, les paysans, les pêcheurs, les métiers, le trépas, les mégalithes, les fontaines, les arbres, les fées, Maisonneuve et Larose 1998] [Robbert-Jan Henkes]

 

Selected Essays - Standish O’Grady, Selected Essays and Passages, Talbot Press, 1918 [Robbert-Jan Henkes]

 

The Megalithic Monuments - Zacharie Le Rouzic, The Megalithic Monuments of Carnac and Locmariaquer: Their Purpose and Age, with Five Views and One Map, translated by W.M. Tapp, Editions de La Bretagne Touristique, Saint-Brieuc, 1908 [Robbert-Jan Henkes]

 

Saint Vincent Ferrier - Matthieu-Maxime Gorce, Saint Vincent Ferrier (1350-1419), Plon, Paris, 1924 [Robbert-Jan Henkes]

 

The Mongol in Our Midst - F.G. Crookshank, The Mongol in Our Midst, A Study of Man and His Three Faces, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co / New York, E.P. Dutton, 1924 [Robbert-Jan Henkes]

 

Gwynn, Leinster - Stephen Gwynn, Leinster, London, Blackie, 1911 [Mikio Fuse]

 

Gwynn, Connaught  - Stephen Gwynn, Connaught, London, Blackie, 1911 [Mikio Fuse]

 

Gwynn, Munster  - Stephen Gwynn, Munster, London, Blackie, 1911 [Mikio Fuse]

 

Gwynn, Ulster  - Stephen Gwynn, Ulster, London, Blackie, 1911 [Mikio Fuse]

 

Herbert Thurston, “The ‘Oscar Wilde’ Script in Its Bearing on Survival.” Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review Vol. 13, No. 49, March 1924,  14-28. [Mikio Fuse]

 

Aodh De Blacam, “Gaelic and Anglo-Irish Literature Compared.” Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review Vol. 13, No. 49, March 1924,  64-75. [Mikio Fuse]

 

Osborn Bergin (ed.), “Unpublished Irish Poems: XXV--On the Breaking Up of a School.” Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, Vol. 13, No. 49, March 1924, 85-90 [Mikio Fuse]

 

Daniel A. Binchy, “An Irish Ambassador at the Spanish Court--VI.Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review Vol. 13, No. 49, March 1924, 115-28. [Mikio Fuse]

 

John J . Hannon., “Cosmology. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Matter. By Rev. John O'Neil.” Vol. 13, No. 49, March 1924, 166-8. [Mikio Fuse]

 

A. G., “Das Los Der Ohne Die Taufe Sterbenden Kinder. Ein Beitrag zur Heilslehre by W. Stockums.” Vol. 13, No. 49, March 1924, 170-2. [Mikio Fuse]

 

G. Van Gestel, “II: The St. Reinilda Congregation of Holland.” Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review Vol. 13, No. 49, March 1924, 130-39. [Mikio Fuse]

 

Paul Walsh, “Comments on the Foregoing Article--No. I.Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, Vol. 13, No. 50, June 1924, 189-191 [Mikio Fuse]

 

Daniel. A. Binchy, “Comments on the Foregoing Article--No. II.Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review Vol. 13, No. 50, June 1924, 191-94. [Mikio Fuse]

 

Thomas F. O’Rahilly, “Comments on the Foregoing Article--No. V.Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review Vol. 13, No. 50, June 1924, 198-200. [Mikio Fuse]

 

W. F. Butler, “Irish Land Tenures: Celtic and Foreign.Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review Vol. 13, No. 50, June 1924, 291-305. [Mikio Fuse]

 

Aubrey Gwynn, “Some Recent Books about Lourdes.Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review Vol. 13, No. 50, June 1924, 306-13. [Mikio Fuse]

 

E.K., “IRELAND AND WALES. Their historical and literary relations. By Cecile O’Rahilly.” Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review Vol. 13, No. 50, June 1924, 321-4. [Mikio Fuse]

 

T.C. “SAINT FRANCOIS DE SALES, DIRECTEUR D’AMES.Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review Vol. 13, No. 50, June 1924, 331-2. [Mikio Fuse]

 

Battles and Enchantments - Norreys Jephson O’Conor, Battles and Enchantments, Retold from Early Gaelic Literature, Houghton Mifflin Company (Boston and New York) & The Riverside Press Cambridge, 1922 [Mikio Fuse]

 

L’âme nègre - Maurice Delafosse, L’âme nègre, Payot, Paris, 1922 [Robbert-Jan Henkes]

 

My People - Caradoc Evans, My People: Tales of the Peasantry of West Wales, London, Andrew Melrose, Ltd., London, 1916 (1905) [Wim Van Mierlo (See GJS 7.)]

 

 

VI.B.14.003

(a)        carence de pouvoir

Note: Fr. Carence de pouvoir. Deficiency of power.

Les Soirées 242: N’oubliez-pas que la multitude est suspendue à notre verdict, et que nous ne pouvons offrir, comme on dit en langue politique, l’exemple fâcheux d’une carence de pouvoir. [Don’t forget that the multitude depends on our judgment and we cannot give them the bad example, to use political parlance, of a deficiency of power.]

VI.C.15.264(e)

(b)        les incises

Note: Fr. Les incises. Embedded clauses. See (d).

Les Soirées 243: Il y a dans les tours précités des incises presque admises par l’usage. Tels sont: reconnut, insista, et à la rigueur ponctua.” [...] “Vous savez que les incises de la conversation mise en récit doivent être essentiellement vagues et passer presque inaperçues. Elles se réduisent à des espèces de signes de ponctuation.” [In the above turns of phrase there are embedded clauses that are almost accepted in usage, such as: reconnut, insista, and even ponctua.” […] “You know that the embedded clauses in a narrated conversation must remain vague, they should hardly be noticed at all. They function almost like a sort of punctuation sign.]

VI.C.15.264(f)

(c)        Marmontel

Note: Jean-François Marmontel (1723-99). Disciple of Voltaire, poet, critic, dramatist, author of the Contes moraux (1767-77), and four volumes of Mémoires (1800-05). He was frequently quoted by grammarians and critics of the nineteenth century. He might be the author of the quotation below.

Les Soirées 244: C’est ainsi que nos aïeux usaient de dit-il, fis-je, répondit-il, avec une surabondance qui nous choque presque aujourd’hui. C’est Marmontel, je crois, qui prit l’habitude de les supprimer et de marquer la conversation par des alinéas et des tirets. [This is how our ancestors used dit-il, fis-je, répondit-il, with an abandon that is almost shocking today. It was Marmontel, I think, who had the habit to suppress them and to mark conversations by paragraphs and dashes.]

VI.C.15.264(g)

(d)        s’emporta-t-il

Note: Fr. S’emporta-t-il. He raged. The inversion of the subject is characteristic of an embedded clause. See (b).

Les Soirées 244: Il arrive aussi que les verbes trop longs, mis en incise, soient cacophoniques. Songez qu’il y a pléthore de verbes de la première conjugaison, qui risquent d’envahir les autres. D’où ces horreurs: s’emporta-t-elle, lamenta-t-il. On dirait des noms de produits chimiques! [It also happens that verbs that are too long, when used in an embedded clause, become cacophonic. Especially when there is a plethora of words of the first conjugation, which risk to invade the others. Thus horrors like: s’emporta-t-elle, lamenta-t-il. They sound like the names of chemical products!]

VI.C.15.264(h)

(e)        Fr. anti-verb

Les Soirées 245: Le français, en effet, répugne à faire porter aucun accent sur le verbe. Le verbe n’est pas pour nous autres le mot par excellence, le Verbum. Le mot essentiel de la phrase, c’est, messieurs, le substantif. [French resists having any accent on the verb. For us the verb is not the word above all words, the Verbum. The essential word of the sentence, gentlemen, is the noun.]

VI.C.15.264(i)

(f)        print, italics, [p?] capitals,

Note: This might be a meta-note, describing the abundance of small capitals and italics on page 246 of Les Soirées.

VI.C.15.264(j)

(g)        Sujet unique

Note: Fr. Sujet unique. Single subject.

Les Soirées 247: Seulement la “règle du sujet unique” telle que Théodore l’a exprimée, est presque un critère du bon langage. [Only the “rule of the single subject,” as it is expressed by Théodore, is almost a criterion for good language.]

VI.C.15.264(k)

(h)        cascade de génitifs >

Note: Fr. Cascade de génitifs. Piling up of genitives.

VI.C.15.264(l)

(i)         jonglerie de substantifs

Note: Fr. Jonglerie de substantifs. Juggling of substantives.

Les Soirées 254: [they are trying to improve an ill-turned phrase in Raymond Radiguet’s Diable au corps, ‘Le tragique de cette folle sur un toit s’augmentait de ce que la maison parût abandonnée.’] Il serait fort classique de dire: “Le tragique du spectacle s’augmentait de l’abandon de la demeure.” C’est encore lourd. Il y a des génitifs en cascade, rançon probable de cette jonglerie de substantifs. Que voulez-vous! On ne redresse pas les phrases mal constituées. On les envoie à la refonte. [It would all too old-fashioned to say: “The tragedy of the spectacle was enhanced by the dereliction of the building.” That is too heavy still. There is an avalanche of genetives as a result of an abundance of nouns. There is no way around it! You cannot repair clauses that are badly constructed. They have to be recast entirely.]

VI.C.15.264(m)

(j)         personal coefficient

Les Soirées 255: A vous en croire, mon cher ami, il n’y aurait pas de liberté dans le style! Donc point d’intervention de l’individu, aucun coefficient personnel! [If one were to believe you, my dear friend, there would be no freedom in style ! So no individual intervention, no personal coefficient!]

VI.C.15.265(a)

(k)        rsupercillious

Les Soirées 259: Diantre! Voilà du purisme sourcilleux, ou je ne m’y connais pas! [Deuce! That is a supercilious purism, if ever I saw one!]

MS 47473-36v, TsLPA: superciliouslooking Greek ees | JJA 46:332 | Feb-Mar 1925 | I.5§1.3/4.3 | FW 120.18-19

Note: There is an undecipherable squiggle in the left margin.

(l)         Fr. modern poetry

Les Soirées 260: Je m’avoue choqué quand je lis, par exemple, la poésie française moderne ou le mouvement poétique contemporain. [I am truly shocked when I read, for example, la poésie française moderne or le mouvement poétique contemporain.]

VI.C.15.265(b)

(m)       Ruhr coal peace hope

Note: An Allied Conference devoted to German war reparations had started in London on July 15. It finally endorsed the Dawes Plan for settlement of the Ruhr crisis. As a result the French and Belgian troops eventually left this coal-producing region that they had seized in 1923 when Germany defaulted on its war debt.

Les Soirées 261: La règle formelle du français exige que l’on distingue, non pas seulement la parenté de chaque idée, mais le rôle qu’elles jouent respectivement l’une à l’autre. Nous avons, que voulez-vous, une langue logique, et toute peuplée de particules! Je viens de lire sur le transparent d’un journal anglais: Ruhr Coal peace hope. Mettez l’ordre inverse, propre au français; vous auriez: espoir pacifique charbonnier ruhrien. Et bien! non, non et non! le français pense: espoir de pacification dans les mines de la Ruhr. Votre emploi d’épithètes juxtaposées ne tend à rien de moins qu’à supprimer l’analyse rationnelle des idées! [The absolute rule of the French language demands that one should distinguish not just where each idea comes from, but also its relationship to the others. This is, after all, a logical language, full of particles! I happened to read a poster for an English newspaper: Ruhr Coal peace hope. Reverse the order of the words, in the French way, and you get: espoir pacifique charbonnier ruhrien. But, no, no, no! French is a thinking language: the hope of peace in the mines of the Ruhr. Your use of juxtaposed epithets results in nothing but the suppression of the rational analyses of ideas!]

VI.C.15.265(c)

(n)        poudingue opudding stone

Note: Fr. Poudingue. Pudding-stone: a conglomerate consisting of rounded pebbles held together in a natural cement.

Les Soirées 263: Il faut un travail plus subtil de l’esprit pour séparer et classer les éléments de ce poudingue (1), bref pour écrire :l’histoire de l’économie moderne en France ou le mouvement littéraire chez les catholiques italiens, ou le mouvement catholique chez les écrivains d’Italie. [We need a more subtle work of the spirit to separate and classify the elements of this pudding, in short to write: l’histoire de l’économie moderne en France or le mouvement littéraire chez les catholiques italiens, or le mouvement catholique chez les écrivains d’Italie.]

MS 47482a-99v, MT: just ^+like+^ a puddingstone | JJA 44:040 | Oct-Nov 1926 | I.1§1E.*0 | FW 017.06

VI.C.15.265(d)

(o)        madréporique

Note: Fr. Madréporique. Madreporic: pertaining to, or characteristic of madrepore coral. Said of rocks or geological structures composed of fossil corals.

Les Soirées 262-3: J’ajoute aussi que les constructions agglomérées et madréporiques répugnent au génie analytique et dissociateur (pour ainsi parler) de notre langage. Reprenons donc l’exemple cité plus haut, l’histoire moderne économique française, ou le mouvement littéraire catholique italien, ne sont si abominables que parce que [262] ces tours nous offrent des idées coagulées avec lourdeur ensemble et mollesse. [I would also add that the agglomerated and madreporic constructions are repugnant to the analytical and dissociative (so to say) spirit of our language. Let’s return to the example cited above, l’histoire moderne économique française, ou le mouvement littéraire catholique italien, these are only so abominable because they offer us ideas that lack lightness and coherence.]

VI.C.15.265(e)

(p)        hippiatrique

Les Soirées 263: [talking about the possibility or impossibility of saying ‘un cheval blanc boiteux’, a lame white horse, or whether it better be ‘un cheval blanc qui boitait’] Dites affligé de boiterie!” to which Jérôme replies: “Il parlera donc en style d’hippiatrique?” Say affligé de boiterie! and Jerôme will reply: “He is going to speak in a hippiatric style?”

VI.C.15.265(f)

VI.B.14.007

(k)        death of subjunctive

Les Soirées 105: L’imparfait du subjonctif se meurt, jusque dans la langue écrite, ou plus exactement l’imparfait du subjonctif tend à devenir un temps défectif et dont on n’use plus guère qu’à la troisième personne du singulier; oralement, le parfait défini de l’indicatif n’est plus guère employé que par les Méridionaux, il me semble (c’est là presque un caractère provincial)... Tant pis! car la langue perd ainsi des finesses précieuses...” [The imperfect of the subjunctive is dying out, even in written language, or better the imperfect of the subjunctive is becoming a defective tense which is hardly ever used other than in the third person singular ; in spoken language, the definite perfect of the indicative is hardly ever used except by people who live near the Mediterranean, it seems (it has become almost a provincial characteristic). … Too bad! Because this is how language loses some of its precious exactness.]

VI.C.15.270(g)

(l)         I esteem it vain >

VI.C.15.270(h)

(m)       n solecism!

Les Soirées 108-9 [Christophe quotes a letter to the editor by André Gide defending certain changes the French language undergoes]: J’estime qu’il est vain, qu’il est dangereux, de se cramponner à des tournures et à des significations tombées en désuétude, et que céder un peu permet de résister beaucoup. Considérez l’aventure du subjonctif: quand la règle [108] est trop incommode, on passe outre. L’enfant dit: tu voulais que je vienne, ou: que j’aille, et il a raison. Il sait bien qu’en disant: tu voulais que je vinsse, ou: que j’allasse, ainsi que son maître, hier encore, le lui enseignait, il va se faire rire au nez par ses camarades, ce qui lui paraît beaucoup plus grave que de commettre un solécisme. [I believe it is useless, even dangerous, to hang on to expressions and meanings that are in the process of disappearing, we have to give way in order to put up a better form of resistance. Think of the subjunctive: when the rules are too strict, one tries something else. A child says : tu voulais que je vienne, or: que j’aille and it is right. He knows very well that in saying tu voulais que je vinsse, ou: que j’allasse, like his schoolmaster taught him only yesterday, he is going to be made fun of by his comrades, which for him is much more serious than to commit a solecism.]

VI.C.15.270(i)

(n)        Mme est parti dans le midi / où elle s’embête >>

Note: Fr. Madame est partie dans le midi où elle s’embête. Madam has gone to the Midi where she is bored.

VI.C.15.270(j)

VI.B.14.008

(a)        purist

Les Soirées 110 [How French is spoken today]: Il n’y a plus de bon usage. Je ne vous engage point à l’aller chercher dans les salons; vous y entendriez que Mme X... est partie dans le Midi, où elle s’embête, que M. Z... lui a causé et qu’il se rappelle fort bien de ce qu’elle lui a dit. A quelle autorité nous fier, sinon à nos lectures et à un bon dictionnaire? De la sorte, nous encourrons peut-être le reproche d’écrire le français comme une langue morte, que je consens qui est en partie justifié; mais l’état où l’on voit notre langage ne permet point d’échapper cette critique; et j’avoue que je suis peu troublé des mots de "puriste" ou d’ "archaïsant" que nos littérateurs sans lettres ont accoutumé de jeter comme des insultes aux rares auteurs qui s’efforcent encore d’écrire à peu près correctement. [There is no longer a good usage. I am not going to tell you to look for it in the salons ; you will hear there that Madame X is partie dans le Midi, or that she s’embête, that Madame Z... lui has spoken and that he fondly remembers de that which she has said to him. Whose authority do we trust, if not that of our reading and a good dictionary? Maybe as a result we will be accused of writing a French that is a dead language, and I admit that this is in part justified; but the current state of our language does not allow us to escape that accusation; and I admit that I do not mind being called a “purist” or a “archaizer” or other terms used by our illiterate writers to insult the rare authors who still try to write more or less correctly.]

VI.C.15.270(k)

(b)        paralogism

Les Soirées 113: Voilà le paralogisme qu’on assène aux gens qui prétendent à s’exprimer correctement! Les philologues nous crient que le français correct d’aujourd’hui est fait de toutes les incorrections du français d’hier et qu’il n’y a point à se garder de barbarismes et de solécismes qui seront le français demain. [So this is the absurdity that one attributes to people who attempt to express themselves correctly. The philologists tell us that the correct French of today is made up of all the mistakes of the French of yesterday and that one should not fight against barbarisms and solecisms that will be the French of tomorrow.]

VI.C.15.271(a)

(c)        [Scrivi] ieri o domani

Note: Fr. Saisi un. Seized one

Les Soirées 116: Mais premièrement il n’est point sûr que ces fautes seront le français demain, car l’évolution du langage est soumise à mille autres influences que celles des lois proprement philologiques: elle subit une foule de réactions, et elle n’a point du tout cette régularité que les philologues aiment de lui prêter. J’ajoute que nous ne parlons et n’écrivons pas hier ni demain, mais aujourd’hui, et que nous devons nous conformer au bon usage de notre temps. [But first, it is not sure that these errors will be the French of tomorrow, because linguistic evolution follows thousands of other influences than those of the strictly philological laws: it reacts in many ways and it does not have the kind of regularity that philologists imagine it has. And I’d like to add that we do not speak and write yesterday or tomorrow, but today, and that we have to conform to the good usage of our own time.]

VI.C.15.271(b)

(d)        rall the same

Les Soirées 116: Tout de même, qui voulait dire "tout à fait de même", est devenu, dans la langue courante, à peu près synonyme de nonobstant, néanmoins, etc.; c’est, nous apprend M. Clédat, par une évolution analogue à celle de pourtant. Ce mot signifiait pour cela: dans les propositions négatives il a pris tout d’abord le sens de malgré cela ("il avait promis, il n’est pourtant pas venu") qui s’est propagé dans les propositions affirmatives ("il n’avait pas promis, pourtant il est venu"). Ainsi, tout de même - ou (si j’ose m’exprimer ainsi) tout de même, tout à fait de même. [Tout de même, [literally, all the same], which used to mean "tout à fait de même", has become, in spoken language, almost synonymous with nonobstant, néanmoins, etc. ; this follows, according to Monsieur Clédat, the same process as pourtant. This word used to mean pour cela: in negative sentences it first meant malgré cela ("il avait promis, il n’est pourtant pas venu") which was then carried over in positive statements ("il n’avait pas promis, pourtant il est venu"). Thus, tout de même -  or, if I can express myself in this way, "tout à fait de même", all the same, tout de même.]

Not located in MS/FW ?MS 47482-86, ILA:  ^+All the same+^ You will swear you saw their shadows struggling? | JJA 58:47 | Nov-Dec 1924  | III §3A.*2/3B.*0 | FW 518.03

(f)        avoir très peur

Note: Fr. Avoir très peur. To be very frightened.

Les Soirées 116: "Avoir très peur" s’explique non moins aisément. Très ou bien marque régulièrement en français l’intensité devant un adjectif ou un adverbe: "il est très souffrant, ou bien souffrant". Beaucoup ou bien la marque à côté du verbe: "il souffre beaucoup, ou bien". Grand, devant un nom: "il a grand mal". On dit donc très régulièrement "avoir grand peur". Mais "avoir peur" est un verbe et l’on dit aussi: "avoir bien peur". Enfin dans ce verbe est contenue une idée adjective: "avoir peur" exprime, non une action comme "avoir plaisir", mais un état, celui d’ "être effrayé": on est amené à dire "avoir très peur" comme on dit "être très effrayé". [It is not easier to explain "Avoir très peur". In French, Très or bien regularly indicate the intensity of an adjective or an adverb: "il est très souffrant, ou bien souffrant".  Beaucoup or bien have the same function with verbs: "il souffre beaucoup, ou bien". Grand, before a noun: "il a grand mal". One hears a lot: "avoir grand peur". But "avoir peur" is a verb and one also hears "avoir bien peur". But in this verb there is an adjectival idea: "avoir peur" does not express an action such as “to have pleasure”, but a state of being afraid: thus one is tempted to say "avoir très peur" just as one would say "être très effrayé".]

VI.C.15.271(d)

(g)        gRealise himself n

Les Soirées 115: Je vous passe le reste qui est moins intéressant, car il ne vous étonnera pas que M. Clédat juge parfaitement normal invectiver quelqu’un, puisque "la langue offre de multiples exemples de transitifs indirects transformés en transitifs directs", et qu’il ne trouve pas bien grave que le subjonctif perde, hormis la troisième, toutes les personnes de son imparfait. Il ne dit pas, mais il aurait pu dire que réaliser, au sens nouveau qu’on donne à ce verbe, bien loin d’être un anglicisme, est un archaïsme scolastique: c’est l’anglais to realize qui est un gallicisme; Fénelon dit d’ailleurs, dans ses Lettres spirituelles: "Je comprends sans peine que l’âge et les infirmités vous font regarder la mort de près: cette même vue rapproche et réalise tristement l’objet... Réaliser a exactement ici le sens contraire à celui d’idéaliser... Et moi aussi, je suis philologue! [The rest will be less interesting since it will not surprise you that M. Clédat thinks that it is perfectly normal to say invecter quelqu’un, because “language offers many examples of indirect transitives that have become direct transitives”, and he does not mind much that the subjunctive has lost, apart from the third person, all the other persons of its imperfect. He does not, but he could also mention that réaliser, in the new sense given to this verb, is not an anglicism but a scholastic archaic form: it is the English verb to realize that is a Gallicism; Fénélon writes in his Lettres spirituelles: “I understand without trouble that age and infirmity have given you the chance to look death in the eye: this sight brings the object in a sad manner closer and realize it … Réaliser is here the opposite of idéaliser.. And I am a philologist too!”]

MS 47484a-42, TsILA: so that I’m not myself at all ^+when I realise myself+^ | JJA 58:177 | Jan 1925-Apr 1926 | III§3A.4/3B.4 | FW 487.18

(h)        topinambou

Note: Fr. Topinambour. Jerusalem artichoke.

Les Soirées 116: Parce que les philologues nous expliquent comment le français devient du topinambou, devons-nous prendre le topinambou pour du français? Je ne reproche pas aux philologues de prôner l’usage oral, mais le mauvais usage oral. [Because the philologists tells how French has become a mess, do we then have to take this mess as French ? I don’t blame the philologists for extolling oral usage, but bad oral usage.]

VI.C.15.271(e)

(i)         oDéja (Chilperic hears of / assassination of Louis XVI) >

Note: Fr. Déjà. Already.

Chilperic. The name of two Frankish kings: Chilperic I (died 584) and Chilperic II (died 720). Louis XVI was guillotined in 1793.

Not located in MS/FW

(j)         Hervé

Note: See 63(d).

Les Soirées 120: Déjà!... C’est ce que réplique Chilperic, dans une opérette d’Hervé, à quelque guerrier franc qui lui annonce la mort de Louis XVI ou l’avènement de Charlemagne. J’aime entendre Socrate craindre les microbes et louer nos chefs-d’oeuvres français. [Déjà!...This is the reply of Chilperic, in an operetta by Hervé, to a brave warrior who tells him that Louis XVI has died or the arrival of Charlemagne. I love to hear Socrates fearing the microbes or praising French masterpieces.]

(k)        g[Vurry]           b

MS 47484a-48, TsILS: - Very +Vurry+ nothing I call it for I might as well tell you the truth | JJA 58:188 | III.§3A.4/3B.4 | Dec 1924-Jan 1925 | FW 521.03

Cf. VI.B.05.006(c): I’m vurry sorry & I / ’m vurry glad I’m / so vurry sorry.

(l)         English is dead / GM

Note:The virgule is Joyce’s.

GM. ?George Moore. Writing to Stanislaus, 31 August 1906, about The Lake, Joyce had mocked the ‘Preface written in French to a French friend who cannot read or write English’. (Letters II, 154)

Les Soirées 124: Messieurs, nous avons eu souvent l’occasion, au cours de nos entretiens, de citer un ouvrage plein de mérites, qui a pour titre Le français, langue morte?... [Gentlemen, we have often had the opportunity, during our conversations, to quote from a work full of merit, that carries the title Le français, langue morte?... ]

VI.C.15.271(f)

(m)       Nodier b

Note: Charles Nodier (1780-1844). Prolific French writer. He liked to make fun of the ‘celtomanes’. See 101(f)-(g).

Les Soirées 130: Mais, si je compare la meilleure langue qui ait été écrite au dix-huitième siècle: celle de Voltaire ou plutôt de Montesquieu, à la meilleure langue qui l’ait été au dix-neuvième: celle de Nodier, de Hugo, d’Anatole France, je vous avouerai que je préfère la seconde: elle est ensemble moins sèche et plus rigoureuse. [But if I compare the best language written in the sixteenth century: that of Voltaire or rather of Montesquieu, to the best language written in the nineteenth: that of Nodier, Hugo, Anatole France, I have to admit that I prefer the latter: it is altogether less dry and more rigorous.]

VI.C.15.271(g)

(q)        venery

Note:Venery. 1. Hunting. 2. The pursuit of sexual pleasure.

Les Soirées 133: Sans doute! Mais est-ce là du "bilinguisme"? Quand nous pensons à la chasse à courre, nous appelons à nous le vocabulaire et les formules de la vénerie, ou celles de la mécanique quand nous songeons aux moteurs d’automobiles: comment en serait-il autrement? [No doubt ! But is it really "bilingualism"? When we think of the hunt, we also recall the vocabulary and formulas of hunting, or that of mechanics when we think of the motors of cars: how could it be otherwise?]

VI.C.15.271(j)

VI.B.14.009

(a)        aigledon >

Note: Fr. Aigledon. Regional variant of édredon, eiderdown quilt.

VI.C.15.271(k)

(b)        egobille (meubles)

Note: Fr. Meubles. Furniture.

Les Soirées 135-6: Il y a, d’autre part, dans notre bibliothèque un Dictionnaire des expressions vicieuses usitées dans un grand nombre de dépar-[135]tements et notamment dans la ci-devant province de Lorraine qui est l’oeuvre, publiée en 1807, d’un J.F. Michel, ex-directeur d’une école de Nancy et de plusieurs pensionnats; on y trouve certaines expressions populaires comme aigledon pour édredon; égobilles, mot tiré d’ego, qui signifie les meubles, les effets personnels; et faire des atis, des agios, des gyries, pour "faire des façons, des cérémonies"; le livre est par ailleurs comique, mais bien pauvre de renseignements. [On the other hand we have in our library a copy of a Dictionnaire des expressions vicieuses usitées dans un grand nombre de départements et notamment dans la ci-devant province de Lorraine, which is the work, published in 1807, of a certain J.F. Michel, former director of a school in Nancy and of several boarding schools; here we find there certain popular expressions such as aigledon for édredon; égobilles, a word derived from ego, which refers to furniture, personal effects; also faire des atis, des agios, des gyries meaning to make a fuss; it is a funny book, but with little solid information. ]

VI.C.15.271(l)

(c)        Fournier d’Albe

Les Soirées 137: Je viens de parcourir Tabarin et les dix volumes des Variétés historiques et littéraires d’Édouard Fournier (je ne m’en plains pas: rien de plus amusant) sans y rien trouver qui donne l’impression d’être réellement l’usage oral du dix-septième siècle. [I just happen to have read Tabarin and the ten volumes of Edouard Fournier’s Variétés historiques et littéraires (I don’t complain: nothing more amusing) without finding anything there that gives the impression of really having been oral usage in the seventeenth century.]

Note: The French author is linked by Joyce with Edmund Edward Fournier d’Albe, author of An English-Irish dictionary and phrase book: with synonyms, idioms and the genders and declensions of nouns, Dublin: M. H. Gill, n.d. (1903). He also wrote books on parapsychology and had recently published The Life of Sir William Crookes (1923).

VI.C.15.271(m)

(f)        Gen Estienne forbids use / of word ‘tank’

Note: General G. E. Estienne is considered to be the father of the French tank force.

Les Soirées 140: Enfin, le gouvernement pourrait agir très utilement. Pendant la guerre, un ordre du général Estienne a suffi à proscrire le mot tank et à le remplacer par char d’assaut. [Also, the government could act in a useful way. During the war a single order of general Estienne was enough to prohibit the word tank and to replace it by char d’assaut.]

VI.C.15.272(b)

(g)        Irrfahrten

Note: G. Irrfahrt. Wild goose chase.

Not found as such in Les Soirées, but maybe inspired by the discussion on p.144-5 about causing confusion by simplifying the general drift of great writers. Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du Mal has the reputation of being a libidinous book. It isn’t, but the reputation causes it to be read. Therefore: “La meilleure inspiration que puisse avoir un auteur, c’est donc d’inventer une formule, de pincer une guitare, de lancer un bateau.” [“So, the best inspiration an author can have, is to invent a formula, of strumming a guitar, of launching a boat.”] So you have to take the public on an Irrfahrt to make them read.

VI.C.15.272(c)

(h)        une (idéesse)

Note: Fusion of two Fr. words, idée (idea) and déesse (goddess).

Les Soirées 146-7: La Vie, ce n’est pas ce que j’appelle une idée claire; mais enfin les desecendants de Voltaire en ont fait une déesse, et se contentent fort bien de cette idée-là. Ils la défendent, comme si elle était menacée, comme si des gens risquaient de prendre la mort pour idole! [Life is not what I would call a clear idea; but still the descendents of Voltaire have made a goddess out of her, and they are well pleased with that particular idea. They defend it as if it were under threat, as if people ran the risk of idolizing death!]

VI.C.15.272(d)

(i)         gcasque of telephonist >

Note: Fr. Casque. Headset.

MS 47483-112, TsIA: in their short ^+smart+^ frockies ^+cur frickyfrockies+^ ^+and kitty casques, their mouth being one of the smartest+^ | JJA 57:178 | Mar 1926 | III§1A.5/1D.5//2A.5/2B.2/2C.5 | FW 431.03

(j)         ancient, modern h

Les Soirées 148 [a writer has to be receptive to all new ‘sensibilities’]: Victor Hugo appelait cela tenir le rôle de "cristal sonore". M. Mac Orlan préfère le terme de Central téléphonique. Voilà ce que doit être l’écrivain. C’est bien singulier. Quel rapport entre un esprit réceptif et un esprit créateur? Descartes, dans le silence de son poêle, aura donc un rôle moins humain, laissera moins de traces dans la vie, qu’une demoiselle du Bureau central, abasourdie sous son casque? Et le français traditionnel serait donc inhabile à traduire la fameuse "âme moderne", qui est, paraît-il, purement passive, incohérente et enfantine? Voilà ce que signifie cette image, moderne, elle aussi. La modernité exige même, paraît-il, que les arts changent de condition. [Victor Hugo called this playing the role of "sonorous crystal". M. Mac Orlan prefers the term Telephone Centre. That is the role of the writer and it is a strange one. How does the receptive spirit relate to the creative spirit? Descartes, in the silence of his stove, would have a less human role, would leave fewer traces in life, than a young lady in the Central Bureau, stunned beneath her headphones? And the traditional French would then be unable to translate the famous “modern soul”, which is, it seems, purely passive, incoherent and childlike? This is what that image, modern in itself, really means. Modernity even demands, it seems, that the arts change their condition.]

VI.C.15.272(e)

(l)         rBabel h

Les Soirées 154: Encore, dans ce cas par avance déplorable, le langage de France ne périrait pas seul, mais avec ses rivaux; et cette société confuse des idiomes retournerait vite à une nouvelle confusion de Babel. [And still, in this beforehand deplorable case, the French language will not die alone, but together with its rivals, and this confused concert of idioms will quickly fall back into a new confusion of Babel.]

MS 47482b-95, ILS: Is the mound moving or what is ^+babel is+^ under this | JJA 58:063 | Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2+/3B.*0+ | FW 499.34

VI.B.14.012

(a)        rsemantic >

MS 47474-25v, TsLPA: ^+with increasing lack of interest ^+in his semantics,+^+^ | JJA 47:404 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 173.32

(b)        neo-saxon (J.J.)

Les Soirées du Grammaire-Club 156: Mais la vraie question n’était pas là: vaut-il mieux, oui ou non, connaître notre langue, vocabulaire, syntaxe, sémantique même, de l’intérieur, à l’aide du latin, et en remontant sans cesse à ce passé ténébreux? L’imprudent auteur avait osé affirmer que Racine et Montaigne sont assurément inintelligibles à qui ne les considère pas comme ce qu’au fait ils furent: des auteurs néo-latins. [But that is not the real question; do we or don’t we have to know our language, vocabulary, syntax, even semantic, from the inside, with the help of Latin, and by continually going back to a dark past? The bold author had dared to claim that Racine and Montaigne are surely unintelligible for those who do not see them as what they really were: neo-Latin writers.]

VI.C.15.273(c)

(c)        chastening his style

Les Soirées du Grammaire-Club 158: A toute époque, il y a eu évidemment une légère différence entre le style familier et le châtié; mais ils ne s’opposent point comme font deux langues étrangères dans le Moi d’un polyglotte. [In every age there is always a slight difference between the familiar style and the chastened style; but they do not differ as two foreign languages do  within the Ego of a polyglot.]

VI.C.15.273(d)

VI.B.14.013

(a)        relativelimbed phrase > / participial phrase >

Note: The first chevron is Joyce’s.

VI.C.15.274(b)

(b)        pres part app. to subject

Les Soirées 187-8: J’ai compris, mon cher ami. Vous faites le procès des phrases que jalonnent mollement les seuls adjectifs ou participes épithètes. On en pourrait donc tirer en français deux règles de syntaxe et de style formelles.

Première règle: la proposition relative est, quoi qu’en pense un vain peuple, plus légère et mieux articulée que la proposition dite participiale. [187] Deuxième règle: tout participe présent en apposition à un substantif qui ne joue point le rôle de sujet, sera réputé lourd et incorrect.

 [I understand, dear friend. You argue against those phrases solely and weakly articulated by adjectives and descriptive participles used as adjectives. We could derive from this two rules of formal syntax and style in French. First rule: the relative clause is, contrary to shallow belief, lighter and clearer than the so-called participle clause. Second rule: each present participle affixed to a noun that does not have the function of subject, will be considered heavy and incorrect.

VI.C.15.274(c)

(c)        sculptor dodges weight / writer — ?

This note was probably occasioned by the repeatedly used word ‘lourd’ in this context, as in the previous quotation.

VI.C.15.274(d)

(d)        I hope you will not be / de rigueur (SD / to / GSD)

Note: SD. Stephen Dedalus. GSD. ?George Stanislaus Dempsey. Joyce’s teacher at Belvedere and the original of Mr Tate in P.

Les Soirées 203: Or, nous ne voulons pas nous brouiller par principe avec l'Université, qui devrait figurer un de nos alliés naturels. J'ai donc été chargé par notre Président d'aller rendre visite à l'un de ses plus éminents philo­logues, au nom du Grammaire-Club. Entre repré­sentants de deux grands corps constitués, la cour­toisie, à défaut de sympathie, est de rigueur. [But we do not intend to quarrel with the University, which ought to be one of natural allies. I have therefore been charged by our President to pay a visit to one of the most eminent philologists, in the name of the Grammar-Club. Between the representatives of such great bodies, there should be politeness if not sympathy.]

VI.C.15.274(e)

(e)        false reflexive

Les Soirées 214: Souffrez que je tire de ma poche ce papier, car moi aussi, j’ai mes fiches, qui ne me quittent guère: Voyons... Apud "Confidences d’une Biche" p.112, édition Lemerre. 1909: "L’exposition allait s’ouvrir... tous les rois étaient espérés." Qu’en dites-vous? n’est-ce pas d’un fort joli français? Et cette nuance entre les deux tournures! la première offre le faux réfléchi, car l’exposition ne s’ouvre pas seule, à la façon des huîtres; et la seconde montre à plein un vrai passif indubitable, irréfutable. [Allow me to take out of my pocket this piece of paper, because I too have my filing cards that fail me hardly ever : Let’s see … Apud "Confidences d’une Biche" p.112, édition Lemerre. 1909: "L’exposition allait s’ouvrir... tous les rois étaient espérés." What do you say : isn’t that a rather beautiful kind of French?  And the nuance between the two clauses. The first contains a false reflexive, because the exhibition will not open itself, as oysters do; and the second has a true passive, without doubt and irrefutable.]

VI.C.15.274(f)

(f)        il m’a dit qu’il viendrait demain / (future in the past)

Note: Fr. Il m’a dit qu’il viendrait demain. He told me he would come tomorrow.

Les Soirées 218: Bon, bon, prenons autre chose. Qu’est-ce qu’un conditionnel?
-J’aimerais, ts aimerais, il aimerait!

-Et il m’a dit qu’il viendrait demain! Pourquoi appelez-vous conditionnel, dans vos vieilles grammaires, ce futur dans le passé?

-Ça n’a pas une grosse importance! c’est encore un conditionnel, puisque c’est un futur rapporté sans garantie, un futur indirect! [Fine, fine, let’s take something else. What is a conditional?

-J’aimerais, tus aimerais, il aimerait!

-Et il m’a dit qu’il viendrait demain!Why do you call conditional, in your old grammars, what is a future in the past ?

-That does not matter. It is still a conditional because it is future reported without guarantee, an indirect future!]

VI.C.15.274(g)

(h)        muscle (little mouse) >

Note: Muscle. Derived from Latin musculus (little mouse).

VI.C.15.275(a)

(i)         beryl (briller) >

Note: According to some etymologists, the French verb briller (to shine) derives from the Latin beryllus (beryl).

VI.C.15.275(b)

(j)         horrid (chair de poule)

Note: Fr. Chair de poule. Goose bumps. Horrid comes from Latin horrere, to bristle.

Les Soirées 227-8: M. Jean Paulhan a écrit une bien jolie brochure intitulée Si les mots sont des signes. Il y rappelle que presque tout fut métaphore à l’origine et qu’on serait bien ridicule d’essayer de tout ramener à un sens pur, frais et prégnant. Pour moi, je n’aurai pas, vous pensez bien, l’ambition de prendre briller au sens de luire comme un béryl ni muscle au sens de petit rat ni horreur aus sens de chair-de-poule. C’est pourtant le procédé du [227] génial M. Claudel dans ses célèbres traductions. [M. Jean Paulhan has written a nice booklet under the title of Si les mots sont des signes. He reminds us that in the beginning everything was a metaphor and that it would be silly to reduce everything to a pure meaning, fresh and pregnant. As far as I’m concernced, I do not have the ambition, to take briller in the sense of luire comme un béryl or muscle as meaning petit rat or horreur in the sense of chair-de-poule. And still that is the strategy of the brilliant M. Claudel in his famous translations.]

VI.C.15.275(c)

(k)        il est midi = impossibl / moins 5 = fiasco

Note: Fr. Il est midi. It is noon. Midi moins cinq. Five to twelve. In Argot, Il est midi can indeed mean: too late, nothing doing. Il était moins cinq, however, usually conveys the idea of a near miss rather than a fiasco.

Les Soirées 228: Mais il me paraît cependant indispensable de retremper le plus possible celles des images verbales qui ne sont pas encore usées à leur source primitive celles des images verbales qui ne sont pas encore usées. Et mieux encore, de ne pas trop créer de ces images inutiles, qui n’ornent pas tant le style qu’ils ne l’encombrent et ne l’affectent de caducité. On court sans cesse après une expressivité plus grande et l’on ne s’aperçoit pas qu’on tue à mesure cette qualité-là. Le peuple dit volontiers: il est midi pour trop tard, ou même pour impossible! ou il emploie moins cinq pour dire cela a failli arriver. Imaginez que ces métaphores allusives et leurs pareilles, passent toutes dans le bon usage c’en serait fait rapidement de toute expression logique et directe des faits et des idées; c’en serait fait d’une langue articulée. Déjà nos médiocres écrivains se remarquent à ce trait qu’ils ne peuvent plus, ne s’expriment plus que par images. Le symptôme est grave. [But I tend to believe that it is absolutely necessary to bring back to their primitive source those verbal images that have not been used up. And better still, not to create useless new images, that do not adorn one’s style but that congest it and that make it dispensable We keep running after a greater expressiveness and we don’t see that this is how we kill it. Oridnary people prefer to say il est midi when they mean trop tard, or even impossible! Or they say moins cinq to say: cela a failli arriver. Imagine that these allusive metaphors and their like would all end up as good usage: that would be the end of all logical and direct expressions of facts and ideas; that would be the end of articulate language. Even our mediocre writers have noticed that they do not think anymore, do not express themselves other than with images. This is a very grave symptom.]

VI.C.15.275(d)

(l)         sweet greenrising bosom

Note: Not found in Les Soirées, unless it is an impromptu Joycean example of a confusing and useless mere image, devoid of all logical and direct expression of facts and ideas, so abhorred by the philologue in the above diatribe.

VI.C.15.275(e)

(m)       le sujet parlant

Note: Fr. Le sujet parlant. The speaking subject.

Les Soirées 235-6: Et pourtant nous sommes des sujets parlants. Cette expression me rappelle l’élégante périphrase dont M. le général Cartier de Chalmot appelait [235] ses outils tactiques. Pour l’intendant, il n y pas d’hommes, mais des rationnaires, pour le député, il n’y a que des bulletins de votes; pour le linguiste, il n’y a que des sujets parlants. And still we are speaking subjects. [This expression reminds me of the elegant peraphrase which Monsieur the general Cartier de Chalmot used to mention his outils tactiques. For the Quartermaster general, there are no people, just ration eaters, for a member of parliament there are only voting tickets; for the linguist there are only speaking subjects.]

VI.C.15.275(f)

VI.B.14.014

(n)        r(my bouncer)

MS 47482b-90, TMA: You’re talking out of yer turn ^+my bouncer+^. | JJA 58:055 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2/3B.*0 | FDV 244.12

VI.B.14.015

(g)        Olivier Basselin / Vaux-de-Vire / vaudeville

Traveller’s Handbook for Normandy 125: Olivier Basselin, the poet, who collected and arranged the satirical songs known as Vaux-de-Vire, and which have given rise, it is said, to the expression vaudeville, was born in the valley of the Vire ; and the house in which he was born is in the Vux-de-Vire, near the village of Martilly, about a mile from Vire.

VI.C.15.276(m) – 277(a)

(h)        250 (S Michel) / Cornwall – dependency

Note: Until the fifteenth century, the Benedictine priory on St Michael’s Mount in Cornwall was a daughter house of the Mont Saint-Michel Abbey. According to the Traveller’s Handbook for Normandy, there were 250 inhabitants in the town.

VI.C.15.277(b)-(c)

(i)         Le Coesnon par sa folie / Mit S Michel en Normandie

Traveller’s Handbook for Normandy 125: “Le Coesnon par sa folie Mit saint Michel en Normandie.”  The ancient monastery is one of the most prominent objects from all points on the coast, and is as picturesque as the smaller town of the same name in Cornwall

VI.C.15.277(d)

(j)         Benedictine S Aubert / 708

Traveller’s Handbook for Normandy 125: The Benedictine Abbey of Mont St. Michel was founded by St. Aubert, Bishop of Avranches, in 708, by order of the archangel Michael, who appeared to the bishop in a vision.

VI.C.15.277(e)

 (k)       some day you’ll be a knight / immensi tremor Oceani

?Baie du Mont-Saint-Michel, 69-70: On sait aussi que cette apparition donna occasion […] à Louis IX (n), d’instituer à Amboise, le 1er août 1469, «l’ordre militaire de monseigneur saint Michel, archange, premier chevalier, qui, pour la querelle de Dieu, victorieusement batailla contre le dragon, ancien ennemy de nature humaine, et le trébucha du ciel.» Depuis l’établissement de cette nouvelle chevalerie, les assemblées s’en tinrent constamment au Mont, jusqu’au temps où Louis XIV les transféra en la salle des cordeliers à Paris.[We also know that this apparition gave […] Louis IX (n) the opportunity to institute at Amboise on August 1, 1469 “the military order of Monseigneur Saint Michel, archangel, first knight, who, during the holy struggle, victoriously fought against the dragon, the ancient enemy of humanity, and tumbled it from the sky”. Since the time this new order was established, its assemblies were always held at the Mount, until the reign of Louis XIV when they were transferred to the Chamber of Cordeliers in Paris.]

(n) […] La devise immensi tremor Oceani, dit M. de la Roque, fut en particulier ajoutée au bijou, par allusion au mont Saint-Michel; mais peut-être aussi la vanité du prince y eut-elle sa petite part. [According to M. de la Roque, the motto immensi tremor Oceani was added specifically to the jewel as an allusion to the Mont Saint-Michel, but perhaps the prince’s vanity also played a small part.]

Les Grandes Légendes 123 Immensi tremor Oceani. / (Devise des chevaliers de St-Michel.) [Immensi tremor Oceani. / (Motto of the knights of Saint-Michael.)]

Note: L. Immensi tremor oceani. The tremor of the huge ocean.

VI.C.15.277(f)

VI.B.14.016

(a)        The Great She Bear

Les Grandes Légendes 125-6: Les étoiles s’éteignent. La Grande-Ourse [125] plange de sa partie inférieure dans la mer des vapeurs comme un chariot enlizé dont on ne voit plus que le timon. [The stars disappeared. The Great Bear plunges with its lower part into the sea of steam like a chariot sunk in quicksand of which one only sees the shaft.]

VI.C.15.277(g)

(b)        the blue savage Norman Bay

Les Grandes Légendes 127: C’est la baie normande, sauvage et bleue, the blue savage norman bay, comme l’appelle un poète anglais. [This is Normandy bay, wild and blue, the blue savage norman bay, as an English poet calls it.]

VI.C.15.277(h)

(c)        Si bonne n’était Normandie / S Michel ne s’y serait mis >

Note: See 015(k).

VI.C.15.277(i)

(d)        a changes course

Note: See 015(k).

Les Grandes Légendes 126-7: L’estuaire du Couësnon, qui sépare la Bretagne de la Normandie, trace maintenant son lit sablonneux à gauche du Mont. Autrefois, il passait à droite. Aussi, Bretons et Normands se sont-ils disputé le rocher porteur du sanctuaire et séjour de l’archange protecteur de la France. Les Bretons disaient:


Le Couësnon, dans sa folie,

A mis le Mont en Normandie.

 

Les Normands ripostaient:


Si bonne n’était Normandie,

Saint Michel ne s’y serait mis.

[The estuary of the Couësnon, which separates Brittany from Normandy, now traces its sandy bed to the left of the Mont. Before, it passed on the right. Thus Bretons and Normands have argued who own the rock containing the sanctuary and home of the Angel-Protector of France. The Bretons said:

 

The Couësnon, in its folly

Has put the Mont in Normandy.

 

The Normands replied:

 

If Normandy hadn’t been good

Saint Michel would not have gone there.]

VI.C.15.278(a)

(e)        qui donc a jeté ces pierres / dans le ciel >

VI.C.15.278(b)

(f)        Vauban devant Coutances

Les Grandes Légendes 129: Roc, ville, château-fort, formant une masse homogène, d’une seule poussée hardie. En présence de ce magnifique morceau d’architecture et d’histoire, nous revient le mot de Vauban en face du dôme de Coutances: “Qui donc a jeté ces pierres dans le ciel?” [Rock, city, castle-fort, one homogeneous mass, of one bold thrust. In the presence of such a magnificent piece of architecture and history, we think of what Vauban said in front of the dome at Coutances: “Who has thrown these stones into the heavens?”]

VI.C.15.278(c)

(g)        Ceci a tué cela n

Les Grandes Légendes 132: [In 1594 a fire destroyed the spire of the Mont-Saint-Michel and the crowning statue of the archangel, that also did service as a windvane. In the beginning of the 19th century a telegraph pole was erected on top of the tower): Aujourd’hui le fil électrique qui passe ailleurs a remplacé le télégraphe. Un fer tordu s‘échappe comme un serpent de la ravine d’une falaise, se perd sous le sable de la plage, traverse l’océan et ressort en Amérique. N’est-ce pas l’un des symboles les plus éloquents de l’humanité nouvelle et de ses pouvoirs? Ceci a tué cela. Le câble transatlantique s’est substitué à l’archange. Ne le méprisons pas. [Today the electronic cable that has replaced the telegraph. A twisted iron escapes like a serpent from the ravine of a rock face, loses itself on the sand of the beach, crosses the ocean all the way to America. Isn’t it one of the most potent symbols of a new humanity and its powers? This has killed that. The transatlantic cable has replaced the archangel. Let us not despise it.]

VI.C.15.278(d)

(h)        b model >

VI.C.15.278(e)

(i)         One me vend partout

Les Grandes Légendes 136-7: [Schuré meets a strange-looking figure, a simpleton, he thinks, ‘un innocent’): Voyant qu’il m’intéressait, il mit le point sur la hanche, comme pour me faire admirer sa pose. “Qui êtes-vous? lui dis-je. — Marchand de coquilles et modèle d’atelier. Tous les peintres qui viennent ici font mon portrait. Voulez-vous [136] que je pose pour vous? — Je ne suis pas peintre, malheureusement. — Voulez-vous faire le tour du Mont sur les grèves? je vous conduirai. [...] Chemin faisant, l’innocent m’énumérait tous les tableaux pour lesquels il avait posé, et il ajoutait avec un tranquille orgueil, en étendant ses bras et en se baignant ses haillons dans le soleil couchant: “On me vend dans le monde entier.” [Seeing that I was interested, he put the point on his hip, as if he wanted me to admire his pose. “Who are you?” said I? — Seller of shells and painter’s model. All the painters who come here have made my portrait. Do you want me to pose for you? But I am not a painter, unfortunately. Do want to walk around the Mont on the strand? I’ll guide you. […] On the way the innocent one mentioned all the paintings that he had posed for and with a quiet pride he added, while extending his arms and enjoying the last rays of a setting sun: “I am sold all over the world.”]

VI.C.15.278(f)

(j)         œil de Dieu (blue spot in / cloudy sky) >

VI.C.15.278(g)

(k)        goeland

Les Grandes Légendes 138: Dans le ciel brouillé s’ouvrait une de ces crevasses éblouissantes, une de ces trouées d’azur que les marins appellent oeil de Dieu. Le Mont-Saint-Michel se profilait en noir sur ce fond blafard. Sanctuaire, forteresse et prison ne semblaient plus qu’un écueil sauvage aus milieu des flots, un nid de goëlands. [In the closed sky one of those openings seemed to blossom, one of those azure holes that the sailors call the eye of God. The Mont-Saint-Michel stood out in black against this wan wallpaper. Sanctuary, fortress and prison seemed no more than a rock in the middle of the waves, a gull’s nest.]

VI.C.15.278(h)

(m)       our melancholies are / dark ages of past

Les Grandes Légendes 139: Il [the past] vit mystérieusement en nous, ce passé celtique, chrétien, chevaleresque et révolutionnaire. Il vit dans nos passions, dans nos luttes, dans nos aspirations latentes, dans nos mélancolies incompréhensibles; il entre dans la substance même de nos pensées. Les races sommeillent; elles n’oublient pas. Elles ont de profondes ressouvenances et des réveils surprenants. L’âme d’une nation se compose de tout ce qu’elle a vécu dans le cours des âges, et dont le sphinx de l’avenir se réserve la synthèse. [It lives mysteriously in all of us, this Celtic, Christian, knightly and revolutionary past. It lives in our passions, our strife, in our latent aspirations, our incomprehensible melancholies; it enters the very substance of our thought. Races slumber, they don’t forget. They have deep recollections and surprising awakenings. The soul of a nation is composed of everything that it has lived through in the course of the ages, and for which the sphinx of the future will supply the synthesis.]

VI.C.15.278(j)

VI.B.14.017

(a)        Tom Belen (Sungod)

Les Grandes Légendes 142: Tout au bout, entre l’océan des chênes et celui des flots, se dressait la pyramide granitique qui devint plus tard le Mont-Saint-Michel. Les druides l’avaient consacré au dieu solaire et le nommaient Tom Bélen. [At the very end, between the ocean of oaks and that of the waves, there is the granite pyramid that would later become the Mont-Saint-Michel. The druids dedicated it to a solar deity and called it Tom Belen.]

Note: See 017(n).

VI.C.15.279(a)

(b)        College of 9 Senes >

VI.C.15.279(b)

(c)        druidesses >

VI.C.15.279(c)

(d)        ashen arrows shot coppertipped / against éclairs

Les Grandes Légendes 143: Un collège de neuf prophétesses appelées Sènes habitait ce sanctuaire défendu par la fôret sacrée et le sauvage océan. Sur ces rochers et aux alentours, les druidesses célébraient leurs rites, leurs mystères, leurs sacrifices. Les marins qui affrontaient la mer venaient les consulter dans cette caverne. C’est là qu’elles rendaient leurs oracles, qu’elles vendaient à prix d’or ces flèches magiques en bois de frêne, à pointe de cuivre, barbelées de plumes de faucon, qui étaient censées détourner les orages, et que les Gaulois lançaient dans la nue quand grondait la foudre. [A college of nine prophetesses called Senes lived in this sanctuary defended by the sacred forest and the savage ocean. On these rocks and environs, the druidesses celebrated their rites, their mysteries, their sacrifices. The sailors who ventured out onto the sea came and consulted them in their cavern. It is there that they gave their oracles, that they sold for gold their magic arrows in ash wood and with a copper point, decorated with falcon plumes, which were rumored to turn away thunder storms, and which the Gauls shot at the sky when thunder roared in the skies.]

VI.C.15.279(d)

(e)        Druids use Greek alphabet / for state papers (Caesar)

Les Grandes Légendes 143-4: César dit "qu’ils [the druids] étudiaient les astres et leurs ré- [143] volutions, l’étendue du monde et des terres, la nature des choses, la force et la puissance des dieux immortels". Il ajoute que, pour les affaires d’état, ils se servaient de l’alphabet grec; mais qu’ils considéraient comme un sacrilège de confier leurs préceptes à l’écriture, ce qui implique nécessairement l’idée d’une doctrine secrète. [Caesar says that “they [the druids] studied the stars and their revolutions, the whole world and the earth, the nature of things, the power of the immortal gods”. He adds that, for their political writings, they make use of Greek letters; but that they consider it a sacrilege to commit their secrets to writing, which seems to imply a secret doctrine.]

VI.C.15.279(e)

(f)        Adolphe Pictet / Geneve 1854 / Le Barde Breton >

VI.C.15.279(f)

(g)        Abred - changer. >

VI.C.15.279(g)

(h)        Gynfyd ^+Gwynfyd+^ = happin >

VI.C.15.279(h)

(i)         Ceugant = G

Les Grandes Légendes 144-5: Ses grandes lignes [of the‘triades bardiques’] reparaissent dans le mystère des bardes bretons1. “Les âmes, disaient les druides, sortent de l’abîme de la nature, où règne l’implacable fatalité; mais elles émergent dans Abred, le cercle des transmigrations, où tous les êtres [144] subissent la mort et progressent par la liberté; enfin, elles atteignent Gwynfyd, le cercle du bonheur, où tout procède de la vie éternelle, où l’âme retrouve son génie primitif et recouvre la mémoire de ses existences précédentes. Quant au cercle de Dieu, Ceugant, océan de l’infini, il enveloppe et contient les trois autres, les soutient de son souffle, les pénètre de sa vie.” [These great lines [of the bardic triads] appear again in the mystery of the Breton bards. “The souls, said the druids, come out of an abyss of nature in which implacable fate reigns; but they emerge in Abred, the circle of transmigrations where all beings undergo death and progress towards liberty; in the end they reach Gwynfyd, the circle of happiness, where everything comes from the eternal life, where the soul finds its original genius again and the memory of previous existences. As to the circle of God, Ceugant, the ocean of infinity, it envelops and contains the three others, it supports it with its breath, penetrates it with its life.]

Note: Traduit par Adolphe Pictet; Genève, 1854.

VI.C.15.279(i)

(j)         druids in centre / – esses in isles / virgins in ile de sein >

See (b)-(c) and 006(d).

VI.C.15.280(a)-(c)

(k)        Namnetes – m. visit H at / night in bark

Les Grandes Légendes 146-7: Leurs druides avaient leurs collèges au centre de la Gaule; les druidesses régnaient seules dans les îles de l’Océan atlantique. Leurs règles variaient selon les collèges. A l’île de Seine, elles [146] étaient vouées à une virginité perpétuelle. A l’embouchure de la Loire, au contraire, les prêtresses des Namnètes étaient mariés et visitaient leurs maris furtivement, à la nuit close, sur des barques légères qu’elles conduisaient elles-mêmes. [Their druids had their colleges at the centre of Gaul ; the druidesses reign alone on the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Each college had its own rules. The ones on the island of Seine, they were devoted to a perpetual virginity. At the mouth of the Poire, on the contrary, the priestesses of the Namnetes were married and visited their husbands furtively, when night had come, in light boats they sailed themselves]

VI.C.15.280(d)

(l)         Tombelene ~ >

Note: See 017(a).

VI.C.15.280(e)

(m)       — Moon votary

Les Grandes Légendes 147: Au Mont-Bélénus, elles [the priestesses of the Namnetes] avaient substitué au culte mâle du soleil celui de la lune qui favorisait leurs maléfices, leurs philtres et leurs incantations. Elles s’y livraient la nuit sur l’îlot aujourd’hui appelé Tombelène. [At the Mount of Belenus, they [the priestesses of the Namnetes] had exchanged the male cult of the sun for the one devoted to the moon that favoured their curses, their potions and their incantations. At night they indulged in them on the island that is today called Tombelene.]

VI.C.15.280(f)

(n)        rJ.J. second sight

Les Grandes Légendes 147: La seconde vue était rare, le délire sacre se perdait, et les jalouses druidesses étaient avares de leur science. [Second sight was rare, the sacred delirium was lost and the jealous druidesses did not share their knowledge.]

MS 47482b-86, ILA: – Will you swear ^+to your 2nd sight now+^ ^+to it & recant+^ now that all you swore to them was false? | JJA 58:047 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2/3B.*0 | FW 520.29

Note: See 119(g).

VI.B.14.018

(a)        Unite Odin, Druids, / †anity, Hellenes

Mystère des bardes 17: L’idée de la métempsychose, bien qu’assez naturelle en elle-même, ne s’est pas formulée en doctrine religieuse chez un grand nombre de peuples divers. On ne la trouve systématiquement développée que dans l’Inde ancienne, en Égypte, et probablement aussi chez les druides ; car on ne saurait faire entrer en ligne de compte les grossières notions de ce genre observées chez les Groënlandais et quelques peuples de l’Afrique et de l’Amérique. Les idées de Pythagore à ce sujet étaient étrangères à la Grèce, et empruntées à l’Égypte sans doute plutôt qu’à la Gaule, alors presque inconnue aux Hellènes. [The idea of metempsychosis, natural enough as it is in itself, was not formulated as a religious doctrine among a large number of different peoples. One only finds it systematically developed in ancient India, in Egypt, and probably also among the druids; for one can hardly take into account the crude notions of this idea observed among Greenlanders and several peoples of Africa and America. The ideas of Pythagoras on this subject were alien to the Greeks and were no doubt borrowed from Egypt rather than from Gaul, which was then almost unknown to the Hellenes.]

VI.C.15.280(g)

(b)        runes made of twigs

Les Grandes Légendes 151: Et elle disposait par terre toutes sortes de rameaux d’arbres noués avec des feuilles de chênes. Elle formait ainsi les rûnes ou les lettres magiques. [On the earth she had all sorts of boughs of trees that had been knotted with oak leaves. With these she made runes and magic letters.]

VI.C.15.280(g)

(c)        vervein (aphro)

Note: See VI.B.5.153.

Les Grandes Légendes 151: Puis, excitée par l’odeur de la verveine froissée, elle entrait en délire. Alors le Gaulois accroupi sur la roche sentait avec épouvante et stupeur que le monde des ombres lui disputait déjà cette femme qu’il pressait tout à l’heure dans ses bras chauds et puissants. [Then, excited by the smell of rumpled verbena, she became entranced. The Gaul seated on a rock felt with astonishment and dread that the world of shadows had already claimed this woman whom he had just now held in his warm and powerful arms.]

VI.C.15.280(h)

(d)        Awen = spirit >

VI.C.15.280(i)

(e)        Annoufen >

VI.C.15.280(j)

(f)        Kilk y Abred / — y Gwynfyd

Les Grandes Légendes 152 [the prisoner, crazy with lust, fou de désir, rips the druidess from her trance and takes her into the deep cave]: Elle devenait plus belle et presque terrible, ses yeux le transperçaient comme deux poignards, quand elle lui révélait les trois cercles de l’existence: Annoufen, l’abîme, ténébreux d’où sort toute la vie; Kilk y Abred, où les âmes émigrent de corps en corps; Kilk y Gwynfyd, le ciel radieux où règne le bonheur, où l’âme recouvre sa mémoire primordiale, où elle retrouve son Awen, son génie primitif. [She became more beautiful and almost frightful, her eyes cut through him like two daggers, when she revealed to him the three levels of existence. Annoufen, the abyss, the dark from which all life comes; Kilk y Abred, where the souls go from body to body; Kilk y Gwynfyd, the radiant heaven where happiness reigns, where the soul recovers its primordial memory, where it finds again its Awen, its primitive genius.]

VI.C.15.bfr(a)

(g)        if & belladonna poison

Les Grandes Légendes 153: Quand le flambeau avait disparu, elle vidait une coupe remplie du suc empoisonné de l’if mêlé de belladone. Aussitôt un sommeil lourd engourdissait ses membres, et d’épaisses ténèbres recouvraient pour toujours les yeux de la voyante. [When the torch had disappeared, she emptied a cup filled with poisoned juice of taxus mixed with belladonna. Immediately a deep sleep came over his limbs and thick shadows covered forever the eyes of the seer.]

VI.C.15.bfr(b)

(i)         Maire disposses Merovingien / kings, shows them to / people on shield, / tonsures them

Les Grandes Légendes 158-9: Car les Mérovingiens n’étaient plus, à cette époque, que des fantômes de rois, des mannequins entre les mains des maires du palais. Mais le respect superstitieux pour cette famille, épuisée par ses débauches et ses crimes, subsistait dans le peuple. La Neustrie et l’Austrasie se disputaient avec acharnement ces simulacres de royauté. Le maire usurpateur les faisait élever sur le bouclier aux acclamations des Franks, puis les enfermait dans une ville et régnait à leur place. Presque tous finissaient ou assassinés, ou honteusement [158] tonsurés, au fond d’un convent. [Because the Merovingians were no longer, at this time, but ghosts of kings, mannequins in the hands of the palace mayors. But the superstitious respect for that family, exhausted by their crimes and debauchery, remained among the people. Neustria and Austrasia fought with zeal over the semblances of royalty. The usurpating mayor had them lifted onto the shield to the acclamation of the Franks, then locked up in the city and reigned in their place. Almost all of them ended either killed or shamefully tonsured in the bottom of a convent.]

VI.C.15.bfr(c)

(j)         Aeolian harp b

Les Grandes Légendes 160 [about Saint Aubert]: Il traversait la mystérieuse forêt de bouleaux, où les druidesses suspendaient jadis les petites rotes gauloises, en guise de harpes éoliennes dont le murmure les plongeait dans le sommeil magnétique. [He traveled through the mysterious birch forest, where the druidesses used to hang little gaulish rotes, in the form of Aeolian harps the murmur of which plunged them into a magnetic sleep.]

VI.C.15.bfr(d)

(k)        owind turns over pages

Les Grandes Légendes 162: L’apparition tourna vers lui son épée et Aubert eut peur. Il pencha la tête vers les saintes écritures ouvertes sur ses genoux. Aussitôt un ouragan passa sur le livre et en froissa toutes les feuilles. Il resta ouvert au XIIe chapitre de l’Apocalypse. [The apparition turned its sword to him and Aubert was afraid. He turned his face to the holy scriptures open on his knees. Immediately a hurricane passed over the book and turned all the pages. It remained open on the twelfth chapter of the Apocalypse.]

MS 47472-17, ILA : So ^+, how idlers’ wind turning pages on pages+^ annals of themselves | JJA 44:118 | Nov-Dec 1926 | I.1§1.*2/2.*2 | FW 013.29

VI.B.14.019

(a)        Monte Gargano

Les Grandes Légendes 163: Aubert envoya des chanoines en Italie, au mont Gargano, le seul endroit où saint Michel eût déjà un culte. [Aubert sent Canons to Italy, to the mount Gargano, the only place where saint Michael already had a cult.]

VI.C.15.bfr(e)

(b)        Adolphe Frank Kabbale

Les Grandes Légendes 164 (footnote): Dans son beau livre sur la Kabbale (2e édition, 1889), M. Adolphe Frank affirme et démontre l’existence, chez les juifs, d’une doctrine secrète et d’une tradition orale indépendante de leur tradition écrite, qui s’est conservée jusqu’au moyen âge et fut rédigée alors dans le livre de Zohar et du Sépher Jetzirah. M. Franck [sic] trouve l’origine de cette doctrine dans celle des mages persans. [In his fine book on the Kabbala (2nd edition, 1889), M . Adolphe Frank affirms and demonstrates the existence, among the jews, of a secret doctrine and an oral tradition that is independent of the written one, which has been conserved until the Middle Ages and then written down in the book of Zohar and of Sépher Jetzirah. M. Franck finds the origin of this doctrine among the Persian magi.]

VI.C.15.bfr(f)

(c)        battles / 687 [Testri] end of Meroving / 732 Poitiers bg of Carloving

Les Grandes Légendes 166: Le fait prend sa vraie signification, si l’on considère qu’il eut lieu vingt ans après la bataille de Testri (687), qui marque la défaite de la dynastie mérovingienne et vingt-cinq ans avant la bataille de Poitiers (732), où Karl Martel défit les Sarrasins, bataille qui marque le commencement de la dynastie carolingienne et l’aurore de la France. [The fact becomes even more meaningful when we realise that it took place twenty years after the battle of Testri (687), which marks the defeat of the Merovingian dynasty and twenty-five years before the battle of Poitiers (732), where Charles Martel defeated the Saracens, a battle that marked the beginning of the Carolingian dynasty and the dawn of France.]

VI.C.12.001(a)

(d)        Norman = Danes >

VI.C.12.001(b)

(e)        ships = seaserpents >

VI.C.12.001(c)

(f)        dragon poopend >

 VI.C.12.001(d)

(g)        black & tan sails >

VI.C.12.001(e)

(h)        seahorses

Les Grandes Légendes 167: La dernière invasion, celle des Normands, ne fut pas la moins terrible. Charlemagne s’était déjà inquiété de ces rois de mer, “qui ne dormaient jamais sous les poutres enfumées d’un toit et ne vidaient jamais la corne de bière auprès d’un foyer habité”. Il était devenu pensif à la vue de ces pirates du Nord, qui, sur de longs vaisseaux appelés serpents de mer, rasaient les côtes et rôdaient aux embouchures des fleuves. Avec leurs proues élancées, sculptées et peintes en têtes de dragon, avec leurs voiles rouges rayées de noir, ces navires ressemblaient à des bêtes fantastiques, à des monstres terriblement vivants. Admirablement construits, munis de rameurs excellents, “ces chevaux de mer,” — c’est ainsi que les Norvégiens eux-mêmes les nommaient, — montaient légèrement sur les plus grosses vagues et semblaient hennir de joie au fort de la tempête. [The last invasion, that of the Normans, was no less terrible. Charlemagne was already nervous about these kings of the sea, “who never slept under the smoked beams of a roof and never emptied a  horn of beer in a habitable hearth”. He had become thoughtful at the sight of these pirates of the North, who, on long boats called sea serpents, raided the coasts and entered the river deltas. With their heightened prows, sculpted into the heads of dragons, with their red sails with  black rays, these boats looked like fantastic beasts, monsters terribly alive. With admirable construction, with excellent rowers, “these horses of the sea,” – this is what the Norwegians called them,– rose lightly on the largest waves and seemed to neigh with joy at the height of the storm.]

VI.C.12.001(f)

(i)         smoke & ravens

Les Grandes Légendes 167: On les voyait venir dans un flamboiement d’épées, chassant devant eux les populations en fuite; puis ils repartaient avec leur butin, laissant derrière eux la fumée de l’incendie et des spirales de corbeaux tournoyant dans le ciel gris comme des feuilles mortes. [One saw them come in a flamboyance of swords, chasing before them a population in flight; then they left again with their booty, leaving behind the smoke of arson and the spirals of the crows turning in the grey sky like dead leaves.]

VI.C.12.001(g)

(j)         Wotan (Zoroaster) >

Note: See reproduction. There is a line from Zoroaster to (l)

VI.C.12.001(h)

(k)        heartscald

Note: See 108(e).

Les Grandes Légendes 168: La religion d’Odin semble avoir été créée par un Scandinave, qui aurait été initié à la religion de Zoroastre et qui l’aurait appliquée aux moeurs et aux passions d’un peuple barbare, en haine de l’empire romain, et pour préparer ce peuple à une immense invasion. [...] Cet Odin Frighe, plus tard divinisé par les Scaldes et identifié avec le Dieu suprême, Wôdan, fut évidemment l’organisateur primitif de la religion scandinave et germanique. [The religion of Odin seems to have been created by a Scandinavian who was initiated in the religion of Zoroaster and who applied it to the habits and the passions of a barbarous people, hating the Roman empire, and to prepare this people for an immense invasion. […] This Odin Frighe, later made divine by the Scalds and identified with the supreme God Wodan, was evidently the primitive organizer of Scandinavian and Germanic religion.]

VI.C.12.001(i)

(l)         in Odinism Evil >

VI.C.12.001(j)

(m)       conquers good

Les Grandes Légendes 169: Dans la religion de Zoroastre, qui servit de modèle à la religion odinique, le bien finit par triompher du mal. Dans celle d’Odin, c’est le mal qui finit par avoir raison du bien, et l’univers s’effondre dans un effroyable cataclysme, où les deux même sont engloutis. [In the religion of Zoroaster, which served as a model for the religion of Odin, good ended up triumphing over bad. In that of Odin, it was the bad that bested the good, and the universe would end in a frightful cataclysm, in which the two are sunk.]

VI.C.12.002(a)

(n)        oVikings speak to / Benedict through / Saxon dragoman

Les Grandes Légendes 169: En l’an 841, les bénédictins du Mont-Saint-Michel virent arriver une flottille de Normands. Les pirates abordèrent pour voir si ce rocher pourrait leur servir de retraite. Ils entrèrent en conversation avec les religieux, au moyen d’un interprète saxon qu’ils traînaient avec eux et qui savait à peu près toutes les langues du continent. [In the year 841, the Benedictines of Mont-Saint-Michel saw a fleet of Normans arrive. The pirates landed to see if this rock could serve as a retreat. They entered in conversation with the religious, with the help of an interpreter whom they had with them and who knew almost all the languages of the continent.]

MS 47484a-92, ILS: I never knew how rich I was carrying my ass ^+dragoman+^, Meath’s marvel, | JJA 58:212 | Apr-May 1926 | III§3A.5/3B.5 | FW 479.09

(o)        Duke Rollo m d. / of Chas Simple >

VI.C.12.002(b)

(p)        baptised at Rouen

Les Grandes Légendes 170: Quand Charles le Simple offrit au duc Rollon sa fille en mariage et la cession du duché de Normandie à condition de rendre hommage au roi de France et de se convertir au christianisme, le Normand n’hésita pas et se fit baptiser en grande pompe à Rouen: ses compagnons l’imitèrent. [When Charles the Simple offered duke Rollo his daughter in marriage and the transfer of the duchy of Normandy in return for paying homage to the king of France and to convert to Christianity, the Norman did not hesitate and he had himself baptized with pomp and circumstance in Rouen: his companions did likewise.]

VI.C.12.002(b)

(q)        la cloche Rollon

Les Grandes Légendes 171: Cent ans avaient donc suffi pour réaliser la prédiction du prieur de Saint-Michel. Le descendant des Vikings, le pirate Rollon, fut un de ceux qui aidèrent à élever la basilique du Mont par ses riches dotations, et la grosse cloche de l’abbaye, celle qu’on sonnait en cas d’alarme, prit le nom de cloche Rollon. [One hundred years were enough for the prophecy of the prior of Saint-Michel to come true. The descendant of the Vikings, the pirate Rollo, was one of those who helped to erect a basilica on the Mount with rich donations, and the large bell of the abbey, the one that was used in case of emergency, was called the Rollo bell.]

VI.C.12.002(c)

VI.B.14.020

(c)        Du Guesclin

Les Grandes Légendes 175: Mais plus attirante que tous ces épisodes est la figure de Bertrand Du Guesclin, qui fut capitaine de Pontorson et du Mont-Saint-Michel à la fin du XIVe siècle. [Even more appealing than all these episodes is the figure of Bertrand Du Guesclin, who was captain of Pontorson and of the Mount-Saint-Michel at the end of the sixteenth century.]

VI.C.12.002(f)

(d)        gb reads his hand

Note: See 020 (n).

Les Grandes Légendes 176: A quelque temps de là, une religieuse vint en visite au château. C’était une juive convertie, très considérée pour son habileté en médecine et en chiromancie. Voyant Bertrand relégué dans un coin, traité de pâtre et de charretier par ses parents, elle lui dit: “Mon enfant, que celui qui a souffert la passion vous bénisse!” Bertrand, croyant qu’elle voulait se moquer de lui comme les autres, la menaça de la frapper. Mais la religieuse lui prit la main d’un air compatissant, et, après avoir longuement étudié les lignes de la paume, lui prédit qu’il serait sage et heureux et que personne, dans le royaume de France, ne serait plus considéré. [In those days, a nun came to visit the castle. She was a jewish convert, famous for her knowledge of medicine and necromancy. When she saw Bertrand exiled in a corner, treated as a shepherd and wagoner by his parents, she told him: “My child, he who has suffered the passion blesses you!” Bertrand, who thought that like the others she wanted to mock him, threatened to hit her. But the nun took his hand with compassion, and, after having studied the lines in his hand carefully, she predicted that he would be wise and happy and that nobody, in the kingdom of France, would be more esteemed.]

MS 47483-112, TsIA: girls who they were all rushing for the post ^+to read his kisshands+^ | JJA 57:178 | Mar 1926 | III§1A.5/1D.5//2A.5/2B.2/2C.5 | FW 430.20-1

(f)        nun (conv. jewess)

Note :  See (d) for source.

VI.C.12.002(h)

(g)        S G. v S Michael

Les Grandes Légendes 177: Quand éclata la guerre pour la succession du duché de Bretagne, Du Guesclin prit parti pour Charles de Blois, qui rendait hommage au roi de France, contre Simon de Montfort, qui reconnaissait le roi d’Angleterre. [When the war broke out for the succession of the duchy of Brittany, Du Guesclin took the side of Charles de Blois, who gave hommage to the King of France, against Simon de Montfort, who recognised the king of England.]

VI.C.12.002(i)

(h)        adcraft

VI.C.12.002(j)

(l)         Tiphaine Ravenel >

VI.C.12.003(c)

(m)       du Guesclin

Les Grandes Légendes 179-180: Tiphaine Ravenel, jeune fille noble, âgée de vingt-quatre ans, et qu’on appelait “la belle de Dinan”, prédit cette victoire à Du Guesclin. “Elle avait, dit le chroniqueur, du sens d’astronomie et de philosophie, était bien écolée, et c’était la plus sage et la mieux doctrinée du pays.” [Tiphaine Ravenel, a young noblewoman, aged twenty-four, who was called “the beauty of Dinan,” told Du Guesclin that he would win. “She had knowledge, the chronicler says, of astronomy and philosophy, had been well schooled, and she was the wisest and the most learned of the land.”]

VI.C.12.003(d)

(n)        gb horoscope

Note: See 059(c)-(f).

Les Grandes Légendes 180: Du Guesclin lui fit construire une maison de retraite sur le Mont-Saint-Michel. C’est là que la tradition a conservé sa pensive et chaste figure. [...] Elle la voit encore dans sa tourelle ronde, entourée de cartes célestes, traçant de grands cercles sur des feuilles de vélin et y disposant les signes du zodiaque avec les planètes pour trouver l’horoscope de son mari, pendant qu’il guerroyait en Espagne ou en Navarre. [Du Guesclin made her a house of retreat on the Mount-Saint-Michel.  It is there that tradition has preserved his pensive and chaste face. […] It sees it still in the round tower, encircled by celestial charts, tracing great circles on leaves of vellum and placing the signs of zodiac with the planets to find the horoscope of her husband, while he made war in Spain or in Navarra.]

MS 47483-112, ILA: Jaun, easily made out ^+thought his horoscope+^ the features of his fond sister Izzy | JJA 57:178| Mar 1926 | III§1A.5/1D.5//2A.5/2B.2/2C.5 | FW 431.14

(o)        le droit seigneur >

VI.C.12.003(e)

(p)        celui que Dieu protège doit / proteger les autres

Les Grandes Légendes 182 (about Du Guesclin): La chanson populaire de Bretagne l’appelle “le droit seigneur” et lui fait dire cette belle parole: “Celui que Dieu protège doit protéger les autres.” Lui-même, dans ses grandes indignations, ne cessait d’appeler Dieu “le droiturier”. [The popular songs of Brittany call him “the righteous lord” and make him say these beautiful words: “He who is protected by God must protect the others.” He himself, in his great indignation, did not cease to call God “the righteous one.”]

VI.C.12.003(f)

VI.B.14.021

(d)        tell in style of legend (Knock)

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 8-9: Alors que tant de légendes peuvent [8] être si aisément démarquées qu’il est possible, sans nuire à l’intérêt du récit, de changer les noms et les qualités des personnages ou de les transporter, sans inconvénient, d’un lieu dans un autre, celles du Mont-Saint-Michel ne sauraient être modifiées, ni dans leurs traits particuliers, ni même dans leur physionomie générale; réflexion faite, on se demande même si ce sont bien là des légendes. Les savants chroniqueurs y ont mis tant de précision, les pieux annalistes tant de foi, que l’on croit, en les lisant, se trouver en présence de purs récits historiques. Sans doute, de temps en temps, un anachronisme éclate ; souvent, la piété ardente du narrateur dépasse les limites de la naïveté permise ; l’invraisemblance finit par sauter aux yeux. N’importe ; le grand souffle de foi qui anime l’œuvre, l’amour profond qui s’attache à l’abbaye-forteresse, centre de ce cycle légendaire, font revivre des scènes imaginées de toutes pièces avec une telle intensité qu’on les croit réelles. [While so many legends can so easily be demarcated that it is possible, without diminishing the story’s interest, to change the names and the characteristics of the characters or to transport them, without difficulty, from one place to another, those about Mont-Saint-Michel cannot be modified, neither in their particularities, nor in their general form; when you think of it, they may not even be legends, after all. The wise chroniclers have put so much precision in them, the pious annalists so much faith, that one thinks, in reading them, to be in the presence of historical events. Undoubtedly, from time to time, a anachronism appears; occasionally the ardent piety of the narrator surpassed the limits of permitted naivety; the improbability becomes obvious. No matter, the great breath of faith that enlivens the work, the deep love one feels for the abbey-fortress, centre of these cycle of legends, revive these scenes imagined with such an intensity that one believes they are real.]

Note: Knock. A village in Co. Mayo. In August 1879 two village women reported seeing apparitions of Joseph, Mary and John on the gable of the church: official acceptance by Rome led to Knock’s becoming a place of pilgimage.

VI.C.12.003(i)  

(e)        knights head on altar >

VI.C.12.003(j)

(f)        priest >

VI.C.12.003(k)

(g)        helmet, gauntlets & / drawn sword

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 31-2: Soudain l'évêque [Norgod, who is a knight and bishop of Avranches] pousse un cri de surprise joyeuse; aucune flamme ne s’élançait à l’endroit où, tout à l’heure montait à ses yeux l’escalade effrayante du feu. !

           Et comprenant que le Seigneur venait de faire pour lui seul un miracle, il ne douta pas que Dieu avait permis ce prodige à la prière de l’archange saint Michel, dont trop souvent, hélas, il avait refusé d’écouter les voix! [Suddenly the bishop cries out with joy, not a flame appears in the place where just now there was a frightful mountain of fire!             And, understanding that the Lord had just performed a miracle for him alone, he was certain that God had allowed this wonder at the praying of the Archangel Saint Michel, whose voices he had, alas, all too often refused to hear!]

Note: In the source, the bishop Norgod is at the same time a knight, a ‘knight-priest’ as it were. The entries (e), (f) and (g) may therefore be one note and could then be read as ‘knight ^+-priest^+ laid on altar / helmet, gauntlets & / drawn sword’.

VI.C.12.003(l)

(h)        Helen & Montgomery

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 34: A une demi-lieue du Mont-Bélénus, son autre frère de granit, le Mont-Saint-Michel, se profilait, large et régulier, dominant les terres du sud qui s’étageaient vers Dol en un cirque voilé par la brume des lointains.

           C’était dans cette solitude mystérieuse que Montgommery et la belle Hélène de Terregatte cachaient, habituellement, leurs tendres et fidèles amours. Depuis des mois, avant l’aurore, ils se retrouvaient, chaque jour, sur le Mont-Bélénus. Dans la paix nocturne, isolés du reste du monde, ils échangeaient leurs rêves, leurs caresses, et leurs baisers et bientôt, ce fut pour eux un charme pénétrant que d’être ainsi obligés de dissimuler leur mutuelle tendresse, puisque le père d’Hélène ne voulait point que celle-ci épousât un chevalier brave et loyal, sans doute, entre tous, mais dont la famille était sa rivale par la gloire et par la fortune depuis près de quatre siècles! [At half a mile from Mont-Belenus, its brother of granite, the Mont-Saint-Michel appears, large and regular, dominating the lands of the south that lead to Dol in a circus that is veiled by the distant mist.

           It was in this mysterious solitude that Montgommery and the beautiful Hélène of Terregatte used to hide their tender and faithful love. For months, before sunrise, they would meet, each day, on the Mont-Belenus. In the nocturnal quiet, isolated from the rest of the world, they exchanged dreams, caresses, kisses and soon, it was for them deeply entrancing to be thus obliged to hide their mutual tenderness, because the father of Hélène did not want her to marry the knight, no doubt brave and loyal above all, but whose family had been his rival in glory and fortune for close to four centuries.]

Note: See 069(c).

VI.C.12.004(a)

(i)         miraculised

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 40: L’abbé interrogea l’étranger.

           Il n’eut pas de peine à reconnaître que cet individu appartenait à l’une de ces bandes, plus ou moins honnêtes, qui s’introduisaient dans les monastères, y recueillant, souvent, d’abondantes aumônes, en racontant des histoires extraordinaires et édifiantes, dont ils prétendaient avoir été les héros. Ils se disaient, généralement, des miraculés, affirmant avoir été guéris des maladies les plus graves et les plus cruelles, grâce à l’intercession des saints particulièrement honorés dans le monastère qu’ils visitaient. Othbert raconta alors, avec une incroyable volubilité et une mimique souvent grotesque, l’aventure terrible dont il avait été le héros en 1021, dans la petite ville de Colebige sur le Wisper (aujourd’hui Kölbigh, duché d’Anhalt près de Bernburg). [The abbott interrogated the stranger. He had no trouble recognising that this individual belonged to one of the gangs, more or less honest, who came to the monasteries, often collected there lots of alms, telling extraordinary and edifying tales of which they pretended they had been the hero. They called themselves, generally, miraculised, affirming that they had healed from the most serious and most cruel illnesses, thanks to the intercession of saints that were particularly honoured in the monastery that they were visiting. Othbert told the story, with an unbelievable loquacity and an often grotesque mimicry, the terrible adventure of which he had been the hero in 1021, in the little city of Colebige on the Wisper (today Kölbigh, the duchy of Anhalt close to Bernburg)]

VI.C.12.004(b)

(j)         pays de predilection / for Devil (Brittany) >

Note: Fr. Pays de prédilection. Favourite country.

VI.C.12.004(c)-(d)

(k)        Delaney (Delaunay)

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 44: Nicolas Delaunay est poète à ses heures ; il adore les légendes, où rayonne Madame Marie et où Messire Satanas montre ses cornes. Aussi, le moine vous conduit-il auprès d’un gros bloc de pierre: «Voyez-vous cette empreinte?», vous demandera-t-il. Par politesse, vous dites: «Oui». La vérité est que vous ne distinguez pas très bien. Alors le bon prieur vous affirmera, sans rire, que c’est la griffe du Diable poursuivi par l’Archange. Celui-ci force celui-là à se réfugier en Bretagne, son pays de prédilection, assure un chroniqueur du temps qui, à n’en pas douter, était normand. Si vous déclarez, tout net, au prieur que l’empreinte n’est pas celle d’un pied fourchu, il vous répondra, qu’après tout, c’est peut-être le pied de l’Archange... [Nicolas Delaunay is a poet at times ; he adores the legends where Madame Marie shines and Messire Satanas shows his horns. The monk will lead you to a great stone block. “Do you seen this imprint?” he will ask you. Politely, you will say: “Yes.” The truth is that you don’t quite see it. Then the good prior will declare, without a smile, that this is a trace of the Devil chased away by the Archangel. The latter forced the former to hide in Brittany, his favourite land, claims the chronicler at the time, who was undoubtedly Norman. If you tell the prior that the print is not that of a hoofed foot, he will say that after all it might have been the foot of the Archangel.]

 

VI.C.12.004(e)

(m)       the dubious pilgrim

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 47 [La punition de pèlerin voleur quoique dévot]: II arriva qu’au temps où l’abbé Hildebert II était à la tête du monastère du Mont-Saint-Michel, (1017-1023), un pèlerin, venu d’Italie, s’empara par dévotion sans doute, mais en cachette, d’une petite pierre du rocher sur lequel le grand Archange avait voulu que les hommes lui bâtissent un sanctuaire. [The punishment of the pilgrim who was a thief as well as pious. It came to pass at the time when abbot Hildebert II was head of the monastery of Mont-Saint-Michel, a pilgrim from Italy took, out of devotion no doubt, but secretly, a little stone of the rock on which Saint Michel wanted men to build him a sanctuary.]

VI.C.12.004(f)

(n)        the good overnoisy Sexton / who does not genuflect / enough before M. St Michel

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 55 [Le châtiment du sacristain Drogon]: Pourquoi donc le vénérable Abbé fait-il, souvent, de sévères remontrances au sacristain?

           C’est que Drogon n’est pas toujours suffisamment recueilli, quand il prend soin de l’église! II souffle trop bruyamment sur les cierges; il dépose avec une vivacité exagérée les chandeliers et les vases sacrés sur le marbre des autels; il remonte, avec une précipitation trop grande, les lampes suspendues à la voûte du Lieu Saint. Il se hâte, quand il époussète les balustres, les stalles et les confessionnaux; et chose plus grave, l’Abbé et les bénédictins ont remarqué qu’il s’incline à peine, quand il passe devant l’autel de Monsieur saint Michel en la Nef. Voilà pourquoi Drogon a reçu du bon Abbé plus d’un sévère avertissement. [Punishment of the sexton Drogon : Why did the venerable abbot sometimes severely chastise the sexton? Because Drogon was not always sufficiently careful when taking care of the church. He blew too forcefully on the candles; he moved the candelabras and the sacred vessels with exaggerated zeal on the marble of the altars; he mounted with too great an effort, the hanging lamps on the vault of the Holy Place. Too quickly he dusts the balustrades, the stalls and the confessionals; and a more grevious fault, the Abbot and the Benedictines have noticed that he hardly bows when he passes before the altar of Saint Michel in the Nave. That is why Drogon has been spoken to severely by the abbot.]

VI.C.12.004(g)

VI.B.14.022

(a)        vision always disappearing >

VI.C.12.004(h)

(b)        not enough imagination / to imagine a furnished / room empty

?Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 57-8 [Le châtiment du sacristain Drogon]: Et, ce disant, il donna un soufflet à l’enfant.

           Puis il le saisit par le bras et le conduisit vers l’autel pour lui faire honte devant les pèlerins qui priaient toujours et qui n’avaient pas [57] tourné la tête au bruit du soufflet. Drogon passa devant la statue sans s’incliner. Il reçut aussitôt, d’une invisible main, un formidable soufflet qui claqua bruyamment dans l’église et qui le renversa par terre, où il resta, quelques minutes, étendu sans connaissance; tandis que Nicolas priait l’Archange de toute son âme, car l’enfant avait compris qu’un événement extraordinaire venait de s’accomplir.

           Quand Drogon se releva, encore tout étourdi, les trois pèlerins avaient disparu; or, toutes les portes étaient bien fermées!

           Le malheureux sacristain, à moitié mort de peur, s’en fut aussitôt trouver le vénérable Abbé et il lui raconta ce qui s’était passé. [The punishment of Drogon the Sexton: And, saying this, he hit the child. Then he took it by the arm and brought it before the altar to shame him before the pilgrims who prayed always and who had not turned their heads at the sound of the blow. Drogon passed before the statue without bowing. He immediately received, from an invisible hand, a formidable blow that resounded in the church and that threw him on the floor, where he stayed, for a few minutes, unconscious; in the meantime Nicolas prayed to the Archangel with all his soul, because the child had understood that something extraordinary was going to happen.

           When Drogon got up, still stunned, the three pilgrims had gone, while all the doors were firmly closed!

           The unhappy sexton, half dead with fear, immediately went to the abbot and told him all that had happened.]

VI.C.12.004(i)–005(a)

(c)        rpious clamour

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 63-4 [La clameur des moines]: Dans ce dessein, il a réuni ses religieux et ils tiennent conseil dans la Crypte de l’Aquilon. L’Abbé leur a exposé les ravages que Jean de Thomas exerce sur les terres de l’abbaye, et, après une courte délibération, les bénédictins décident, — ce qui est immédiatement transcrit sur les registres des Actes—que « sans omettre un seul jour, il sera célébré, devant l’autel Saint-Michel, pendant que l’on chantera la messe, une CLAMEUR TRÈS PIEUSE en présence du Très-Saint et très véritable Corps de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ, chantant avec larmes MISERERE MEI et clamant KYRIE ELEISON! » [63] [...] Voilà une semaine que la clameur très pieuse s’élève vers l’Archange, et la fureur de Jean, loin de s’arrêter, augmente encore! [The clamour of the monks : In this plan he has brought together his monks and they hold council in the Crypt of the Aquilon. The Abbot has told them about the ravages of Jean de Thomas on the lands of the abbey, and, after a short deliberation, the Benedictines decide, which is immediately entered in the register of the Acts, that “without omitting a single day, there will be a celebration, before the altar of Saint Michel, while one chants mass, a VERY PIOUS CLAMOUR in the presence of the Most Holy and True Body of Our Lord Jesus Christ, chanting with tears MISERERE MEI and clamouring KYRIE ELEISON.” For a week the very pious clamour rises to the Archangel and the fury of Jean, instead of abating, is still rising!

MS 47473-32v, TsLPA: on the ^+whilst trying ^+with pious clamour+^ to get ^+wheedle+^ Tipperary potatoes out of the+^ seasand | JJA 46:326 | Feb-Mar 1925 | I.5§1.3/4.3 | FW 110.36

(d)        Maure!/ Moine?

? Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 66 (Le clameur des moines): Jean a sauté de son cheval. Il a levé sa main armée:

« Moines, s’écrie-t-il avec un tremblement de colère dans la voix, moines, est-il vrai que chaque jour, vous criez contre moi jusqu’à Dieu? »

L’Abbé a répondu : « C’est vrai! »

« Moines, s’écrie Jean courroucé, vous êtes bien osés, vous qui ne craignez pas de faire des vœux pour que la vengeance du Ciel s’appesantisse sur ma tête? Pourquoi cette clameur? » [Jean jumps from his horse. He lifts an armed hand. « Monks, he cries out with a voice that trembles with fury, is it true that each day, you cry out against me to God?” The abbot answers: “It is true.” “Monks, cries Jean, angrily, how dare you make vows to call down heaven’s vengeance on my head? Why this clamour?”]

VI.C.12.005(b)-(c)

VI.B.14.024

(i)         rLa conscience avec son tic-toc / Est la clochette de S. Kolledoc

Proverbes et dictons 29: La conscience avec son tic-toc / Est la clochette de Saint Kollédoc (1). [Conscience with its tick-tock is the bell of Saint Kollédoc]

Note 1: Dans la croyance populaire, St Ké, appelé aussi St Kollédoc, possédait une clochette qui l’avertissait du bien qu’il devait faire ou du mal qu’il devait éviter. [According to popular belief, St Ké, also called St Kolledoc, owned a hand-bell that warned him of the good he had to do or the evil he had to avoid.]

MS 47474-29, TsILA: the weight of his breath, ^+the fog of his brainfag, ^+the tic of his conscience,+^+^ the height of his rage | JJA 47:411 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 180.22

VI.B.14.025

(a)        avel, holl avel! / Ez eo red mervel

Proverbes et dictons 30: Avel, holl avel! / Ez eo red mervel. [Wind, all is wind! We must die.]

VI.C.12.007(c)

(c)        3 butter bread, the priest / . . . holy, the lord . . . noble, / the poor . . . fool

Proverbes et dictons 37: Trois classes d’hommes mettent du beurre sur leur pain: les prêtres, parce qu’ils sont sacrés ; les gentilshommes, parce qu’ils sont nobles ; et les paysans, parce qu’ils sont sots. [Three kinds of people put butter on their bread: the priests, because they are holy; the gentlemen, because they are of noble blood; and the peasants, because they are stupid]

VI.C.12.007(e)

VI.B.14.026

(d)        jan (lann) / Ulex)

Proverbes et dictons 68-9: N’euz baz spern na baz lann / Evit harpa oc’h baz Iann.

N’est bâton d’épine ou de jan (1) / Qui résiste au bâton de Jean. Note 1: Ulex europæus, L. [There is no thornstick or no gorse (1) that can withstand John’s stick. Note 1: Ulex europæus, L.]

VI.C.12.009(e)

VI.B.14.029

(a)        Druids 1. / Nobles 2 / People 3 } politically

Dictionnaire 490: DRUIDE (…) ministre de la religion chez les peoples de la grande Bretagne (…) Les Druides réunissoient le sacerdoce & l’autorité politique, avec un pouvoir presque souverain.

I. Ils tenoient le premier rang dans les Gaules, tandis que les nobles occupoient le second, & que le peuple languissoit dans la servitude & dans l’ignorance.” [DRUIDS (…) religious ministers among the people of greater Brittany (…) The Druids combined priesthood & and political authority, with an almost sovereign power. 

I. They occupied the first rank in Gaul, whereas the nobles occupied the second & the people led a bleak existence in subordination & ignorance]

 

VI.C.12.012(a)-(b)

(b)        bards, vacerres, eubages >

Note: Bards, vates and eubages were the three classes of druids.

VI.C.12.012(c)

(c)        sacrifice . . augurs

Dictionnaire 491: II. Les Druides, connus aussi sous les noms de Bardes, Eubages, Vacies, Saronides, Samothées ou Simnothées, étoient distingués en trois principaux ordres. Les premiers étoient les Prêtres chargés des sacrifices, des prières & d’interprêter[sic] les dogmes de la Religion. (…) Les Bardes étoient commis pour chanter des vers (…) Les Eubages tiroient les augures des victimes. [II. The Druids, also known under the names of Bards, Eubages, Vacies, Saronides, Samothees or Simnothees, were distinguished by means of three major orders. The first were the Priests responsible for the sacrifices, the prayers & the interpretation of religious dogmas. (…) The Bards were charged with singing verses (…) The Eubages drew auguries from the victims.]

VI.C.12.012(d)

(d)        white robe >

VI.C.12.012(e)

(e)        guilt leather belt >

VI.C.12.012(f)

(f)        houppe de laine & 2 back bands / like mitre >

VI.C.12.012(g)

(g)        (archdruid)

Dictionnaire 494: Les chefs des Druides portoient une robe blanche, ceinte d’une bande de cuir doré, un rochet & un bonnet blanc tout simple ; & leur souverain Pontife étoit distingué par une houppe de laine avec deux bandes d’étoffe, qui pendoient derrière comme aux mîtres des Évêques. [The chief Druids wore a white robe with a gilt leather belt, a surplice & a very simple white cap; & their sovereign high priest was distinguished by a woollen tassel with two strips of cloth, which hung at the back like the strips at the back of bishops’ mitres.]

VI.C.12.012(h)

(h)        write 0

Dictionnaire 492: Ceux, qui vouloient entrer dans le corps des Druides, devoient en être dignes par leur vertu, & quelques-uns travailloient à s’en rendre capables, par un cours de vingt années d’étude, pendant lequel il n’étoit pas permis d’écrire la moinde[sic] des leçons qu’on recevoit; il falloit tout apprendre par cœur, soit que ce fût pour exercer la mémoire (…) ou pour ne pas divulguer les mystères. Après le cours d’étude, on subissoit un examen, & l’on n’étoit admis qu’en récitant plusieurs milliers de vers, soit en principes, soit en réponses à des questions [Those who wanted to enter the corps of Druids needed to be fit for it by their virtue, and some worked hard to prepare themselves by means of a course requiring twenty years of study, during which students were not allowed to write down any aspect of the classes they attended; everything had to be memorized, either in order to exercise their memory (…) or in order not to divulge the mysteries. At the end of the course on had to take an exam, which consisted in reciting several thousands of verses, in the form of either principles, or answers to questions]

 

VI.C.12.012(i)

(i)         1st coll Chartres – Dreux

Dictionnaire 492: IV. Le premier, & originairement l’unique college des Saronides, étoit entre Chartres & Dreux [IV. The first, & initially the only college of the Saronides was located between Chartres & Dreux]

VI.C.12.012(j)

(j)         Pliny, mistletoe >

VI.C.12.012(k)

(k)        aiguelabes >

VI.C.12.012(l)

(l)         gui de l’an neuf

Dictionnaire 494: Les Druides distribuoient le gui, par forme d’étrennes, au commencement de l’année ; c’est de là qu’est venue la coutûme du peuple Chartrain, de nommer les présens qu’on se fait encore à pareil jour, Éguilables, pour dire le gui de l’an neuf. [The Druids distributed the mistletoe, as a New Year’s present, at the beginning of the year ; hence the custom among the people of Chartres to call presents (…) Éguilables, meaning the mistletoe for the New Year.]

VI.C.12.012(m)

(m)       goldembroidered skull cup

Dictionnaire 495: Les ordonnances sur les devoirs qu’on devoit rendre aux morts. C’étoit, par exemple, honorer leur mémoire, que de conserver leurs crânes, de les faire border d’or ou d’argent, & de s’en servir pour boire. [Instructions on the tribute to be paid to the dead. It was considered as a way of honoring their memory to preserve their skulls, trim them with gold or silver and to use it as a cup to drink.]

VI.C.12.013(a)

(n)        mistletoe . golden sickle / 6th moon . powdered >

VI.C.12.013(b)

(o)        makes enceinte

Dictionnaire 495: Le gui doit être cueilli très respectueusement avec une serpe d’or, & s’il est possible, à la sixième lune ; étant mis en poudre, il rend les femmes fécondes. [The mistletoe should be cut very respectfully with a golden sickle, & if possible during the sixth moon ; in powdered form it makes women fertile.]

See also 046(l).

VI.C.12.013(c)

(p)        Tiberius fells their forests

Dictionnaire 495-496: Leur puissance a constamment subsisté jusqu’à la conquête des Gaules par les Romains, & ils continuèrent encore l’exercice de leur religion pendant près de soixante ans, jusqu’au tems où Tibère, craignant qu’elle ne fût une occasion de révolte, fit massacrer les prêtres Druides, & raser les bois dans lesquels ils rendoient leur culte. [Their power has constantly subsisted until the conquest of Gaul by the Romans, & they still continued to practice their religion for about sixty years, until Tiberius, fearing it could be an occasion for revolt, gave the order to slaughter the Druid priests, & to fell the forests in which they practiced their cult.]

VI.C.12.013(d)

(q)        De – rhouid >

VI.C.12.013(e)

(r)        God – sayer

Dictionnaire 498-9: Il [M. Fréret] soupçonne que le mot Derouydd est compose des deux mots Celtique de ou di, Dieu, & Rhouydd ou Rhaidd, participe du verbe Irlandois, Rhaidhim ou Rhouidhim, parler, dire, s’entre-[498]tenir. [He (M. Fréret) presumes the word Derouydd is composed of the two Celtic words de or di, God, & Rhouydd or Rhaidd, participle of the Irish verb Rhaidhim or Rhouidhim, to talk, to tell, to converse.]

VI.C.12.013(f)

VI.B.14.030

(b)        Blanca Lourdes >

VI.C.12.013(h)

(c)        manicurist >

VI.C.12.013(i)

(d)        Angel Firpo

Note: On 21 July 1925 the Argentine boxer Luis Angel Firpo was detained at Ellis Island for trying to illegally getting the manicurist Blanca Lourdes into the United Statees.

VI.C.12.013(j)

(g)        found death (Ir) >

VI.C.12.013(m)

(h)        Irish seaserpent = famine >

VI.C.12.014(a)

(i)         forest of Limerick >

VI.C.12.014(b)

(j)         10th cent. >

VI.C.12.014(c)

(k)        King Elgar >

VI.C.12.014(d)

(l)         Armagh, Ivor, (Nor)

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 72-3: Vers le milieu du Xe siècle, l’Irlande ayant pour roi Elgar et pour archevêque, à Armagh, siège primitial, Ivor, d’origine norvégienne, fut éprouvée par une grande calamité.

           Un serpent, vomi sans doute par l’enfer, désolait l’île entière. C’était une bête épouvantable, longue de plus de cent pieds ; son corps était plus gros que le plus énorme des chênes de la séculaire forêt de Limerick; des écailles aux sinistres reflets, passant du vert violacé au rouge le plus éclatant, faisaient au monstre une invulnérable cuirasse. Dans la tête, hérissée d’une double corne pointue, les yeux aux prunelles sanglantes fulguraient au-dessus d’une gueule dont les mâchoires étaient armées d’une triple rangée de dents et de crocs; la langue, pointue comme un javelot, distillait une bave empoisonnée.

           Tantôt le monstre se repliait en anneaux tortueux; il glissait alors sur le sol et s’avançait [72] en bonds saccadés ; tantôt il filait droit comme une flèche et rapide comme un éclair.

           Ni les montagnes basaltiques, dont les flancs sont plus escarpés que les murailles, ni les fleuves tumultueux, ni même les bras de mer où les flots déferlent avec furie, ne l’arrêtaient dans sa marche effrayante.

           Le serpent ne laissait que ruines sur son passage ; les champs, sur lesquels son corps avait traîné, devenaient aussitôt stériles et les herbes étaient brûlées dans les grandes prairies qu’il avait traversées, en dévorant les bœufs et les chevaux.

           L’eau des rivières, où il s’abreuvait, était empuantie et des miasmes fétides, engendrant des maladies inconnues, s’échappaient des forêts où le monstre se retirait, la nuit.

           Longtemps, il s’était repu d’animaux ; mais depuis plusieurs semaines, il dévorait les gens; le soir, il rôdait autour des villes, happant de sa gueule formidable les gens attardés; des femmes allant au lavoir, des enfants revenant de l’école, avaient été engloutis par centaines.

           Personne n’osait plus sortir et, dans les villes opulentes aussi bien que dans les plus misérables hameaux, les Irlandais frappés de stupeur recommandaient leurs âmes à Dieu.

Quel crime l’île avait donc commis pour que le Seigneur envoyât un pareil fléau?

[Towards the middle of the tenth century, Elgar being king of Ireland, Ivor, a Norwegian, being the archbishop at Armagh, was assailed by a great misfortune. A serpent, no doubt vomited from the earth, laid waste to the entire island. It was a horrible beast, more than a hundred feet long; its body was thicker than the mightiest oak in the forest of Limerick, its scales had a sinister reflection, from a purplish green to a clear red, giving the monster an invulnerable cuirass. On its head, bristling with a double pointed horn, its bloodfilled eyes appeared above a maw the jaws of which were fortified with triple rows of fangs and teeth; the tongue, pointed as a javelin, gave off a poisonous fluid. Sometimes the monster lay in tortuous rings, it lay on the ground and slithered forward in abrupt jumps; sometimes it moved straight as an arrow and rapid as lightening. Neither the basalt rocks, the flanks of which are steep as walls, nor the wildest rivers, nor the branches of the sea where the waves toss with fury can stop its frightful advance. The serpent only left ruins in its wake; the fields over which its body had passed, as he devoured horses and cows, instantly became waste and the grasses of the fields were burned. The water of the rivers where it drank began to stink and fetid ooze spreading unknown diseases came out of the forests where it had rested at night. For a while it had eaten animals, but after a few weeks it began to make a meal of people; at night it would roam near the villages, catching in its maw the benighted; the women who were washing, children coming back from school, all of them had been eaten in the hundreds. Nobody dared to leave the house, and in rich as well as poor cities, the Irish were stunned and they commanded their souls to God. What crime had the island committed for God to send them such a scourge?]

VI.C.12.014(e)

(m)       chef des milices celestes

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 76 (Le serpent de l’Irlande): La nuit suivante, après une longue veille de prières, Ivor vit en songe l’archange saint Michel. Celui-ci lui ordonna de faire porter, sans retard, au sanctuaire de prédilection qu’il avait choisi au monde terrestre, les armes dont il s’était servi pour mettre à mort le serpent.

           Mais, avant que l’archevêque n’ait eu le temps de demander au chef des milices célestes le nom et le lieu du sanctuaire qui lui était agréable entre tous, saint Michel disparut. [The next night, after a long wake of prayers, Ivor in a dream saw the Archangel Saint Michael. He ordered him, without delay, to bring the weapons that that had served him to kill the serpent to the sanctuary that he had chosen on earth. But, before the bishop had the time to ask the chief of the celestial armies for the name of the sanctuary that pleased above all others, Saint Michael disappeared.]

VI.C.12.014(f)

(n)        Godons (les Anglais)

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 81-2 (Les tribulations de Jean Douville): Mais, ce qui avait mis le comble à l’exaspération des Normands contre les Godons (on appelait ainsi les Anglais dans les campagnes), c’était [81] une ordonnance du duc de Bedford, interdisant les pèlerinages au Mont-Saint-Michel et ce fut la rage au cœur que les gens de Coutances et d’Avranches plus particulièrement, entendirent bannir, après la grand’messe du jour Toussaint 1422, l’interdiction du roi d’Angleterre

[But what had crowned the dispair of the Normans against the Godons (this is what they called the English during the campaign), it was the order of the duke of Bedford forbidding the pilgrimage to Mont-Saint-Michel and this brought a rage to the hearts of that the people of Coutances and Avranches, more particularly heard, after the great mass of the day of All Saints 1422, the ban of the king of England being proclaimed]

VI.C.12.014(g)

(o)        in pace (oubliette)

Note: See 033(h) and 059(b).

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 104-5: D’après eux, il faisait plus clair au fond des mines de Sibérie que dans ces puisards tortueux, ces oubliettes étroites, ces abominables in pace, où les moines, affirmaient-ils, précipitaient par milliers ces lamentables et [104] innocentes victimes du despotisme royal et du fanatisme religieux.

[According to them, there was more light at the bottom of the mines of Siberia than in these tortuous pits, the narrow dungeons, the abominable in pace, where the monks, they claimed, threw by the thousands the pitiful and innocent victims of royal despotism and religious fanaticism.]

VI.C.12.014(h)

(p)        heart with parchment / (ex voto)

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 120: Une des cuves contenait exclusivement tous les cœurs d’or, d’argent et de cuivre que les fidèles pèlerins, au cours de ces siècles, avaient accumulés autour de l’Archange, en reconnaissance de grâces obtenues.

           Le cœur était, en effet, l’ex-voto le plus offert. Il était généralement surmonté d’une petite croix ou d’une flamme, entouré d’une couronne d’épines, incrusté de fleurs ou d’initiales; souvent, il était creux; il s’ouvrait alors comme une montre, et à l’intérieur, on mettait un petit morceau de parchemin sur lequel on avait écrit l’objet du vœu formé ou exaucé. Il y avait des cœurs en or avec des pierres précieuses; d’autres étaient en argent, de très nombreux en cuivre, en beau cuivre jaune, en or de Villedieu, comme on dit dans cette partie de la Normandie, où depuis des siècles, on travaille ce métal pour en faire des chaudrons et des poêles.

[One of the cellars contained only all the gold, silver and copper hearts that the pious pilgrims, in the course of the centuries, had collected around the Archangel, as proof of the grace they had received. The heart was really the most popular ex-voto. There was generally a little cross on the top or a flame, surrounded by a crown of thorns, inlaid with flowers or initials; often, they were hollow; they opened then like a watch and inside you could place a piece of vellum on which one could write the object of a wish asked or fulfilled. There were golden hearts or hearts with precious stones; others were made of silver, lots in copper, a beautiful yellow copper, in gold from Villedieu, as they say in  Normandy, where this metal has been worked for centuries to make pots and pans out of it.]

Note: Ex voto. An offering made in pursuance of a vow.

VI.C.12.014(i)

(q)        une romaine (scale)

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 121: Jacques Fromond et le bijoutier se placèrent devant une petite table; l’expert déterminait la nature du métal, pesait chaque objet au moyen d’une romaine et le remettait au procureur qui prenait note de ses constatations. [Jacques Fromond and the jeweller stood before a little table; the expert determined the nature of the metal, weighed each object by means of a scale and gave it back to a proctor who made a note of the findings.]

VI.C.12.014(j)

(r)                ®l’auteur de l’auteur

?Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 137: Faut-il aussi remarquer que l’auteur de la brochure de 1622 met toujours au masculin l’oiseau qui pond l’œuf: c’est le bouleversement de l’histoire naturelle!

[Must we add that the author of the 1622 brochure always makes the bird that lays the egg masculine: it overturns the natural order!]

VI.C.12.014(k)

VI.B.14.031

(a)        huguenote (flatchested) W / no homage to saints

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 137: Ne disait-on pas d’une femme, dont la poitrine était plate, que c’était une huguenote. Cette expression ou plutôt cette comparaison intrigua longtemps les folkloristes; enfin l’un d’eux, plus avisé, fit remarquer à ses confrères que les protestants ne rendaient pas aux saints le culte qui leur était dû. Et voilà, du coup le surnom expliqué!

[Did one not say of a woman with a flat chest that she was a Huguenote. This expression or better this comparison has intrigued the folklore specialists for a long time; finally one of them, slightly more intelligent, told his colleagues that the protestants did not render to the saints the veneration that was their due. And that explained the surname!]

Note: Fr. seins, breasts, is homophonous with saints.

VI.C.12.014(l)-015(a)

(b)        cocks lay eggs

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 137 (Le mystère de l’aigle à l’oeuf d’or): Faut-il aussi remarquer que l’auteur de la brochure de 1622 met toujours an masculin l’oiseau qui pond l’œuf : c’est le bouleversement de l’histoire naturelle ! Je me rappelle, toutefois, avoir entendu dire qu’au Mont-Saint-Michel et sur la côte voisine, les coqs pondaient des œufs. Je demandai, un jour, à un grand savant, l’explication de ce phénomène: «Oubliez-vous donc, me dit-il, qu’au cours de la Guerre de Cent Ans, c’est-à-dire à l’origine de l’artillerie, le canon gronda terriblement au Mont-Saint-Michel? Tous les coqs du pays furent épouvantés : ils eurent la chair de poule. » § Vraiment, les folkloristes ont réponse à tout. [Must we add that the author of the 1622 brochure always makes the bird that lays the egg masculine: it overturns the natural order! I remember, in any case, being told that in Mont-Saint-Michel and the neighbouring coast, the roosters laid the eggs. I asked a very clever man for an explanation: “Have you forgotten, he said, that during the Hundred Year War, when artillery was first used, the canons blew terribly on Mont-Saint-Michel? All the roosters of the land were terrified: they were all chicken. It is true: folklore specialists have an answer for everything.]

VI.C.12.015(b)

(c)        cockle - beggar’s oyster / cardium edule >

VI.C.12.015(c)

(d)        rFerre noctuam Athenas / owls to Athensr / coquilles à S Michel

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 138-139 (La coque des grèves): Quand les poètes célèbrent les fleurs, ils consacrent leurs plus jolis vers à l’humble violette; c’est elle qui décore le plus aimablement du monde la fameuse guirlande de Julie; les grèves du Mont-Saint-Michel ont aussi leur violette.... si l’on peut dire: c’est la coque, la modeste coque qui se cache sous les sables blonds; c’est encore l’huître du pauvre; le naturaliste, lui, la désigne sous le nom de Cardium Edule, comme qui dirait: Cœur Comestible! Pour les profanes, la coque n’est qu’un petit mollusque, formé de deux valves symétriques également bombées. Elle abonde dans les estuaires des petits fleuves bretons et normands, à 1’embouchure de la Vilaine, dans l’anse de la Fresnaye, sous le cap Fréhel et, surtout, dans la baie du Mont-Saint-Michel. De cette abondance est né ce proverbe qui signifie faire une chose inutile : « C’est porter des coquilles à Saint-Michel », c’est porter de l’eau à la rivière et des chouettes à Athènes: Ferre noctuam Athenas. Le poète Mathurin Régnier | connaissait l’expression. Il a dit quelque part: § « Et mes coquilles vendre à ceux de Saint-Michel ».

[When the poets celebrate flowers, they devote their most beautiful verses to the humble violet ; it is that flower that decorates most nicely the famous garland of Julie; the coast at Mont-Saint-Michel has its own violet … if one can say that: it is the cockle, the modest cockle that hides in the blond sand; it is the oyster of the poor; the naturalist calls it by the name Cardium Edule, as if to say edible heart! For the profane among us, the cockle is no more than a humble mollusk, formed by two symmetrical valves. They are everywhere in the estuaries of the little Breton and Normand rivers, in the delta of the Vilaine, in the cove of Fresnaye, under cape Frehel and, especially, in the bay of Mont-Saint-Michel. Of this abundance a proverb was born that means doing something useless: “To carry cockles to Saint-Michel”, it is like carrying water to the river or owls to Athens. Ferre noctuam Athenas. The poet Mathurin Régnier knows the expression. He says somewhere: “And to sell my cockles to those at Saint-Michel”]

Note: Cardium edule. Latin name of the common cockle. L. Ferre noctuam Athenas. Carry an owl to Athens.

MS 47473-36v, TsLPA: superciliouslooking Greek ees ^+oddly ^+awkwardlike+^ perched here and there ^+ there and here +^ out of place ^+date+^ like sick owls brought ^+back+^ ^+hawked back+^+^ to Athens:+^ | JJA 46:332 | Feb-Mar 1925 | I.5§1.3/4.3 | FW 120.20

VI.C.12.015(d)

(e)        sable à l’ardoise >

VI.C.12.015(e)

(f)        grouet blanc

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 141 (La coque des grèves): Les coques s’assemblent par bancs, mais ces bancs sont très changeants, car les coques se déplacent et émigrent suivant les saisons et peut-être les circonstances de leur vie... sociale! Toussenel, seul, dans l’Esprit des Bêtes, aurait pu nous dire le motif de leur changement de résidence; elles choisissent des bancs de sable de différente nature; il y a le banc à l’ardoise, quand le sable est légèrement bleu; les coques qu’on y prend ont alors un goût de vase; elles sont bien meilleures dans le grouet blanc ou roux, c’est-à-dire dans les lits de sable pur. [The cockles assemble in banks, but these banks are very changeable because the cockles move and emigrate according to the seasons and maybe according to their … social life! Toussenel, alone, in his The Soul of the Animals, could have told us the reason for their change of address; they choose banks of sand of a different nature; there is the slate bank, when the sand is light blue; the cockles that one catches there taste like mud; they are much better in the white or reddish grouet, which means in bed of pure sand.]

VI.C.12.015(f)

(g)        Pisciferos amnes, multo salmone feraces

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 142-3: Je me contenterai de vous dire en langue vulgaire qu’on péchait dans la baie des saumons, des lamproies, des congres, des marsouins, des soles, des turbots, etc ; le saumon était abondant; un poète du XIIIe siècle a dit en parlant des rivières qui se jettent dans l’estuaire normand-breton :

Pisciferos amnes, multo salmone feraces.

On a même prétendu que les saumons étaient si communs que les domestiques des fermes du [142] rivage stipulaient, dans leur contrat de louage de services qu’on ne pourrait les nourrir de saumon plus de deux fois la semaine. C’est une légende; on la retrouve même en Angleterre. [I will restrict myself to telling you in the vernacular that one used to fish in the bay for salmon, lamprey and conger eel, porpoise, sole, turbot, etc; the salmon was abundant; a poet of the thirteenth century said of the rivers that feed the Normand-Breton estuary: Pisciferos amnes, multo salmone feraces.

One has even said that the salmon were so common that the farm servants of the river shores stipulated in their contracts that they could only eat salmon twice a week. This is a legend that one can also hear in England.]

Note: L. Pisciferos amnes, multo salmone feraces. Streams well-stocked with fish, abundant in salmon.

VI.C.12.015(g)

VI.B.14.032

(c)        Omar Homard Petris / Pince - Rire

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 156: En 1704, un Algérien fut instruit des vérités chrétiennes par Dom Hougats : « Le 8 octobre 1704, dit un registre, Homar Mahomet, de Barbarie, fut baptisé par M. le chanoine Desnots; le dit Homard (sic) fut nommé Nicolas Joseph Pétris et signa l’acte de baptême. »

Pourquoi le nom d’Omar fut-il transformé en celui de Homar et même en Homard ? Les bons scribes religieux pensaient-ils à ces excellents crustacés, aux longues et fortes pinces, dont la baie de Saint-Malo était alors abondamment pourvue? C’est une supposition ; on comprend plus facilement qu’Omar ait été prénommé Nicolas, du nom de son parrain : mais pourquoi Pétris? Un savant étymologiste auquel j’ai confié mon embarras, m’a répondu: « Pétris vient de petra, pierre ; or le homard vit précisément sous les pierres. » Ce philologue me paraît, lui aussi, être comme le homard: un pince sans rire. [In 1704, an Algerian was introduced into the christian truths by Dom Hougats : « On 8 October 1704, says a register, “Homar Mahomet, of Barbary, was baptized by M. the canon Desnots; this Homard (sic [the word means “lobster”]) was given the name Nicolas Joseph Pétris and he signed the act of baptism. Why was the name Omar changed into that of Homar and even of Homard? Were the good religious scribes thinking of the excellent crustaceans, with their sharp and long pincers, that live so abundantly in the bay of Saint-Malo? One can only suppose; we can easily see why Omar had Nicolas as a first name, the name of his sponsor: but why Pétris? An etymological expert with whom I shared my confusion, told me “Pétris comes from petra, stone; the lobster lives underneath stones.” This philologist seemed to me too a bit like a lobster: a dry wit [literally a pincer without laughter.]]

VI.C.12.016(e)

(d)        1 rouge liard >

VI.C.12.016(f)-(g)

(e)        couleuvrin (culverin)

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 163-5: Au cours de l’année 1760, un incident de ce genre se produisit entre les Mauristes, la municipalité du Mont-Saint-Michel et l’administration paroissiale, représentée à Avranches par M. Angot. On avait à juste titre signalé à l’in-[163] tendant de la Géneralité de Caen le mauvais état des casernes, du corps de garde de la Grande Porte et surtout celui des citernes. Tout le monde était d’accord sur la nécessité des travaux, mais personne ne voulait les commencer; les entrepreneurs, après avoir pris connaissance des devis et des plans, refusaient leur concours et puis... personne ne voulait payer! [...]

La Municipalité, elle, répondait tout simplement : « Je n’ai pas le sou ! »

           Pendant ce temps-là, les couleuvrines, c’est-à-dire les fissures des citernes, s’élargissaient démesurément. Plus d’eau ; on en était réduit à aller en chercher par tonne ou par tonneau, à la [164] Rive, à plus d’une demi-lieue. [...]

           Comment sortir d’une situation dont tout le monde souffrait beaucoup? Les Montois ne possédaient pas dans leur caisse municipale un rouge liard; le Trésor Royal était à sec... comme les citernes. Seuls les religieux étaient riches ou, plutôt, les malheureux passaient pour tels: terrible et dangereuse réputation! Il fallait les faire casquer comme on dit de nos jours. Mais comment? [In the year 1760 an incident of this kind occurred between the Maurists, the municipality of Mont-Saint-Michel and the parochial administration, represented at Avranches by Mr. Angot. It had come to the due attention of the intendant of the Generality of Caen that the barracks of the guards of the Grande Porte and their cisterns were dirty. Everybody agreed on the need for repairs, but nobody wanted to start them; the builders, after having been made aware of the plans and the funds, refused to cooperate and then … nobody wanted to pay. […] The Municipality said simply: “We are broke!” Around that time the culverins, that is, the cracks of the cisterns, became immeasurably large. No more water; it had to be brought in by barrel or cask, from Rive, more than a half a league away .[…] How could a situation be resolved from which everyone was suffering a lot? The people of the Mont did not have a red cent in their municipal coffers; the Royal Treasury was just as dry as the cisterns. Only the monks were rich, or at least, the unlucky ones were thought to be rich: a terrible and dangerous reputation! They had to cough up, as we would say now. But how?]

VI.C.12.016(h)

(f)        rPetite Egypte >

?MS 47484a-294v, TsLPA: ^+[…] was not I rockcut ^+rosetted+^ on two stelas of little egypt, had not I rockcut reders, hieros, ^+gregos+^ and democriticos […]+^ | JJA 58:410 | Dec 1928-Jan 1929 | III§3A.8/3B.8 | FW 551.30

(g)        goglu (pisteur)

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 215-7: La foule descend, tumultueuse et bruyante vers les hôtels; elle s’écoule par la rue étroite; elle suit les remparts; il y a des rencontres entre ceux qui montent vers l’Abbaye et ceux qui en sortent; à certains passages rétrécis, à des coudes brusques, le long des degrés, ces rencontres deviennent des collisions. Toutes ces conversations produisent une rumeur étrange: soudain un cri s’élève: « Au voleur! au voleur! On m’a fait mon portemonnaie! »...

           Consolez-vous, madame. Vous eûtes, au Moyen Age, des sœurs d’infortune; aux époques lointaines des grands pèlerinages, la Petite Egypte s’abattait aussi sur les foules dévotes au grand Archange; jongleurs, baladins, tire-bourses, vide goussets, faux éclopés, aveugles... aux yeux de lynx, toute la Cour des Miracles, envahissait le Mont-Saint-Michel. Ils étaient, cependant, sous la surveillance de la police: c’est ainsi que ces bohémiens étaient tenus de faire des déclarations de changement de domicile ou de résidence, quand ils se transportaient d’un lieu dans [215] un autre. Une loi récente oblige maintenant les nomades, même d’origine française, à faire viser leurs carnets d’identité par les maires et la gendarmerie. Un curieux registre, déposé aux Archives de la Loire-Inférieure, nous apprend qu’en 1509, les autorités de Nantes délivrèrent un passeport à «Guillaume de la Roque, Capitaine de la Petite Egypte, pour se rendre de Nantes au Mont-Saint-Michel, en se logeant dans les faubourgs des villes et des bourgades». Il lui étailt fait expresse défense d’extravaguer, c’est-à-dire de vagabonder ou plutôt de passer par des endroits autres que ceux portés sur le permis de circulation. Naturellement il se glissait, parmi ces Egyptiens, des filous et des voleurs; aussi les plaintes de leurs victimes étaient-elles fréquentes; on découvrait quelquefois ces malandrins, mais on mettait rarement la main sur les bourses dérobées ou quand on retrouvait celles-ci sur le pavé de la rue, elles étaient vides. Cela se reproduit encore maintenant.

           Les pèlerins se plaignaient aussi des goglus.

Les goglus n’étaient autres que les pisteurs, les insupportables pisteurs de nos jours. Goglu, d’après Littré, est d’origine incertaine; ce philologue, aussi érudit que prudent, aimait mieux ne rien dire du tout que de dire une bêtise. Nos étymologistes actuels trouvent, dans le mot [216] goglu, la racine celtique gog qui impliquerait une idée de fraude ou de tromperie. Quoiqu’il en soit, le chroniqueur Thomas Le Roy signale, en mai 1646, l’effronterie de ces vilains personnages. Il nous montre l’archidiacre du Mont faisant, à cette date, des remontrances à plusieurs bourgeois de la ville unis à certains goglus, lesquels leur amenaient des pèlerins et, par ce moyen, ôtaient à ceux-ci la liberté deloger où bon leur semblait.

           Le gogluage était un délit ; c’était aussi un péché; pour être absous, il fallait passer par le tribunal de la Pénitence «Le révérend père archidiacre, nous apprend Thomas Le Roy, a rendu une sentence aux termes de laquelle il défend le gogluage et se réserve de donner l’absolution des cas commis par les délinquants et fait défense à tous les confesseurs du Mont de les absoudre.» C’était un cas réservé; les théologiens d’aujourd’hui sont-ils aussi sévères et le cas est-il aussi fréquent?

           [The crowd descends, tumultuous and noisy, toward the hostels; it flows through the narrow street; it follows the ramparts, those who go up to the abbey, meet those who come out of it; in the narrow passages, at sharp turns, along the stairs, these encounters become collisions. All those conversations produce a strange murmur: suddenly a cry is heard: “Thief! Thief, someone has taken my purse!” … Let me comfort you, madam. In the Middle Ages, there were sisters of misfortune ; in the long-gone days of the pilgrimages, the Little Egypt also assailed the masses devoted to the Archangel: jugglers, clowns, pickpockets, the fake lame, the blind … with eyes of a lynx, all of the Court of Miracles was in Mont-Saint-Michel. They were under surveillance of the police: this is why the bohemians were supposed to declare a change of address or of residence, when they went from one place to another. A recent law now obliges the nomads, even when they are French citizens, to have their identity cards checked by the mayor and the gendarmes. A curious register, at the Archives of Loire-Inférieure, teaches us that in 1509, the authorities of Nantes gave a passport to “William de la Roque, Capitain of Little Egypt, to go from Nantes to Mont-Saint-Michel, while stopping in the suburbs of the cities and villages.” He was “expressly forbidden to extravaguer, i.e. to be a vagabond or to pass through places that were not mentioned on his circulation permit. Naturally, scum and thieves sneaked among the Egyptians, scum and thieves; the complaints of their victims were frequent enough; one sometimes caught these robbers, but it was difficult to find the purses that had been stolen and when they were found on the pavement of the street, they were empty. That still happens today.

           The pilgrims also complained of the goglus. These were not other than pisteurs, the unbearable pisteurs of today. Goglu, according to Littré, is of uncertain origin; that philologue, as erudite as he was prudent, would rather say nothing than say something stupid. Our current etymologists find, in the word goglu, the Celtic root gog which implies a sense of fraud or deception. However that may be, already in 1646, Thomas Le Roy writes about the crimes of these bad people. He shows how the archdeacon of the Mont blamed several burhers of the town for giving shelter to these gogglues, who brought them pilgrims, and thus also the freedom to stay wherever they wanted.

           Gogluage was a crime; it was also a sin; in order to be redeemed one had to pass through the tribunal of Penitence “The reverend father archdeacon, Thomas Le Roy tells us, has given a sentence he forbids gogluage and he reserves the right to absolve these cases committed by delinquents and he forbids all the confessors of the Mont to absolve them.” It was a reserved case: are the theologians today as severe and is the case still so common?]

VI.C.12.016(i)

(h)        beatilles

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 174: La petite ville du Mont-Saint-Michel, bâtie au flanc méridional du rocher et que les anciennes chroniques de l’abbaye désignent sous le nom pittoresque de pendula villa, comptait à peine, au XVIIIe siècle, 250 habitants. C’étaient, pour la plupart, des aubergistes, des marchands de béatilles et d’objets de pèlerinage, des marins et des pêcheurs.

[The little city of Mont-Saint-Michel, that is built on the southern flank of the rock and that the old chronicles of the abbey call by the picturesque name of pendula villa, had, in the eighteenth century no more than 250 inhabitants. They were, for the most part, owners of hotels, sellers of béatilles and pilgrimage objects, sailors and fishermen.]

Note: Fr. Béatilles. Titbits, as cocks’ combs, sweetbreads, etc. in a pie; also in convents applied to sSmall pieces of needlework (as pincushions, ‘samplers’ embroidered with sacred subjects) worked by nuns. See 069(n).

VI.C.12.017(a)

(i)         restomaqué >

MS 47474-34v, TsLPA: to let you have your Sarday spree and Sunset ^+holinight+^ sleep & leave to lie till paraskivee (O your estomach!) | JJA 47:422 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 192.22

(j)         maréchaussée

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 178: Donc, le 5 avril 1757, Guillaume Ridel exploitant, lui-même, l’hôtellerie de La Licorne, fut tout estomaqué quand il vit pénétrer chez lui la force publique. L’officier de la maréchaussée et le prieur de l’abbaye «en sa qualité de commandant du château pour le roi », lui apprirent, à brûle-pourpoint, que son auberge était réquisitionnée pour y loger des officiers de troupe.

[So, on 5 April 1757, William Ridel, owner of the hotel La Licorne, was all flabbergasted when he saw the police enter his house. The officer of police and the prior of the abbey “in his quality as commander of the castle for the king”, let it be known, at point blank, that his inn was requisitioned to lodge the officers of the troupe.]

Note: Fr. Maréchaussée. In pre-revolutionary France, a police force under the command of the Marshals of France.

VI.C.12.017(b)

(k)        injurieuse verités

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 182-183 (La tragique aventure de l’hôtelier de « La Licorne ». Du Mont à la Bastille.): M. Meslé ne prit pas les choses au tragique; le 26 juillet 1764, il écrivait à l’intendant, à Caen: «Deux femmes, au Mont-Saint-Michel, se sont prises de bec et, comme c’est l’ordinaire entre femelles de cette espèce, on s’est dit et redit bien d’injurieuses vérités. Ridel, effrayé de la persécution de ce gouverneur à longue robe noire, (le prieur) a enfilé la porte et s’est réfugié à Avranches; je ris de l’aventure et je [182] vous la raconte en badinant; mais nos juges d’Avranches le prennent sur un autre ton; l’affaire sera sérieuse, surtout pour Dom Houël.».

[M. Meslé was not a tragedian ; on 26 July 1764, he wrote to the intendant at Caen: « Two women, in Mont-Saint-Michel, began to fight and, as it is common with females of the species, they said and repeated quite a few injurious truths. Ridel, afraid of persecution by the governor of the long black robe, (the prior) has passed through the door and has fled to Avranches; I laugh at the adventure and tell you as a joke; but our judges of Avranches have taken it in a different spirit; it will have serious consequences, especially for Dom Houël.”]

VI.C.12.017(c)

(l)         mangé pour mangé / je préfère

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 192: Le résultat de l’entretien est demeuré secret mais il semble bien qu’à partir du 13 février 1783, il ne s’éleva plus d’incident; les juges du bailliage d’Avranches, saisis, comme on l’a vu, par les religieux d’une requête introductive d’instance, mirent l’affaire en délibéré. Ce délibéré ne fut jamais vidé, comme on dit au Palais. Le Contrôleur des Guerres n’exigea pas l’exécution des ordres prescrivant la mise en route pour le service des Gardes-Côtes des habitants des Quatre Paroisses et ceux-ci reprirent, sans murmurer, leur faction aux portes et sur les remparts du Mont.

           Mangés pour mangés, ils préféraient l’être à la sauce bénédictine plutôt qu’à la sauce royale: peut-être n’avaient-ils pas tout à fait tort?

[The result of the interview was kept a secret but it seems that from 13 February 1783 no more incidents occurred; the judges of the bailiwick in Avranches, forced, as we have seen, by the religious to hold an introductory request, began to deliberate. This deliberation was never emptied, as they say in the palace. The Comptroller of Wars did not demand the execution of the order for the prescription of the route for the service of the Gardes-Côtes of the inhabitants of the Four Parishes and they took up again, without complaint, their work on the walls and the gates of the Mont.

           Since there was no escaping being eaten, they preferred to be eaten with a Benedictine sauce rather with a royal one; and who will say they were wrong?]

 VI.C.12.017(d)

VI.B.14.033

(a)        throw bonnet over mill

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 199: «Mais, continue le poète, j’oubliai la contorsion du télégraphe au-dessus de ma tête pour ne regarder que cet admirable horizon, où la mer se soude à la verdure et la verdure aux grèves.»

           [Victor] Hugo pensa-t-il à rechercher son chapeau ou fit-il comme les jolies filles qui se lamentent à moitié, quand elles ont lancé leur bonnet par dessus les moulins? [« But, continued the poet, I forgot the contortion of the telegraph above my head in order not to look at anything but the beautiful horizon, where the sea becomes the green and the green becomes the coast.

           Was Hugo looking for his hat or did he do like the beautiful girls who half-complain when they have thrown their hats above the mills [i.e. acted wildly]?]

VI.C.12.017(e)

(b)        Conrart breaks silence / to write a bêtise

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 199: Toutefois, il est bien certain qu’elle parla de cette visite à la Cour et à la Ville. J’en ai la preuve dans une pièce de vers que le fameux Conrart, célèbre par son silence, adressait à Mme de Sévigné. Chose singulière! La muse de Conrart est plutôt bavarde; elle babille tout au long d’une colonne de soixante-seize alexandrins. Vous les trouverez dans le manuscrit 5418 de la Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, à Paris, tome IX, fos 485-486. Conrart termine sa longue épitre par cette affreuse tirade :

 

                        Cette roche superbe.

Vos beaux pieds l’ont foulée ainsi qu’on foule l’herbe,

Elle fléchit pour vous son invincible orgueil,

Et sentant sur sa croupe (!) une charge si belle,

Elle vous caressa par un muet accueil,

Puis, de votre départ voyant l’heure cruelle,

Dans ses concavités (!!), elle en pleura le deuil...

Elle ne le dit pas: je vous le dis pour elle.

 

Vraiment, ne trouvez-vous pas que Conrart eût été mieux inspiré en gardant cette fois encore, son fameux silence prudent?

[It was in any case certain that she mentioned the visit both at the Court and in the City. I have proof in the form of a verse that the famous Conrart, famous by his silence, wrote to Madame de Sévigné. Strange case! Conrart’s muse is rather talkative: she babbles in a long column of 76 alexandrines. You will find it in manuscript 5418 of the Library at the Arsenal in Paris, volume IX, folios 485-486. Conrart ends his long epistle with this awful tirade:

 

                           This superb rock.

Your beautiful feet have touched it like one touches the grass,

It bends before its invincible pride,

And feeling on its croup (!) a weight so beautiful,

She caresses you with a dumb welcome,

Then, when she sees of your departure the cruel hour,

In her concavities (!!), she weeps out of mourning …

She does not tell you: I tell you for her.

 

Don’t you agree that Conrart may have been better inspired to keep this one time again, his famous prudent silence?]

Note: Valentin Conrart (1603-1675), founder of the Académie Française, satirized by Nicolas Boileau for his ‘prudent silence’ because during his ilfetime he never published a work of interest or importance.

VI.C.12.017(f)  

(c)        fire out of heaven >

VI.C.12.017(g)

(d)        bellringer (partner / for adulterers) rings / 13 for 12

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 216-7: La dame acquiesça d’un air entendu. «Donc, continuai-je, la première cloche dont les Annales du Mont aient gardé le souvenir se nommait Rollon; elle sonnait déjà, en 1048, pour rallier les vassaux de l’abbaye, quand celle-ci était attaquée par les brigands de Bretagne. Au cours des siècles, on lui donna des sœurs et, grâce à la générosité des rois de France, des princes de l’Eglise et des dévots pèlerins, le carillon du Mont-Saint-Michel fut un des plus beaux du monde; malheureusement le feu du ciel détruisit souvent la tour et les cloches fondaient dans le brasier.

           «Parmi ces cloches il y en avait toujours une qui avait une mission spéciale « donner adresse aux pauvres gens égarés dans le brouillard.» On l’appelait pour cette raison la cloche de brume.

           Au commencement du XVIIIe siècle, elle fut fêlée. La tradition voulait que, dans certaines circonstances, le seigneur de Fougères sonnât cette cloche, jusqu’à ce que le prieur du Mont, ému de sa fatigue, lui retirât la corde des mains. C’était une sorte de pénitence. Un jour, le seigneur du dit lieu, qui avait sur la conscience de gros péchés d’infidélité conjugale, demeura si longtemps cramponné à la corde [216] qu’il agitait fiévreusement, que la cloche fut fêlée. Les religieux furent désolés; leurs lamentations parvinrent jusqu’au delà du Rhin à leur abbé commendataire: c’était un Allemand.

[The lady agreed knowingly. « So, I continued, the first bell of which the Mont Annals have a record was named Rollon; she sounded already, in 1048, to rally the abbey’s vassals, when it was attacked by Breton thieves. In the course of the centuries, she was given sisters and, thanks to the generosity of the kings of France, the princes of the Church and devout pilgrims, the Mont-Saint-Michel carillon was one of the best in the world; unfortunately the fire from the skies would destroy the tower and the bells were melted down.

           Among the bells there is one still today with a special mission, to give guidance to poor people lost in the fog? It is called for that reason the bell of the mists. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, she cracked. Tradition tells us that, in certain circumstances, the lord of Fougères sounded the bell, until the prior of the Mont, pitying his tiredness, took the cord from his hands. It was a sort of penitence. One day the lord of that place, who had lots of sins of infidelity weighing on him, clang to the cord that he feverishly rang for such a long time that the bell cracked. The religious thought it was a pity; their laments reached to the other side of the Rhine to the abbot who owned the living; he was a German.]

VI.C.12.017(h)

(e)                Lycaenion Daphnis & Chloe

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 219 : Il est impressionnant, ce rocher sauvage, avec son front chauve et ses flancs broussailleux, sur lesquels court, régulière et noirâtre, la laisse des eaux. Tombelaine fut, paraît-il, dans la préhistoire, le siège d’un collège de druidesses, de très petite vertu, s’il faut en croire les pudibonds chroniqueurs du Mont-Saint-Michel. Ces dames avaient, disait-on, la spécialité de donner à la jeunesse certaines leçons de choses que la charmante nymphe Lycénion dévoila au naïf Daphnis, se consumant pour Chloë. [It is impressive, this wild rock, with its bare front and its bushy flanks on which runs, regular and blackish, la laissa des eaux. Tombelaine was, it seems, in prehistory the seat of a college of druidesses, of small virtue, if we are to believe the prudish chroniclers of Mont-Saint-Michel. These ladies were in the habit, it was said, of giving to youngsters the same kind of lessons that the charming nymph Lycénion gave to the simple Daphnis, who was consumed by desire for Chloë.]

VI.C.12.017(i)

(f)        Jean Deluge or Tombelaine

Les légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 222 (Le marquis de Tombelaine): Jean de Tombelaine se noya accidentellement, après s’être aventuré une nuit sur les grèves, qu’il connaissait fort mal, d’ailleurs, entre le Mont et la côte bretonne. On retrouva son cadavre, quelques jours après, à Colombel, en Saint-Broladre. Le marquis de Tombelaine figure sur le registre de l’état-civil de cette commune (Décès décembre 1892, folio 3, recto), sous le nom de Jean Déluge ou Jean de Tombelaine, « individu s’étant dit tel ».

[John of Tombelaine was accidentally drowned, after venturing out one night on the rocks that he did not know well, between the Mont and the Breton coast. His corpse was found, a few days later, in Colombel, in Saint-Broladre. The marquess of Tombelaine appears on the register of that community (dead 1892, folio 3, recto), under the name of John Deluge or John de Tombelaine, “individual so called.”]

 VI.C.12.018(a)

(j)         if Jeremy was, as he was — — —

Note: Unit ends with what appear to be three ditto signs.

Kinane Saint Patrick 2-3: If the Prophet Jeremias was sanctified, as he was, in his mother's womb, because his heavenly mission was to announce to the world the mysteries and revelations of the [2] Almighty; if St. John the Baptist was sanctified, as he was, before he was born, because he was destined to baptize the Saviour of the world, to point out the Redeemer in person, “Behold the Lamb of God;” if these Saints were holy because they approached near God, and were destined to fulfill a high and holy mission; what special unique privileges, graces, and favours must not the Almighty have reserved for our Blessed Lady, ...

VI.C.12.018(d)

VI.B.14.034

(a)        rreputed father of Jesus

Kinane St. Patrick 16: Pious Reflection. My soul! reflect on the sweet and tender mercy and goodness of Jesus to thee.[…] A most tender touch of the mercy of Jesus for thy salvation is in having given thee as advocate Mary, His Mother […] Joseph, His reputed father, and next to Mary in power and glory

Note: Final ‘s’ of ‘Jesus’ joined by a line to initial ‘s’ of unit (b), below.

?MS 47474-25v, LPA: ^+one moment blowing great guns ^+blunderguns+^ about his farfamed fine Poppamore, Mr Hamhum and another moment giving 3 jeers for his rotten little ghost of a Peppybeg, Mr Himmyshimmy+^ | JJA 47:404 |Apr-May 1925 | I.7§*1.3*/2.3 | FW 173.22

?MS 47482b-070v, LPA: Was your ^+reputed+^ uncle the Cornywaller ^+Cornelwaller+^ | JJA 58:20 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*1+ | FW 000.00

(b)        where under Jesus

Kinane St. Patrick 11: Nations were converted, and at the touch of persecution have lost the faith; to-day, after centuries of unparalleled suffering and trials, Erin professes the same holy faith which St. Patrick, nigh fifteen hundred years ago, preached to the Kings at Tara; she professes the same faith as pure and holy as it fell from the divine lips of Jesus Christ Himself. Under God, thanks to the prayers of our glorious Apostle, St. Patrick.

VI.C.12.018(g)

(e)        rSaint J--

Kinane St. Patrick 18: St. Joseph, pray for me, and obtain for me the grace of a happy death.

Note: Although cancelled with (d) above, this unit was not transferred to the draft.

(f)        Socket (Succoth)

Kinane St. Patrick 23: The Vita Quinta, written by Probus, in the ninth century, begins thus: / St. Patrick, who was called Socket, was a Briton by birth [...]”

Note: Succoth. The Jewish feast of tents or tabernacles. See 034(p), 074(d), 109(c), 155(e).

VI.C.12.018(i)

(o)        Calpurnius / Conches / -essa

Kinane St. Patrick 31: “I Patrick [...] had Calpurnius, a deacon, for my father, the son of Potitus, a priest.” His mother’s name was Conches, or Conchessa

VI.C.12.019(g)

VI.B.14.035

(a)        Father Roman / Mother Hungarian

Note: A line leads ‘slaves’ to after ‘Mother’.

Kinane St. Patrick 32: From the weight of authority we are of opinion that his father’s family were of Roman origin [...] Conchessa, like her uncle or brother, St. Martin of Tours, was born in Pannonia, Modern Hungary

VI.C.12.020(a)

(g)        Assisi mother delivers / on straw

Kinane St. Patrick 42: the mother of St. Francis of Assisium [...] gave birth to her son upon a bed of straw

VI.C.12.020(f)

VI.B.14.036

(e)        P. march Sambre et Meuse

?Kinane St. Patrick 57: [describes journey through desert]

Note: ‘Le régiment de Sambre et Meuse’ (1879, by Robert Planquette) is the most famous French military march.

VI.C.12.021(i)

VI.B.14.037

(b)        Scot / Finte (Killfine) / tablets Pallere (†) / Sylvester & Salonius / Dunlavin / martyr

Note: Lines connect ‘Finte’ and ‘Dunlavin’, ‘Palladius’ and ‘ Patrick’, ‘Sylvester’ and ‘Pallere’ and between ‘Palladius’ and ‘Pallere’.

Kinane St. Patrick 74: Palladius, entering the land of the Scots [...] built three churches [...] one which is called Kill-fine (i.e. church of Finte: perhaps the present Dunlavin) [...] the tablets on which he used to write, which, in Irish, are called from his name, Pallere [...] the holy companions of Palladius, viz., Sylvester and Salonius [...] [Palladius said to have been] crowned with martyrdom

VI.C.12.022(e)

(i)         45th Patrick

Kinane St. Patrick 84-5: Almost all historians [84] agree that he was consecrated bishop in the year 432, or “towards the latter end of 431.” Our Saint’s age at his Consecration depends upon the date assigned to his birth. We agree with those writers, who hold that St. Patrick was born in the year 373; taken captive in 389, in his sixteenth years of his age; returned to his native country in 395; and after 38 years spent in study, prayer, penance, and the science of the Saints, under the greatest masters in Christendom, was Consecrated bishop in 432 in the sixtieth year of his age. Dr. Langan and many learned writers assign 387 for the date of our Saint's birth, and his consecration in 432, in the 45th year of his age.

VI.C.12.023(e)

(j)         or 60

Kinane St. Patrick 85: [Patrick] was Consecrated bishop in 432 in the sixtieth year of his age.

VI.C.12.023(f)

VI.B.14.038

(d)        P looks about him to / remember & recall / place & tongue after / 40 years

Not found in Kinane St. Patrick, but this was probably inspired by Kinane’s description of Saint Patrick’s return to Ireland on pp. 88-9.

VI.C.12.023(n)–024(a)

(f)        born 29/ix >

VI.C.12.024(c)

(g)        ocorded friar >

MS 47484a-253, TsILA: so many counterpoint words. ^+What can’t be coded can be decorded […]+^ | JJA 58:323 | Dec 1928-Jan 1929 | III§3A.8/3B.8 | FW 482.35

(h)        1 lb of parchment >

VI.C.12.024(d)

(i)         Plato in music case

Le Mont Saint-Michel Inconnu 2-3: Je me suis épris sitôt, en vérité, de cette fameuse abbaye! Mes yeux de cinq ans l’aperçurent, dans le lointain brumeux de sa grande baie, à travers les arbres du Jardin des Plantes d’Avranches, où les collégiens prenaient leurs ébats; Tiphaine Raguenel, l’astrologue du Mont Saint-Michel, m’eût peut-être prédit, si j’avais sollicité un horoscope de sa science divinatoire, que le nom de l’archange viendrait souvent sous ma plume, puisque je suis né un 29 septembre, jour de la fête du Prince des Milices Célestes; mais je ne suis ni présomptueux ni superstitieux à ce point et je m’explique tout naturellement pourquoi m’ont tant séduit les travaux historiques sur le Mont Saint-Michel. / Avranches, d’où je suis originaire, a été, depuis près de trois cents ans, l’atelier michelien le plus actif et le plus fécond de toute la Normandie. De la presse de son premier imprimeur est sorti un petit manuel du Pèlerin au Mont, œuvre du père Feu-Ardent, cordelier tout enflammé d’amour pour le mont Tumbe; ce fut aussi dans les greniers de l’Ecole Centrale de cette ville, à quelques pas de cette Ecole fameuse où la tradition veut que saint Anselme et Lanfranc aient professé, que furent entassés, [2] après le pillage de l’Abbaye par les révolutionnaires, ces superbes manuscrits, gloire et honneur de la Cité des Livres. Ce fut leur avant-dernière étape; ils y perdirent encore quelques-uns de leurs feuillets qu’on arrachait pour avoir de belles images; on en vendait aussi le parchemin à la livre. Enfin, ils furent déposés à la bibliothèque de la ville et mis dans un ordre plus ou moins méthodique[1] sur des rayons voisins d’une gouttière, à l’endroit le plus humide de la salle. Depuis une quinzaine d’années, ils occupent une place moins dangereuse et plus digne.

 

1. Il y a quelques années, on voyait encore dans les collections avranchaises, un gros volume d’une traduction latine des œuvres de Platon, PLATONIS OPERA, dans la case de la musique... naturellement!

[I was immediately taken, to be sure, by this famous abbey. As a five year old saw it, through the distant fog of the great bay, through the trees of the Garden of Plants in Avranches, where the college boys would frolic; Tiphaine Raguenel, the astrologer of the Mont-Saint-Michel, could have told me, if I had asked for horoscope of her divination arts, that the name of the archangel would often come out of my pen, because I was born on 29 September, the feastday of the Prince of the Heavenly Host; but I am neither so presumptuous nor so superstitious, so I had better explain why I so much like the historical works on the Mont-Saint-Michel.

           For three hundred years, Avranches, where I was born, has been the most active and fecund michelian workshop of all of Normandy. On the presses of its first printer was printed a little manual for the Pilgrim to the Mont, work of Father Feu-Ardent, a Franciscan all aflame with love for mount Tumbe; it was also in the attics of the Central School in this city, just a few steps from the famous school where tradition claims that Anselm and Lanfranc taught, that were hidden, after the pillage of the abbey by the revolutionaries, those famous manuscripts, pride and glory of the City of Books. It was their penultimate rest; they lost a few of their leaves that were torn out to have beautiful pictures; or they were sold as vellum. In the end, they were deposited in the library of the city and more or less methodically ordered on shelves close to a gutter, the most humid place in the room. For the last fifteen years they have been occupying a less dangerous and more dignified place.

 

1. Some years ago, one still saw in the collection of Avranches, a big volume of Latin translations of Plato, PLATONIS OPERA, in a bookcase for music, naturally.]

VI.C.12.024(e)

(j)         99 huguenots buried / killed 29/ix/591 >

VI.C.12.024(f)

(k)        rabbit warren

Le Mont Saint-Michel Inconnu 13: Il y a quelque trente ans, ce bois n’était pas d’un accès facile. Quelques privilégiés pouvaient y descendre par les poternes de la Merveille; mais, si on voulait y monter du rivage, il était nécessaire d’escalader une pente abrupte et sauvage,

           La roche droite et naïve

           Qui contre la grand mer est rive,

suivant l’expression si vraie et si pittoresque du trouvère Benoit de Saint-More. Il fallait enjamber les débris de cet escalier qui s’élevait de la fontaine Saint-Aubert, au tourillon conique, jusqu’à la porte basse des Montgommeries; on était obligé d’écarter d’épaisses broussailles à l’endroit même où furent enterrés les « nonante-huict » huguenots, tués dans la nuit du 28 au 29 septembre 1591. En écartant les fougères presque arborescentes, on découvrait même les débris de cette « garenne prohibitive » comme l’appellent les titres de l’abbaye, où les moines élevaient des lapins.

[Thirty years ago, the wood was not so easy to access. Some of the privileged could descend by way of the posterns of the Merveille, but, if one wanted to go up from the shore, it was necessary to scale a steep and wild slope,

           The rock straight and naïve

           That is a shore against the great sea,

according to the true and picturesque expression of the troubadour Benoit de Saint-More. You had to climb over the ruins of the stairs that used to go from the fountain of Saint-Aubert, with the conic trunnion, all the way to the low gate of the Montgommeries; you were obliged to push aside the thick brush at the same spot where the 98 Huguenots were buried, killed on the night of 28 and 29 September 1591. In pushing aside the almost tree-like ferns, you could still see the ruins of the “prohibitive warren” as the titles of the abbey put it, where the monks kept rabbits.]

VI.C.12.024(g)

(l)         rx quartermaster

Note: See 056(a).

? Le Mont Saint-Michel Inconnu 15: J’ai suivi le conseil du vieux maître et ce sont douze plantes de mon herbier michelien que j’offre ici au lecteur indulgent.

[I have followed the advice of the old master and it is these twelve plants from my old michelian herb collection that I here offer to my indulgent readers.]

MS 47482b-67, BMS: And as they ^+the quartermasters+^ spread ^+their ^+azure+^drifter net from Matt to Mark from to the next ^+mystagogue+^ and so on to the donkeyman beyond him+^ | JJA 58:013 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*1+ | FW 477.13

VI.B.14.039

(b)        gthat was to say  P

MS 47483-130, TsILA: when I took a closer look at him, ^+that was to say, +^ greatly altered | JJA 58:220 | Apr-May 1926 | III§3A.5/3B.5 | FW 429.10-11

(g)        S P. invert miracle / of druids (paradox)

Kinane St. Patrick 105: By spells and incantations the magician brought snow upon the ground up to men’s girdles; but was unable to remove it. Our Saint turning towards the four points of the heavens blessed the plains, and the snow disappeared […] The Druid now brought darkness over the plains; but was unable to remove it. St. Patrick prayed to the Lord, and immediately a bright sun dispelled the darkness—second victory over the enemy.

VI.C.12.025(c)

VI.B.14.040

(b)        meets Conal & Cairbre / s. of Niall >

Note: A line joins ‘Conal’ to the same name in (c).

VI.C.12.025(g)

(g)        Cruachan (Roscommon) / Ethne fair / Fieldelm red } d of Leary / McNeil >

VI.C.12.026(d)

VI.B.14.041

(a)        S.P. II / illustrates 7 / sacraments on / corpore vili

Kinane St. Patrick 118-20: They wondered at the appearance of the clerics, and imagined they were fir-sidhe, or phantoms. They questioned Patrick, 'Whence are you, and whither (sic) have you come? Is it from the sidhe? Are you gods?' Patrick said to them, 'It would be better for you to believe in God than to ask regarding our race.' The elder daughter said, 'Who is your God, and in what place is He—in heaven or in earth? Is it under the earth, or on the earth, or in the seas, or in the streams, or in hills, or in valleys? Has He sons or daughters? Has He gold and silver? Is there a profusion of every good in His kingdom. Tell us plainly how we shall see Him, and how He is to be loved, and how He is to be found. Is He young or old, or is He ever-living? Is He beautiful, or have many fostered His son, or is His daughter handsome, and dear to men of the world?' St. Patrick, full of the Holy Spirit, responded: 'Our God is the God of all, the God of heaven and earth, the God of the seas and the rivers, the God of the sun and the moon, and of all the other planets; [118] the God of the high hills and the low valleys; God over heaven, in heaven, and under heaven ; and He has a mansion—i.e., heaven — and the earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them. He inspireth all things, He quickeneth all things, He enkindleth all things; He giveth light to the sun and to the moon. He created fountains in the dry land, and placed dry islands in the sea, and stars to minister to the greater lights. He hath a Son co-eternal and co-equal with Himself; and the Son is not younger than the Father, nor is the Father older than the Son. And the Holy Ghost are not divided. I desire moreover to unite you to the Son of the heavenly King, for ye are daughters of an earthly king.' And the daughters said, as if with one mouth and heart, ' How shall we come to believe in that King? Teach us duly that we may see the Lord face to face —teach us, and we will do as you will say to us.' And St. Patrick said, 'Do you believe that through baptism the sin of your mother and your father shall be put away from you?' They answered,' We believe.' 'Do you believe in repentance after sin?' Yes.' And they were baptized, and Patrick blessed a white veil upon their heads, and they desired to see Christ face to face. And [119] Patrick said to them,' You cannot see Christ except that you first taste death, and unless you receive the body of Christ, and His blood.' And the daughters replied, saying, ' Give us the communion, that we may be able to see the Prophesied One.' And they after this received the communion, and fell asleep in death, and Patrick placed them under one covering and in one bed (grave), and their friends made great lamentations over them.”

This beautiful passage delineates the faith and zeal of our Saint, as well as the grace and unction attached to his preaching, while on the other hand, it unfolds the beautiful simplicity of the youthful princesses, and the wondrous effect of God's efficacious grace upon their hearts and souls.

VI.C.12.026(g)-027(a)

VI.B.14.042

(b)        Prince Aengus’ of Cashel foot

Kinane St. Patrick 139: Whilst our Saint preached and baptized at Cashel, the prince Aengus stood by his side; and the sharp point of the crozier […] pierced his foot from which the blood flowed most copiously; the fervent convert bore the pain in silence; and when St. Patrick, seeing the blood, and understanding the great pain caused by the accident, asked why he did not complain, the heroic prince replied, that he thought “it was the rule of faith,” or a part of the ususal ceremony.

VI.C.12.028(b)

(l)         Gratzacham!

Kinane St. Patrick 157-8: Daire said unto the saint: ‘Lo, this cauldron is thine.’ And St. Patrick said: ‘Gratzacham.’ Then Daire returned to his own home and said: ‘The man is a fool, for he said nothing good for a cauldron of three firkins, except ‘Gratzacham.’ Then Daire […] said to his servants: ‘Go and bring us back our cauldron.’ […] Then Daire asked his people, saying: ‘What said the Christian when ye took away the cauldron?’ But they answered: ‘He said Gratzacham again.’ Daire […] said: Gratzacham when I give, Gratzacham when I take away. His saying is so good that with those Gratzachams his cauldron shall be brought back to him.’

Note: See 219(a)

VI.C.12.029(b)

VI.B.14.043

(a)        rdeath day

Kinane St. Patrick 177: God sometimes gives to his great Servants while on earth, a foretaste of the joys of heaven. Hence, we are not surprised that extraordinary, heavenly signs and prodigies are recorded to have taken place at the death of our Saint. On the 17th of March, in the year 493, at the age of 120, amid the sweet songs of the Angels, and a supernatural light from heaven, St. Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland, breathed forth his pure soul into the hands of his Creator.

MS 47474-032, TMA: his last public misappearance^+, ^+on the deathday of Saint Ignaceaus,+^ circling the square, ^+[...]+^+^ | JJA 47:417 | April-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 186.12 

Note: FW 186.12 derives from VI.B.8.016.

VI.B.14.044

(c)        g200 genuflections

Kinane St. Patrick 201: [St Patrick at Lerins] the night he usually divided into three parts. During the first part he recited a hundred Psalms, making at the same time two hundred genuflections

Not located in MS/FW. This entry was later used at FW 519.35, but there it was taken from its reappearance on VI.C.2.013(c).

(h)        gI cannot repeat enough b

Note: Not found in Kinane St. Patrick, but Kinane’s text is characterised by repetition. Compare the citations at (c) and (g) for example. See also 36(a).

MS 47483-114, TMA: ^+I cannot repeat enough that+^ | JJA 57:181 | Mar 1926 | III§1A.5/1D.5//2A.5/2C.5 | FW 436.19-20

VI.B.14.045

(d)        Cité des Livres >

VI.C.12.031(f)

(e)        Culmen Contemplationis

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 17-18: La plus célèbre abbaye forteresse d’un monde [17] qui, au moyen âge, mérita d’être appelée la Cité des Livres a été l’objet de travaux intellectuels d’une valeur inégale sans doute, mais en nombre considérable. Une des premières pages de son histoire a été écrite sur la toile grossière de la Broderie de Bayeux. C’est le fragment où l’on voit Harold et Guillaume, passant tous deux près du sanctuaire de l’Archange, avant d’aller guerroyer contre Conan, duc de Bretagne[1]. Le Mont apparaît, sur la toile de la reine Mathilde, massif et déjà colossal avec ses arcades romanes. Ce n’est déjà plus le culmen contemplationis des anciennes chroniques, la forteresse s’y devine. On sent que, placé entre l’enclume et le marteau, entre la Bretagne et la Normandie dont le duché va s’accroître d’un royaume, il aura à subir d’incessants assauts, à recevoir mais aussi à donner de rudes coups.

[The most famous abbey-fortress of world which, in the middle ages, was rightfully called the City of Books, it has been the object of intellectual works of a considerable number but not always of the same value. One of the first pages of this history was written on the gross canvas of the Bayeux Tapestry. This is the fragment in which we see Harold and William, both of them passing the sanctuary of the Archangel, before warring against Conan, duke of Brittany. The Mont appears, on the canvas of queen Mathilda, massive and already colossal with Romanesque arcades. It is no longer the culmen contemplationis of the ancient chronicles, we can imagine the fortress. We feel that, caught between hammer and anvil, between Brittany and a Normandy where a duchy will grow into a kingdom, it will undergo countless attacks, receive but also give hard blows.]

Note: Dupont uses the term ‘culmen contemplationis’ earlier in the book and explains that this is a hill that brings you closer to heaven.

VI.C.12.031(g)

(f)        White Book

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 21: Après Robert de Torigni, Pierre Le Roy, vingt-neuvième abbé (1386-1410), brille d’un éclat incomparable. S’il fut un des grands moines bâtisseurs du Mont, il partage avec Robert la gloire d’en être aussi le grand libraire. Il acheta de nombreux volumes et pour classer avec ordre et méthode les centaines de titres de propriété du monastère, il rédigea lui-même un registre appelé le Quanandrier ou Papier Rentier, ainsi qu’un autre livre, dit le Livre Blanc, à cause de la couleur de sa couverture et sur lequel il avait fait transcrire tous les originaux des actes de donation relatifs à l’abbaye. Ce registre a disparu.

[After Robert de Torigni, Pierre Le Roy, twenty-ninth abbot (1386-1410), shines with an incomparable light. One of the great monastic builders of the Mont, he shares with Robert the glory of being also its great librarian. He bought numerous volumes and in order to classify the hundred of property titles of the monastery in orderly and methodical fashion, he created himself a register that was called Quanandrier or Rented Paper, with another book that was called the White book because of the colour of its cover and in which he had transcribed all the originals of the donations to the abbey. The latter register has disappeared.]

VI.C.12.031(h)

(g)        Chartrier / muniment room

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 22-23: Aussi Pierre Le Roy fit-il construire un local spécialement aménagé pour conserver les trésors littéraires et les titres de propriété du Mont. Il est l’architecte du Chartrier. / Le Chartrier se trouve à l’angle nord-ouest de la Merveille; il est formé de trois petites salles superposées; la première seule est voûtée; le [22] cloître, dans sa partie occidentale, communique avec le deuxième étage de ce local un peu exigu. Il est construit d’après les règles de l’architecture bénédictine et répond, presque trait pour trait, à la description du fameux chartrier de l’abbaye de Thélème que Rabelais nous donne avec son habituelle faconde. Actuellement, le chartrier auquel les touristes n’ont pas accès forme à l’étage supérieur, un petit musée où ont été réunis quelques objets découverts au cours des travaux de réfection.

[Pierre Le Roy also built a room specially designed to hold the literary treasures and the property titles of the Mont. He is the architect of the Cartulary. The Cartulary is situated in the North-West conrner of the Merveille: it consists of the three small rooms on top of each other: the first alone is vaulted; the cloister, in its western part, leads unto the second floor of this rather small room. It is built according to the rules of Benedictine architecture and seems to be replica, trait for trait, of the description of the famous cartulary of the abbey of Thélème that Rabelais gives us with his usual eloquence. At the moment the cartulary that tourists do not have access to, forms a museum at the top floor where some objects are assembled that were discovered during the repair works.]

Note: Muniment room is one of the senses of the French word chartrier (cartulary). It can also designate the contents of this room, i.e. all the charters, titles and deeds of a cathedral, monastery or castle.

VI.C.12.031(i)

(h)        cut away gilt capitals

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 25: « Le hasard, dit M. de Gerville, me conduisit dans un grenier placé au-dessus de la bibliothèque où j’aperçus de sales et poudreux in-folios, jetés à l’aventure. Les premiers que j’ouvris étaient d’anciens manuscrits sur vélin, d’une écriture soignée et passablement conservée; quelques-uns avaient des initiales dorées et enluminées; dans quelques autres, cette dorure avait excité la cupidité des enfants et des oisifs; elle avait été coupée à l’aide de ciseaux. L’écriture ordinaire n’avait tenté personne et n’avait essuyé d’autres injures que celles du temps. Nous passâmes plusieurs heures à les appareiller et à en faire l’inventaire et nous y retrouvâmes le précieux Cartulaire dont nous déplorions la perte. »

[Luck, M. de Gerville tells us, led me into an attic above the library where I saw dirty and dusty in-folios thrown at hazard. The first I opened turned out to be ancient manuscripts on vellum, of a careful writing and more or less well conserved; some of them had gold and illuminated initials; in a few others this gold had aroused the greed of the idle or of children: it had been cut out by means of a pair of scissors. The ordinary writing had tempted nobody and it had suffered no other wounds than those of time. We passed several hours in repairing them and to make an inventory and we found the precious Cartulary which we had feared lost.]

VI.C.12.032(a)

(i)         I cogged this love all for eve >

Note: Cog. To falsify or feign; to flatter; to wheedle.

VI.C.12.032(b)

(j)         place of refreshment >

VI.C.12.032(c)

(k)        Fiat in Domino! >

Note: L. Fiat in Domino! Let it be in the Lord. Perhaps short for Fiat in nomine Domini. Let it be, in the name of the Lord.

VI.C.12.032(d)

(l)         anathema on robs / vae!

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 35-6: Dans un autre ouvrage, le scribe a écrit de mauvais vers latins, à la suite d’un hymne de saint Ambroise: « Vive la main qui a pris soin d’écrire si bien! Si quelqu’un veut savoir, le nom du copiste, le voici: «c’est le frère Félix Frémond qu’on doit aimer à travers les âgés ! » Un autre ajoute ceci à un sermon de saint Augustin: « Moi, très humble nourrisson de saint Michel, j’ai nom Gérard; j’ai transcrit ce doux volume, afin de mériter la grâce du Christ qui est dans les cieux. » Un autre réclame instamment une prière: « A quiconque dira pour l’âme du copiste un pater et un ave, que Dieu lui fasse la grâce d’avoir une place dans un lieu de rafraîchissement, de lumière et de paix. » / Un moine copiant du Sénèque, constate [35] avec tristesse (on est aux mauvais jours de la Guerre de Cent Ans), que l’ordre des choses est bouleversé; la pensée est jolie et poétiquement exprimée : « Miles in claustro, monachus in prœlio, azur in cœlo. » / Enfin plusieurs manuscrits portent des mentions d’anathème contre ceux qui oseraient s’emparer indûment des ouvrages appartenant à la bibliothèque bénédictine «Quicumque hunc librum furatur, anathema sit. Fiat, Fiat in Domino.» Relevons, enfin, une curieuse annotation, faite en marge de l’histoire d’un abbé, dont la conduite et l’administration avaient été vivement critiquées par les religieux : Væ, Væ, Væ, a écrit par trois fois une main tremblante et vengeresse.

[In another work, the scribe has written bad Latin verses, following a hymn by Saint Ambrose: “Long live the hand that has written so well! If someone wants to know the name of the scribe, here it is: “It is brother Félix Frémond who needs to be loved through the ages!” Another adds the following to a sermon by saint Augustin: “Me, the very humble child of saint Michel, my name is Gérard; I have transcribed this sweet volume, in order to get credit from the grace of Christ who is in heaven.” Still another demands a quick prayer: “To anyone who prays for the soul of the scribe a pater and an ave, may God give him with grace a place in a location where there will be refreshment, light and peace.” A monk copying Seneca, finds with sadness (we are in the worst years of the Hundred Year war), that everything has been turned upside down; the thought is beautiful and poetically worded: “Soldiers in the cloister, monks are fighting, blue in the sky.” Also several manuscripts carry anathemas against those who unlawfully would acquire the volumes belonging to the Benedictine library. «Quicumque hunc librum furatur, anathema sit. Fiat, Fiat in Domino.» Finally let’s mention a strange note in the margin of a history of an abbot, whose administration and behaviour had been criticized strongly by the clerics: Væ, Væ, Væ, has written three times a trembling and vengeful hand.]

Note: L. Vae! Woe!

VI.C.12.032(e)-(f)

VI.B.14.046

(a)        Sciant, Noscant

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 41: Quant à la diplomatique michelienne elle ne présente aucun caractère spécial; au onzième siècle, les formules varient sensiblement; tantôt elles commencent par une invocation religieuse, tantôt par le mot EGO suivi du nom et des titres et quelquefois de la filiation; au douzième siècle, apparaissent les formules Sciant, Noscant et Universis tam presentibus quam futuris: la formule Omnibus Christi fidelibus est plus particulière aux chartes anglaises.

[The diplomatics of the Mont does not have special characteristics; in the eleventh century, the formulas vary considerably; sometimes they open with a religious invocation, sometimes with the word EGO followed by the name or title and sometimes by the filiation; in the twelfth century formulas appear Sciant, Noscant et Universis tam presentibus quam futuris: the formula Omnibus Christi fidelibus is typical for English charters.]

Note: The Latin phrases translate as ‘Let them know and learn the present and the future world’ and ‘To all the faithful in Christ’.

(d)        Wanderlust W — / — letter

Note: See 53(o).

VI.C.12.032 (j)

(e)        oh & a / earlier than Deus / (heavengod)

Les Gaulois 117-118: Les dieux célestes n’en semblent pas moins ne plus occuper, à l’époque de la conquête romaine, qu’une place secondaire dans la religion gauloise. Des dieux nouveaux [117] d’autre origine, des dieux sociaux, peut-on dire, ont pris le premier rang.

[The celestial gods however do not seem to have played, at the time of the Roman conquest, more than a minor role in the religion of Gaul. New gods of another origin, social gods, we could say, have taken the most important role.]

Not located in MS/FW

(j)         Brenn(an) laughs at / mangod of Delphi

Les Gaulois 121: Ainsi les vieilles divinités italiques s’étaient prêtées autrefois à la fusion avec les dieux de l’Olympe. C’est que, probablement, pas plus que ceux de l’ancien Latium, les dieux de la Gaule n’avaient une personnalité bien nettement caractérisée. Ils étaient conçus comme de vagues esprits, puissances abstraites de phénomènes physiques, génies plus ou moins conventionnels des groupes sociaux. On ne leur prêtait ni figure ni corps. Le brenn qui pilla Delphes rit beaucoup, paraît-il, à l’idée que des hommes de marbre ou de bronze pussent représenter les dieux des Grecs. Il ne comprenait pas non plus que l’on s’imaginât enfermer la divinité dans la cella d’un temple. Par son indétermination même, la conception que les Gaulois se faisaient des dieux était plus vaste et plus grandiose que les imaginations des Grecs.

[Likewise the old Italic divinities had contributed to a fusion with the gods of the Olympus. The reason may be that, no more than those of ancient Latium, the gods of Gaul had a clearly defined personality. They were conceived as vague spirits, abstract powers of physical phenomena, more or less conventional geniuses of social groups. They had neither face nor body. The brenn who pillaged Delphi laughed a lot, it seems, at the idea that men of marble or bronze could represent the gods of the Greeks. Neither did he understand that one could imagine being able to lock up divinity in the cella of a temple. In its very vagueness, the conception that the Gauls had of their gods was vaster vaster and more grandiose than the imagination of the Greeks.]

VI.C.12.033(d)

(m)       when on tree god in

Les Gaulois 125: Les druides de chaque cité exercent sans aucun doute leur pouvoir, de façon constante, à l’intérieur de leur peuple. Mais, de toute la Gaule, ils se réunissent chaque année à l’ombilic de la nation, dans une forêt du territoire des Carnutes (région d’Orléans). C’est là qu’ils décident des affaires communes du pays. A l’issue de ces assemblées, générales ou locales, le juge se retrouve prêtre. Il accomplit, pour le salut de la cité ou de la nation les sacrifices solennels. D’immenses mannequins d’osier sont remplis d’hommes vivants, de criminels de préférence, mais, à leur défaut, d’innocents. Le feu consume le tout.

           Pline l’Ancien nous montre aussi les druides présidant à des rites moins cruels [fn: Hist. Nat., XVI, 249 sqq.]. “Les druides, raconte-t-il, ne connaissent rien de plus sacré que le gui et que l’arbre sur lequel il pousse, à condition que ce soit un chêne. C’est dans les bois de chênes qu’ils ont leurs sanctuaires et ils n’accomplissent aucun rite sacré sans feuilles de chênes. Ils croient que l’apparition du gui révèle la présence du dieu sur l’arbre qui le porte. Quand ils en ont découvert sur un chêne, ils le cueillent en grande cérémonie. Ils choisissent de préférence le sixième jour de la lune, parce que ce jour-là l’astre possède, pensent-ils, toute sa vigueur et n'a pas encore accompli la moitié de sa course. Ils font sous l’arbre sacré les préparatifs d’un banquet et d’un sacrifice ; ils amènent auprès de lui deux taureaux blancs dont les cornes sont vierges du joug. Un prêtre vêtu d’une robe blanche monte sur l’arbre: il coupe, avec une faucille d’or, le gui que l’on recueille dans un drap blanc. Les druides immolent enfin les victimes en demandant à la divinité que le gui porte bonheur à ceux à qui elle l’a donné.

[Undoubtedly the druids of each city wielded their power, in a constant fashion, among their people. But from all over Gaul they gathered each year at the nation’s navel in the forest of the land of the Carnutes (in the environs of Orléans). It is there that they decided the common business of the land. After these meetings, general or local, the judge became priest again. For the health of the city or the nation he made solemn sacrifices. Immense wicker mannequins were filled with live men, preferably criminals, but when they did not have any, innocent people. The fire killed them all.

           Pliny the older shows us also that the druids presided at less cruel rites [fn: Hist. Nat., XVI, 249 sqq.]. “The druids, he narrates, did not hold anything more sacred than the mistletoe and the tree on which it grew, at least if it was an oak. It was in the oak woods that they had their sanctuaries and they did not do their sacred rites without oak leaves. They believed that the appearance of the mistletoe reveals the presence of the god of the tree on which it grows. When they found it on an oak, they cut it with great ceremonies. They chose the sixth day of the moon because they believed that on that day the star possesses all its vigour and it has not completed half of its journey. Under the sacred tree they prepare a banquet and a sacrifice; they bring two white steers whose horns have not yet carried a yoke. A priest in a white robe climbs the tree: with a golden sickle he cuts it and the mistletoe is caught in a white sheet. The druids then kill the victims while asking the god that the mistletoe may bring happiness to all to whom he has given it.]

VI.C.12.033(g)

VI.B.14.047

(a)        learn [verse]

Les Gaulois 126: Les grandes familles gauloises tiennent à être représentées par quelqu’un des leurs dans les assemblées des druides. En outre, elles ont l’habitude de confier aux druides l’éducation de leurs enfants, même lorsqu’elles ne les destinent pas au sacerdoce. Dans chaque cité et peut-être aussi, dans certains centres à l’écart des cités, les druides dirigent donc de véritables établissements scolaires. Ils sont les maîtres qui façonnent la jeunesse de la Gaule.

           L’éducation qu’ils donnent consiste à faire apprendre par cœur à leurs élèves un grand nombre de vers. 

[The great families in Gaul wanted to be represented by one of theirs in the meetings of the druids. Also they confided the education of their children to the druids, even of those not destined to become priests. In each city and maybe also in centers away from the cities, the druids led real scholastic establishments. They are the masters who shape the youth of Gaul.

           The education they give consists of the learning by heart by the pupils of a great number of verses.]

VI.C.12.033(h)

(d)        000 ^+100+^ – 600^+100+^ -- 664^+600+^ -- 664 / lay & clerics } holy stars

Kinane St. Patrick 226-7: St. Aengus divides the Irish Saints into three classes. The first class, extending from the year 432 to 534, begins with St. Patrick, and numbers 350 Saints, all bishops and founders of Churches. The Saints in this class are called most holy,” and are compared to the sun in its meridian splendour. “They had one head, our Divine Redeemer; one leader, St. Patrick; one Mass; one mode of celebration; one tonsure from ear to ear.”

The second class, extending from the year 534 to 600, counts 300 Saints. The Saints in this class are chiefly priests; are called “very holy,” and are compared to the moon.

The third class, extending from the year 600 to 664, numbers 100 Saints, comprising bishops, priests, and laymen. They are called “holy,” and their sanctity like “brilliant stars.”

VI.C.12.034(c)

(g)        Book of Saints / - - Homonymi / - - Sons

Kinane St. Patrick 231: [St Aengus] wrote five books on the Saints of Ireland [...] the first book tells in three chapters the Saints.[...] / The second book is on the Homonymi, or Saints of the same name [...] the third book is called the Book of Sons.’

VI.C.12.035(a)

VI.B.14.048

(l)         P IC conventicles

Kinane St. Patrick 263: What a spectacle in the sight of God and His Angels was the Irish Church during these dark ages ! In the whole island, sometimes there were only a few bishops, and they concealed in their hiding-places ; the priests, who succeeded to land in Ireland from the Continent, travelled through the country in disguise, preparing the dying, encouraging the living, and not unfrequently sealing their faith in their blood; our Cathedrals were converted into Protestant conventicles, and no church or chapel left through the land

VI.C.12.036(f)

VI.B.14.049

(g)        cd scarcely be bettered

Not found in Kinane St. Patrick.

VI.C.12.037(b)

VI.B.14.050

(h)        Owing to continuous / absence from home

Kinane St. Patrick 4: Approbations Owing to continuous absence from home for a lengthened period, I could not acknowledge your kind letter and thank you for your gift earlier.

VI.C.12.038(h)

VI.B.14.052

(g)        enough, however, I / have seen of it >>

VI.C.12.041(d)

 

VI.B.14.053

(k)        au peril de la mer

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 46: Ayant fait un pèlerinage à Saint-Jacques de Galice, il avait remarqué que « la plupart des fidèles du Christ qui se rendaient au Mont Saint-Michel au péril de la mer, de toutes les parties du monde, surtout pendant l’été, étaient arrêtés par le flux et le reflux de la mer, ne trouvaient ni passages, ni conducteurs, ni lieux destinés pour les recevoir charitablement et où ils pussent reposer la tête.

[Having made a pilgrimage to Saint James in Galicia, he had observed that “the greatest part of the faithful of Christ who travel to Mont-Saint-Michel in danger of the sea, from all parts of the world, especially during the summer, were stopped by the ebb and flow of the sea; did not find passage, nor guides, nor places that would offer them shelter and where they could rest.]

Note: Fr. Au péril de la mer. In danger from the sea. One of the names of Mont Saint-Michel is Saint-Michel-au-péril-de-la-mer.

VI.C.12.042(h)

(l)         lebbra

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 45: Aussi les chemins montais étaient-ils sillonnés par des foules si nombreuses, dit un vieux texte, qu’elles ne pouvaient souvent trouver de provisions. Les malades et les infirmes abondaient; c’est pourquoi, dans un périmètre assez étendu du Mont Saint-Michel, s’étaient élevées des maladreries, des léproseries ou des maisons du pauvre. Ces hôpitaux généralement tenus par des religieux étaient presque toujours insuffisants pour y abriter ceux qui en sollicitaient le secours. Les déplorables conditions d’hygiène, dans lesquelles vivaient les pèlerins, contaminaient le pays. La lèpre, surtout, faisait de terribles ravages et les léproseries dans lesquelles on traitait, tant bien que mal les infortunés que cette maladie dévorait, étaient toujours remplies.

[Also the roads of the Mont were trodden by such large crowds, says an old text, that they could not find provisions. Many of them were sick or crippled; that is why, in a quite large circle around Mont-Saint-Michel, hospitals, leproseries and poor houses had been erected. These hospitals, usually administered by clerics, could not shelter all who asked for help. The deplorable hygienic conditions in which the pilgrims live, contaminated the land. Leprosy especially ravaged the land and the leper houses where the unfortunates were treated, for better or worse, were always full.]

Note: It. Lebbra. Leprosy.

VI.C.12.042(i)

(m)       bonewash of Saint n >

VI.C.12.042(j)

(n)        Aubert & Firmin

Note: See 015(j).

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 50-1: C’est ainsi qu’aux premiers temps du monastère, deux religieux furent atteints d’une fièvre fort aiguë. L’un d’eux pria ses confrères « de [50] laver la tête de saint Aubert et de lui donner à boire la liqueur dont on l’avait lavée [1] ». Il but et il fut guéri. L’autre moine, trop douillet « et mal fortifié des sens », disait qu’il aimait mieux mourir que de boire une liqueur qui avait été distillée par la tête d’un homme mort. II mourut huit jours après [2].

 [1] Le chef de saint Aubert est conservé, de nos jours, à la basilique de Saint-Gervais d’Avranches. La tradition veut que l’archange saint Michel, au cours d’une apparition à saint Aubert, enfonça son doigt dans le crâne de l’évêque qui restait sourd à ses commandements. Cette curieuse relique nous montre que les os du crâne et de la face sont tous attenants. Il n’y manque que l’os maxillaire inférieur et des dents à la mâchoire supérieure : « A la première inspection, on remarque vers le milieu de l’os pariétal droit, une ouverture oblongue, d’arrière en avant, assez grande pour qu’on puisse y introduire le pouce. Les bords de celle ouverture sont un peu amincis, lisses au dehors comme au-dedans. Rien dans le pourtour de cette ouverture, ni dans toute l’étendue de l’os où elle se remarque, ne peut faire supposer qu’elle soit due à une cause traumatique, ni à l’action d’aucun instrument, d’aucune application caustique ou corrosive. Tout est lisse comme si cette ouverture y avait été faite sans violence et depuis assez longtemps, avant la mort du sujet. On ne peut supposer davantage que cette ouverture soit le résultat de l’application du trépan dont elle ne présente point la forme. » Docteur HOUSSARD, Étude anatomique de la tête de saint Aubert.

 

[2] La macération qui produisit le miracle rapporté ci-dessus rappelle les prodiges opérés par l’eau dans laquelle on faisait tremper les os de saint Firmin. On vendait aux pèlerins des bouteilles de cette eau miraculeuse. Cf. Soc. Académ. de Laon, t. XVIII, Étude de M. MATTON.  

[This is how in the early years of the monastery, two religious were taken by an acute and strong fever. One of them asked his brothers “to wash the head of saint Aubert and to give him to drink the liquor that they had used in washing him. [1]” He drank and was healed. The other monk, too soft “and not well fortified by good sense,” said that he would rather die than to drink liquor that had been distilled from the head of a dead man.” He died eight days later.

Footnote [1] The head of saint Aubert is preserved still at the basilica of Saint-Gervais in Avranches. Tradition has it that the archangel saint Michael, while appearing to saint Aubert, put his finger in the skull of the the bishop who did listen to his commands. This curious relic shows us that the bone of the skull and of the face are still attached. The only things missing are the lower maxillary bone and the teeth of the upper jaw: “During a first inspection we see towards the middle of the right parietal bone an oblong opening, from the back to the front, large enough to introduce a thumb. The rims of the opening are a bit thinner, smooth outside as inside. Nothing in the periphery of the opening, neither in the length of the bone, shows the action of an instrument, the application of something biting or corrosive. Everything is mooth as if this opening had been made without violence and a long time befor the death of the subject. We can neither assume that this opening was the result of the application of a trephine of which it does not show the form.” Docteur HOUSSARD, Étude anatomique de la tête de saint Aubert.

 [2] The maceration that produces the miracle reported here resembles the effects produced by the waters in which one used to dip the bones of saint Firmin. This miraculous water was sold in bottles to the pilgrims. Cf. Soc. Académ. de Laon, t. XVIII, Étude de M. MATTON.  

VI.C.12.043(a)

(o)        Kinderwallfahrt

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 55-6: Nous trouverons dans les chroniques allemandes d’utiles et curieux renseignements sur ces pèlerinages enfantins. / Trithemius nous rapporte qu’à la date de 1456 des milliers d’enfants vinrent au sanctuaire du « Saint Archange Michel au Mont Garganus en Normandie (sic). [l] « On ignore, continue-t-il, ce qui les faisait entreprendre un si long voyage, sans que personne les invitât, sans être attirés par des promesses quelconques; ils y allaient sans prendre l’avis de leurs parents sans ressources, sans argent, ne voulant même subvenir aux besoins de leur voyage qu’au moyen d’aumônes recueillies en cours de route. C’étaient, pour la plupart, des enfants de 12 ans. Ils chantaient des cantiques à saint Michel et étaient précédés d’un drapeau portant l’image de l’archange. Je les ai vus bien souvent passer en troupes. »

 

[1] TRITHEMIUS, Annales de Hirschau, anno 1456. Quelques auteurs allemands ont placé le Mont Saint-Michel près de Rouen. Cf. MENZEL, Symbolick, II, 129. Sur les chroniques allemandes consultez: FALK, Die grosse Kinderwallfahrt nach dem St-Michaelsberge in der Normandie um 1157, Hist. Politisch. Blatter, 1885. Voir aussi: NICHOLAS DE MACHENHEN, Tractatus sive Opusculum contra errores quorumdam juvenum Masculorum, etc., anno Dom. 1468. [In the German chronicles we find useful and curious information about these childre pilgrimages.

Trithemus tells us that in 1456 thousands of children came to the Sanctuary of  “the Holy Archangel Michael of Mont Garganus in Normandy (sic). [1] We don’t know, he continues, why they made such a long trip, without being invited by anybody, without having been attracted by any promises; they went without advice of their parents, without resources, without money, insisting on paying the travel costs by means of alms collected on the way. For the most part these were children of 13 years old. They sang canticles to Saint Michael and before them went a flag with an image of the archangel. I have often seen them pass in groups.

[1] TRITHEMIUS, Annales de Hirschau, anno 1456. Some German authors have put Mont Saint-Michel close to Rouen. Cf. MENZEL, Symbolick, II, 129. On the German chronicles consult: FALK, Die grosse Kinderwallfahrt nach dem St-Michaelsberge in der Normandie um 1157, Hist. Politisch. Blatter, 1885. See also: NICHOLAS DE MACHENHEN, Tractatus sive Opusculum contra errores quorumdam juvenum Masculorum, etc., anno Dom. 1468.]

Note: G. Kinderwallfahrt. Children’s pilgrimage.

VI.C.12.043(b)

(p)        currendi libido

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 59: Tous ces textes démontrent, d’une façon indiscutable, que des milliers d’enfants vinrent d’Allemagne au Mont, dans le courant du quinzième siècle. Ces mouvements si curieux ont été analysés avec soin par plusieurs auteurs d’Outre-Rhin. Janssen découvre dans ces épisodes la vieille habitude des Allemands à courir le monde, le currendi libido. Hecker y voit une maladie; Littré est de son avis.

[All these texts undeniably demonstrate that in the course of the fifteenth century thousands of children travelled from Germany to the Mont. These strange movements have been carefully analysed by different authors from beyond the Rhine. Janssen found in these episodes the old habit of the Germans to run across the world, the currendi libido? Hecker considers it a sickness; Littré agrees.]

Note: L. Currendi libido. Desire to run.

VI.C.12.043(c)

(q)        l’idéal n’a qu’un temps

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 68: Les personnes qui descendent de l’abbaye sont plus impatientes encore que les nouveaux arrivés. Elles viennent de promener sous les voûtes du cloître leurs rêves romantiques; elles ont évoqué l’histoire des temps anciens et leurs âmes ont pris leur essor du haut des plates-formes aériennes, au delà de l’escalier de dentelle; mais l’idéal n’a qu’un temps; les jambes sont brisées, les yeux clignotent, fatigués d’avoir trop contemplé; le cerveau est lourd, l’estomac creux et les touristes abandonnent enfin les sommets de l’art pour les réalités de la vie.

[People who come down from the abbey are even more impatient than the newly arrived. They have enjoyed their romantic dreams under the vaults of the cloister; they have evoked the old history and their souls have soared above the high aerial platforms, above “the stair of lace”; but the ideal lasts only for a time; the legs are tired, the eyes are weary, tired of taking in too much; the brains are heavy, the stomach empty and in the end the tourists abandon the summets of art for the realities of life.]

Note: Fr. L’idéal n’a qu’un temps. The ideal lasts only for a time.

VI.C.12.043(d)

VI.B.14.054

(a)        king of pilgrims >

VI.C.12.043(e)

(b)        white sheepskin gloves

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 69n: Elle devait être bien bizarre la cohue des pèlerins d’autrefois. Certaines confréries, venant en groupes, devaient être, d’après leurs statuts, commandées par un roi à cheval, ayant sur la tête une couronne d’argent; chaque pèlerin était porteur d’un javelot, avec une cocarde verte au chapeau, une bandolière bleuze (sic); les gants blancs de mouton étaient de rigueur. (Archives du Calvados, mai 1755; Certificats.)

[It must have been a bizarre sight in those days, the crowd of pilgrims. Some confraternities, coming in by group, had statutes that said that they needed to be commanded by a king on horseback, with on his head a silver crown; each pilgrim carried a javelin, with a green cockade on the hat, a “bleuze” (sic) bandoleer; white sheepskin gloves were required. (Archives du Calvados, May 1755; Certificates.)]

VI.C.12.043(f)

(c)        not eat salmon more / than 3 times / a week

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 79: Parmi ces poissons, mulets, bars, plies, soles, esturgeons, maquereaux, etc., le saumon de la baie du Mont Saint-Michel est justement renommé. On a affirmé (mais jamais nous n’avons trouvé preuve certaine de ce fait), qu’avant 1825, le saumon était tellement commun dans le pays que les domestiques des fermes de la côte normande imposaient à leurs maîtres, en se gageant la condition expresse de ne pas manger de saumon plus de trois fois par semaine.

[Amongst the fish, mulets, sea bass, plaice, sole, sturgeon, mackerel, etc the salmon of the bay of Mont Saint-Michel was rightly famous. It has been claimed (but we have not been able to find definite proof of the fact) that before 1825 salmon was so common in the country that domestics in the farms on the Normandy coast forced on their masters when they applied for a position the condition not to have them eat salmon more than three times a week.]

VI.C.12.043(g)

(d)        molten bells

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 90: A peine ces cloches furent-elles installées, qu’un incendie, « allumé par une bande de canailles et de fripons de la ville d’Avranches détruisit le monastère ». On put, cette fois, préserver l’église. Malheureusement, l’incendie de 1300, occasionné par le tonnerre, fut désastreux pour l’abbaye: « La foudre, dit D. Huynes, écrasa l’église; toutes les cloches furent fondues; les toits du dortoir et des autres logis furent brûlés et les charbons, tombant sur la ville, ne laissèrent aucune maison sur pied. Il semblait qu’on ne devait plus penser à rebâtir si magnifiquement ce monastère, brûlé déjà cinq fois et que c’était un signe manifeste que Dieu n’aimait pas ces splendides édifices. »

[The bells had only just been installed when a fire “set by a crowd of scoundrels and rogues of the city of Avranches destroyed the monastery.” This time one could save the church. Unfortunately the fire of 1300, the result of a thunderstorm, destroyed the abbey: “Lightning, says D. Huynes, destroyed the church: all the bells were molten; the roods of the sleeping quarters and the other dwellings were burned and the coals, which fell on the town, did not leave a single house intact. It seemed impossible to rebuild such a magnificent monastery, burnt five times already, and that it was a clear sign that God did not like such splendid buildings.”]

VI.C.12.043(h)

(e)        burning whisky

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 91: La foudre qui, cette année-là, tomba sur la tour « dont la pyramide, ainsi que le constate avec orgueil l’annaliste Dom Huynes, était la plus haute du royaume », mit le feu au clocher et fît couler le métal à flots « fluit aes rivis ». Cependant, Jean de Surtainville, sur l’ordre du fermier général et de l’abbé François de Joyeuse « fît refaire le clocher et fondre quatre cloches où fut mis le nom de l’abbé ». [The lightning that, that year, struck the tower “of which the pyramid, as the annalist Dom Huynes proudly boasts, was the highest of the kingdom” and set fire to the belfry and melted the metal in flows “fluit aes rivis”. Yet Jean de Surtainville, on the order of the tax collector and abbot François de Joyeuse, “had the bell tower restored and made four bells on which was put the name of the abbot.”]

VI.C.12.043(i)

(f)        Karq de Bebambourg

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 92: Le 26 mars 1708, sous la prélature d’un baron allemand, Frederick Karq de Bébambourg (un nom qui est une véritable onomatopée pour le parrain d’une cloche), une nouvelle cloche fut montée dans la tour. Elle porte gravées sur elle les armes de l’abbaye et celle des bénédictins de la Congrégation de Saint-Maur. [On 26 March 1708, under the prelature of a German baron, Frederick Karq de Bébambourg (a name that is onomatopaeic for the godfather of a bell), a new bell was hung in the tower. It carries the arms of the abbey and that of the Benedictines of the Congregation of Saint-Maur.]

Note: Jean-Frédéric Karq de Bebambourg was abbot of Mont-Saint-Michel from 1703 to 1719.

VI.C.12.043(j)

(j)         5 Probus d Meyence 849 / copied Book of / Armagh

Fleming St Patrick viii: The fifth Life, written by Probus, an Irish monk who died in Meyence in the year 859, is considered to be an amended version of St. Patrick’s life in the ‘Book of Armagh,’

VI.C.12.044(d)

(l)         7 Tripartite

Fleming St Patrick vii: The seventh, or Tripartite Life, is of a much later date

VI.C.12.044(f)

VI.B.14.055

(k)        Brotgalum (Bordo)

Fleming St Patrick 47: Probus states that St. Patrick, after he fled from Ireland, landed at Bordeaux (Brotgalum)

VI.C.12.046(b)

(l)         Insula Vecta (Wight)

Le Mont Saint-Michel Inconnu 100-1: En effet, le 6 février 1422, Henri VI, roi d’Angleterre, signait, à Westminster, un mandement aux termes duquel il ordonnait qu’on prît les mesures nécessaires pour empêcher tout débarquement sur la côte anglaise. L’île de Wight, [100] Insula Vecta, paraissait être très sérieusement menacée par les Bretons qui avaient réuni, disait le roi, une grande flotte, « cum magno classe navium ». [On 6 February 1422 Henry VI, king of England did sign in Westminster a mandate according to which measures had to be undertaken in order to make a landing on the English coast impossible. The Isle of Whight, Insula Vecta, seemed seriously threatened by the Britons who had gathered, the king said, a great fleet, “cum magno classe navium”.]

VI.C.12.046(c)

VI.B.14.056

(a)        rquartermaster

?Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 104: ... l’autre barge (nom inconnu), avait pour maître après Dieu, Roger Kyde de Hamtonne (hodiè Southampton). Elle jaugeait seulement 50 tonneaux; Kyde avait également frété un baleinier de 31 tonneaux; ces deux navires étaient montés par 13 hommes d’armes et 56 archers et mariniers. Une nef se nommait La Trinité; elle avait été amenée d’Orwell (Angleterre) par Gautier Dubois; sa jauge était de 80 tonneaux, 29 hommes d’équipage et de défense la montaient. Winchelsea avait armé Le George et peut-être La Trinité, monté par 20 hommes capitaine compris. Granville avait armé un vaisseau qui appartenait à Damours le Bouffi; sa jauge était de 15 tonneaux; 17 mariniers et soldats étaient à son bord. De Portsmouth Vaultier Benêt avait amené un baleinier nommé Thomas, monté par 10 hommes. Jean Doupté, de Dieppe, était le maître d’un autre baleinier, la Trinité, jaugeant 45 tonneaux. [… the other barge (of unknown name) had as its master after God, Roger Kyde of Hampton (today Southhampton). Its tonnage was no more than 50; Kyde had also chartered a whaler of 31 tonnage; these two ships had 13 armed men and 56 archers and sailors. One was called The Trinity; she had been brought from Orwell (England) by Gautier Dubois; its weight wqs 80, it took 29 sailors in defense and in crew. Wichelsea had armed Le George and maybe The Trinity too, with 20 men captain included. Granville had armed a vessel that belonged to Damours le Bouffi; it had a tonnage of 15, with 17 sailors and soldiers on board. De Portsmouth Vaultier Benêt had brough a whaler called Thomas, with 10 men. Jean Doupté, of Dieppe, was master of another whaler, the Trinity, 45 tonnage. ]

Note: Perhaps inspired by the Homeric list of ships of the English fleet on page 103-105, on their way to fight the French in 1425, from which the above quotation is taken. But see 038(l).

 MS 47482b-67, BMS: And as they ^+the quartermasters+^ spread ^+their ^+azure+^ drifter net | JJA 58:013 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*1+ | FW 477.13

(c)        Maclovii pardis dat vulnera / cancer in vadis

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 106-7: La plupart des auteurs assignent à cet engagement naval la date de l423. Ils répètent l’erreur commise par d’Argentré, Dom Lobineau, Dom Th. le Roy, Baud, etc., alors qu’il est certain que ce combat fut livré entre le 20 juin et le 9 juillet 1425. Le texte même de la Chronique du Mont l’indique nettement : « L’an mil quatorze cent vingt-cinq, les dits Anglois mirent derechief siège à la mer devant le dict Mont, à grande force de navirez, des quieulz Lorens Hauldain estoit cappitaine qui furent combattu par Monseigneur d’Auzebosc, Monseigneur de Beaufort, les bourgeois de Saint-Malou et plusieurs aultres cheva-[106] liers et escuiers et aultres. » Le paragraphe se termine ainsi:

 

Ma CloV II PardIs, dat Vvulnera CanCer In Vadis.

(Maclovii pardis dat vulnera cancer in vadis.)

 

Ce vers, qui constitue un véritable chronogramme, démontre bien que rengagement se produisit, en juin ; le Cancer, signe du Zodiaque correspondant à ce mois. Il contient, en effet

 

Un     M ==                                      1.000

Trois C == 3 x 100 ==                     300

Deux      L == 50 + 50 == 100

Quatre               V == 5 x   4 ==         20

Cinq  I == 5 x 1 ==                           5

                                                 _________

                           Total...    1.425

[Most authors place this naval battle in 1234. They repeat the error committed by d’Argentré, Dom Lobineau, Dom Th. le Roy, Baud, etc.,  while it is certain that the battle took place between 20 June and 9 July 1425. The text itself of the Chronicle of the Mont says so explicitly: “In the year 1425, the aforementioned English laid siege via the sea in front of the Mon, with a great force of ships, of which Lorens Hauldain was captain and they were conquered by Monseigneur d’Auzebosc, Monseigneur de Beaufort, the inhabitants of Saint-Malo and numerous knights and squires and others. The paragraph ends like this:

 

Ma CloV II PardIs, dat Vvulnera CanCer In Vadis.

(Maclovii pardis dat vulnera cancer in vadis.)

One   M ==                                      1.000

Three                C == 3 x 100 ==                     300

Two    L == 50 + 50 ==                    100

Four V == 5 x   4 ==                       20

Five   I == 5 x 1 ==                           5

                                                 _________

                                           Total...    1.425

Note: The Latin motto translates as: In shallow waters, the crab of Saint-Malo wounds the [English] leopards.

 

VI.C.12.046(d)

(d)        man-at-arms, page, courtilier / 2 archer, 1 servant

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 114-15: Or, d’après les règles de l’organisation des armées anglaises en France, au cours du quinzième siècle, on peut dire qu’en principe la proportion des archers par rapport aux hommes d’armes était de 3 pour 1. Chaque homme d’ar- [114] mes était escorté d’un page et d’un coutilier; chaque couple d’archers avait un servant. Si donc, à une date déterminée, il est dit qu’il y avait 20 hommes d’armes à Tombelaine, il faut en conclure qu’il y avait :

 

Hommes d’armes. . .       20

Archers. ....                      60

Pages ......                         20

Coutiliers .....                    20

Servants .....                     30

                                ________

Au total une garnison de. . .         150 hommes. [So, according to the rules of the organisation of English armies in France, during the fifteenth century we can say that normally the proportion of archers to armed men was three to one. Every armed man was accompanied by a page and a courtier; two archers had one servant. So when at a certain date it is claimed that 20 armed men were at Tombelaine, that means the following:

Armed men      20

Archers            60

Pages                                20

Courtiers          20

Servants           30

 

A total garrison of … 150 men.]

VI.C.12.046(e)-(f)

(e)        b spy

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 144: Les Anglais, dont les représailles, on le voit, étaient terribles, usaient des mêmes moyens; ils avaient organisé un service d’espionnes, « d’espyes », comme disent les vieux textes; les hommes aussi étaient employés à cette œuvre répugnante sous le nom de « messagiers ». [The English, whose reprisals, we see, were terrible, used the same means ; they employed a service of women spies, “d’espyes,” as the old texts have it; men were also put to this repugnant work under the name of “messagiers”.]

VI.C.12.047(a)

(f)        cachots >

Note: Fr. Cachot. Dungeon.

VI.C.12.047(a)

(g)        Knoxites

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 151: Chapitre VIII:  Prisonniers et Cachots / L’isolement du Mont Saint-Michel — La Balue et Noël Béda — Les prisonniers écossais de 1546. — Knox et la Réforme. — ... [Chapter VIII : Prisoners and Prisons / The isolation of Mont Saint-Michel  La Balue and Noël Béda  The Scottish prisoners of 1546. Knox and the Reformation.]

Note: Knoxite. Presumably a follower of John Knox (c. 1505-72), founder of the Scottish Presbyterian Church. The more standard form is ‘Knoxian’.

VI.C.12.047(b)

(h)        Norman Leslie / Kircaldy of Grage^+nge+^ >

VI.C.12.047(c)

(i)         Pitmillie

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 155: Aucun doute n’est plus possible sur l’identité des Écossais enfermés au Mont et que ne nomme pas de Bourgueville. Nirmont Lessetay n’est autre que Norman Lesley, Millort de Grange, Kirkcaldy of Grange et le seigneur du Petimel, Pitmillie. Cette altération dans l’orthographe des noms est très fréquente, quand il s’agit de transcrire des noms propres étrangers. / Ces détenus étaient des personnes démarque. / Norman Lesley fut, on le sait, un des champions les plus distingués de la Réforme en Ecosse. En 1546, Lesley, à la tête d’une petite troupe de quinze hommes, égorgea le cardinal Beaton au château de Saint-André et s’enferma dans la place qu’il venait de prendre avec Knox, le grand réformateur de l’Écosse. [No doubt is possible on the identity of the Scotsman imprisoned on the Mont and whose name is not given by Bourgueville. Nirmont Lessetay is no other than Norman Lesley, Millort de Grange, Kirkcaldy of Grange and the lord of Petimel, Pitmillie. The orthographic shift of the names its frequent when it involves the transcription of foreign names. These prisoners were men of renown. Norman Lesley was, we know, one of the most distinguished champions of the Scottish Reformation. In 1546 Lesley, at the head of a small group of fifteen men, butchered cardinal Beaton at the castle of Saint Andrew and locked himself in the fortress he had just taken with Knox, the great Scottish reformer.]

Note: Joyce probably wrote Grange, but it looked so much like ‘Grage’ that he wrote an extra ‘nge’ over the word to avoid misreading.

VI.C.12.047(d)

(j)         Pelham / or Adventures of a / Gentleman

Note: Pelham or Adventures of a Gentleman. Novel by Bulwer Lytton, published 1828. See VI.B.18.152.

VI.C.12.047(e)

 

VI.B.14.057

(a)        he died voluntarily / of hunger

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 160-2: C’est au milieu du dix-huitième siècle que se place un événement qui a fait grand bruit par le monde. Quatre ans avant l’emprisonnement de Stapleton, était entré dans les cachots du Mont, le gazetier Victor de la Castagne, plus connu sous le nom de Dubourg, et originaire d’Espalion. [160] [...] Il est certain toutefois, qu’il fut mis en cage, car un acte de l’abbaye dit que le prieur, pour préserver Dubourg des rigueurs du froid, fit couvrir sa cage de larges planches de bois. Le prisonnier mourut volontairement de faim, le 26 août 1746. Le Mont l’avait reçu en septembre 1745; sa détention avait donc duré un peu moins d’un an et non pas [161] trente comme certains auteurs l’ont prétendu. [In the middle of the eighteenth century something took place that made quite a noise in the world. Four years before the Stapleton was jailed, there entered in the prison of the mount, the gazetteer Victor de la Castagne, better known under the name of Dubourg, originally from Espalion. […] It is certain in any case, that he was put in a cage because a deed of the abbey says that the prior, in order to save Dubourg from the cold, had the cage covered by large planks of word. The prisoner died voluntarily of hunger on 26 August 1746. He had arrived on the Mont in September 1745; he was detained for a little less than a year and not thirty as some authors have claimed.]

VI.C.12.047(f)

(b)        commonwealth / ^+republic+^ of / letters

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 162-3: Ce fut également sous le règne de Louis XV que fut enfermé au Mont un jeune homme du nom de Desforges, auquel on reprochait d’avoir écrit un libelle violent contre le roi et la Cour. Il fut reténu au Mont plusieurs années.

Bachaumont, dans ses Mémoires Secrets [162] s’exprime ainsi: « La république des Lettres vient de perdre le sieur Desforges, mort il y a quelques jours, subitement, à table. C’était un auteur, moins célèbre par ses opuscules que par ses malheurs. [....] » [It was also in the reign of Louis XV that a young man was imprisoned on the Mont under the name of Desforges who was accused of a violent libel against the king and the Court. He was held on the Mont for several years. Bachaumont, in his Mémoires Secrets puts it this way: “The republic of Letters has lost monsieur Desforges, died suddenly a couple of days ago, at dinner. He was a writer, less famous for his work than for his bad luck. […]]

VI.C.12.047(g)

(d)        Mont libre / Villefranche

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 176: Ce fut à partir de la période révolutionnaire que le Mont Saint-Michel compta le plus de prisonniers. Il est vrai qu’on le baptisa Mont Libre et encore Villefranche. De 1793 à 1863, on peut affirmer que 14.000 personnes y furent enfermées. [It was during the revolutionary period and after it that the Mont Saint-Michel had most prisoners. It is true that it was baptized Free Mount and later Villefranche. From 1798 to 1863 it can be said that 14.000 prisoners were incarcerated there.]

VI.C.12.048(b)

(e)        as dirty as a comb

Note: A line joins ‘comb’ to ‘speech’ at (f) below or separates the two entries as a virgule.

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 200: Les Chevaliers de Saint-Michel. L’administration supérieure fut harcelée de réclamations de tout genre. Les médecins étaient des ignorants, l’aumônier était traité de monstre en soutane, le directeur de tyran barbare et de Néron galonné ! L’aumônier, surtout, était vilipendé. Auguste Blanqui écrivait à son ami Fulgence Girard, avocat du barreau d’Avranches : « C’est un étrange personnage que cet aumônier charpentier qui a un grand fils, commis aux écritures ; qui ôte sa chasuble après la messe, pour grimper sur les charpentes, qui pose et ferme les verrous, confesse et claquemure ses ouailles. Il est connu comme un homme avide, sans foi, méchant, faux; il est sale comme un peigne et laid comme le plus laid des singes. C’est lui qui a imaginé les grandes grilles qui ont transformé nos cellules en cages de fer. » [The Knights of Saint-Michel. The superior administration was plagued by complaints of all kinds. The doctors were ignorant, the chaplain was treated as a monster in soutane, the director was barbaric tyrant and a uniformed Nero. Especially the chaplain was vilified. Auguste Blanqui wrote to his friend Fulgence Girard, lawyer at the bar in Avranches: “It is a strange person, this carpenter chaplain who has an adult son who is a clerk, who takes away his chasuble after the mass, to climb the frames, who opens and and closes the locks, who confesses his cooped flocks. He is known as a greedy man, without faith, bad, false; he is dirty as a comb and uglier than the ugliest of monkeys. He is the one who thought up the iron bars that have turned our cells into iron cages.”]

VI.C.12.048(c)

VI.B.14.059

(b)        oubliettes = latrines / or charniers

Note: See 030(o) and 033(h).

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 204n2: Certains réduits ont été qualifiés d’oubliettes. Ce n’étaient que des latrines ou encore des charniers. On comprend que les assiégés ne pouvaient jeter par-dessus les remparts les corps de ceux qui mouraient, moines et hommes d’armes, à l’intérieur du Mont. On les faisait disparaître dans des trous dissimulés, que la passion politique a transformés en in pace abominables! [Some of the redoubts were called  dungeon. They were no more than latrines or else mass graves. We understand that the besieged could not throw beyond the ramparts the bodies of those who had died inside the Mont, monks or soldiers. They were made to disappear in hidden holes that the political passions had transformed into abominable in pace!”]

VI.C.12.050(e)

(c)        Typhaine Raguenel >

Note: See 020(l)-(n).

VI.C.12.050(f)

(d)        la douce fée >

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 209-10: Tiphaine Raguenel, femme de Bertrand Duguesclin, est restée une des figures les plus sympathiques, mais aussi les plus mystérieuses de l’histoire bretonne; la légende l’a auréolée; et si les poètes et mêmes les meilleurs prosateurs, comme Froissart et Brantôme, ont célébré « la douce fée », les chroniqueurs et les annalistes [209] n’ont donné sur elle et particulièrement sur son séjour au Mont Saint-Michel, que des renseignements bien vagues.

[Tiphaine Raguenel, wife of Bertrand Duguesclin, has remained one of the most sympathetic but also most mysterious figures of Breton history ; legend has given her an aura; and if the poets and even the best prose writers like Froissart and Brantôme, have celebrated the “sweet fairy”, the chroniclers and the annal writers have only given us vague information about her and particularly about her stay in Mont Saint-Michel.]

VI.C.12.050(g)

(e)        compiles ephemerides >

Note: Ephemeris (plural ‘ephemerides’). A book or table in which the places of the heavenly bodies and other astronomical matters are tabulated in advance for each day of a certain period; an astronomical almanac (see OED).

VI.C.12.050(h)

(f)        jours fortuné

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 211-12: Ses occupations journalières le prou- [211] vent, car il est dit d’elle qu’elle estoit bien entendue à la philosophie et astronomie judiciaire, s’occupant à calculer et dresser des éphémérides et des jours fortunez et infortunez à son mary. [Her daily occupation proves it because it is said that she understood philosophy and judiciary astronomy, busying herself in calculating and writing the ephemerides and the lucky or unlucky days for her husband.]

VI.C.12.050(i)

(g)        approaching the hexameter

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 215: Dans ce manuscrit, chaque mois commence par un vers (?) latin dont la mesure paraît se rapprocher de l’hexamètre. Il indique les jours funestes de chaque mois. [In this manuscript each month begins with a Latin verse (?) in a measure that come close to a hexameter. It indicates the unlucky days of each month.”]

VI.C.12.051(a)

(h)        orphreys (orfrois)

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 217: Le 16 octobre, l’église du Mont célèbre l’apparition de l’archange au Mont Tumbe et il est spécifié, dans le manuscrit, que les religieux doivent, ce jour-là, revêtir la chape brodée d’or avec les orfrois d’argent. [On 16 October the church of the Mont celebrates the apparition of the archangel on the Mont Tumbe and the manuscript it is specified that on that day the monks must dress in a cape embroidered in gold with silver orphreys.]

Note: Fr. Orfrois. Orphreys: gold embroidery, or any rich embroidery.

VI.C.12.051(b)

(i)         tourists shown false house

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 219-20: Recherchons, maintenant, l’endroit où Duguesclin fit élever au Mont un logis à dame Tiphaine. / On montre de nos jours aux touristes, gens admirateurs et crédules, une très jolie tourelle, appelée tour du Guet. [...] [219] [...] Mais la vérité historique proteste pour cette excellente raison que la tour du Guet fut construite sous Robert Jolivet, de 1415 à 1419. Il suffit d’ailleurs de jeter un coup d’œil sur cette tourelle pour y reconnaître aussitôt la facture du quinzième siècle. Or Tiphaine mourut à Dinan en 1374, c’est-à-dire quarante-cinq ans environ avant que cette construction ne fût élevée. [Let us look for the spot where Duguesclin had a dwelling built for the lady Tiphaine. To this day tourists, admiring and credulous people, are shown a very beautiful tower, called the Guet Tower. But historical truth does not agree for the excellent reason that the Guet Tower was built under Robert Jolivet, between 1415 and 1419. It is enough to look at the tower once to recognize the building methods of the fifteenth century. But Tiphaine died in Dinan in 1374, i.e. 45 years before this construction was built.]

VI.C.12.051(c)

(j)         b dates letter 7 (5)

? Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 222: Cuvelier est le seul témoin contemporain qui mentionne ce mariage et il place cet événement entre l’affaire d’Evran et le procès intenté par Bertrand à l’Anglais Felton, c’est-à-dire à la fin de 1363. Toutefois, cette date nous semble très contestable.

[Cuvelier is the sole contemporary witness who mentions the marriage and he places the event between the Evran affaire and the trial by Betrand of the Englishman Felton, i.e. the end of 1363. In any case, to us the date seems very questionable.]

Note: Inspired by the lucky or unlucky days in Tiphaine’s star-charts (e.g. on p. 216) or by Dupont’s unrelenting search for the right dates (e.g. on p. 222)

VI.C.12.051(d)

(k)        most certainly

? Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 226: Par bonheur, des pièces originales ont été découvertes dans les archives des deux pays et, grâce à certaines chartes, il est possible de fixer d’une façon indiscutable, les dates du départ et du retour de Bertrand Duguesclin. 

? Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 229: Il s’appelait Geoffroy de Servon et tirait, sans doute, son nom d’une petite paroisse située à trois lieues environ du Mont Saint-Michel et qui avait eu pour seigneurs la noble lignée des Foulques Paynel.  [Luckily the original pieces were discovered in the archives of two countries and, thanks to a number of charters, it is possible to fix the dates of departure and return of Bertrand Duguesclin with indisputable certainty.

His name was Geoffroy of Servon, a name based, undoubtedly, on a small parish at approximately three leagues from Mont Saint-Michel which had as its lords the noble lineage of the Foulques Paynel.]

VI.C.12.051(e)

VI.B.14.060

(a)        L’amour d’une soeur / Un frère ne le connait

Proverbes et dictons 80: L’amour d’une soeur / Un frère ne le connaît. [The love of a sister is something a brother does not know]

VI.C.12.051(g)

(d)        rJaun (ik)

Proverbes et dictons 82: Iann banezenn, / Iann ar peul, / Iann ioud, / Iann laou, / Ian ar seac’h, / Iannfrank-he-c’houzouk, / Iann lip-he-werenn, / Iann ar madigou, / Iann pilpouz, / Iann golo pod, / Iannik koutant. [John (stupid like a) parsnip, Pious John (the silly one), John Porridge (the stupid one), Lousy John (the dirty one), John Dry (the miser), John Wide-Throat (the heavy drinker), John Lid-on-the-Pot (the complaisant husband), Johnny Happy (the deceived husband)]

Note: In VI.B.19.036, Shem similarly receives a nickname based on a foreign (Austrian) paradigm (Sheml, after Franzl).

MS 47482b-57, ILA: but all the same, listen, ^+Jaunik+^ accept this last minute gift | JJA 57:115 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 457.36

(j)         looking for a fifth foot / (goat)

Proverbes et dictons 91: Chercher cinq pieds à un mouton. (Chercher midi à quatorze heures.) [Looking for the fifth foot of a sheep (To miss the obvious)]

VI.C.12.052(c)

VI.B.14.061

(d)        glao = rain

Proverbes et dictons 128-9: Milin laz-logod, — e vez dour awalc’h d’eur zilienn pa vez glao. Moulin tue souris, — assez d’eau pour une anguille il a quand vient la pluie. [A mill kills a mouse,—comes the rain, it has enough water for an eel]

VI.C.12.052(g)

VI.B.14.062

(d)        Bouch Kerneou / Staoter en he graou

Proverbes et dictons 152: Bouc’h Kerneou / Staoter en he graou. [He-goat from Cornwall that pisses in his shed]

VI.C.12.053(i)–054(a)

(f)        gwenn = white

Note: See 079(h).

Proverbes et dictons 158-9: C’houez ann the hag ar c’hafe / A zo gant merc’hed Landerne; / C’houez ann thin hag ar roz gwenn / A zo gant merc’hed Lesneven

Qui sent le thé et le café? / Ce sont les filles de Landerneau. / Qui sent le thym et les roses blanches? / Ce sont les filles de Lesneven. [Who smells like tea and coffee? The girls from Landerneau. Who smells like thyme and white roses? The girls of Lesneven]

VI.C.12.054(c)

VI.B.14.063

(g)        desiderantur

Not found in Myrdhinn. ?Myrdhinn 431: (Prophetiae desiderantur.)

Note: This is the single occurrence of the word in the book. L. Prophetiae desiderantur. Prophets are wanted.

VI.C.12.055(c)

(h)        Columbanus (black) / conv. Merlin

Myrdhinn 66-7: trois hommes vraiment saints cherchent Merlin pour le convertir [...] Le premier arrive d’Irlande; il est monté sur un cheval noir, son manteau est noir, sa chevelure est noire, sa figure est noire, toute sa personne est noire. Merlin reconnaît le grand docteur de l’Eglise irlandaise, Colomban [three truly holy men come to convert Merlin […] The first comes from Ireland. He is seated on a black horse, his coat is black, his hair is black, his face is black and he is black all over. Merlin recognised Colombanus, the great doctor of the Irish church ]

VI.C.12.055(d)

(l)         gb bit torn

Myrdhinn 98: Quel fut l’effet de cette nouvelle dans l’école du pédagogue, et le cri des Armoricains? Une rature du manuscrit empêche de le dire expressément; mais de jeunes Cambriens n’auraient pas manqué de s’écrier: ‘Merlin l’avait prédit!’ [What was the effect of this news in the teacher’s school, and the cry of the Armoricans? A deletion in the manuscript makes it impossible to be certain; but the young Cambrians cannot have failed to have cried ‘Merlin had predicted it!’]

MS 47483-120, TsILS: listen, Jaunick, accept this last moment gift ^+widow’s mite ^+though a+^ little weeny ^+bit torn ^+in 1 or 2 places+^,+^ from my hands | JJA 57:187 | Mar 1926 | III§1A.5/1D.5//2A.5/2B.2/2C.5 | FW 458.01

VI.B.14.066

(j)         gDruimsaileach / (Field of Sallows) / Armagh

Fleming St Patrick 122: St. Patrick in the year 445 moved onward to a place called Druim-Sailech, or the Field of Sallows, but afterwards called Armagh, on account of its eminence.

MS 47483-117, TsIA: ^+for them breezes ^+zipping+^ round by Drumsally do be devils to flirt.+^ | JJA 57:184 | Mar 1926 | III§1A.5/1D.5//2A.5/2B.2/2C.5 | FW 449.26

VI.B.14.068

(e)        the marches

Le Mont Saint-Michel Inconnu 232-3: Non loin de ce château dont l'importance était considérable, puisqu'il se trouvait sur les confins des marches normande et bretonne, s'élevait l'église de la paroisse, humble ecclisiole de campagne, dont les bienfaiteurs étaient les Malesmains, depuis le commencement du [232] treizième siècle. [Not far from the considerably important castle, because it was at the border of the Normandy and Brittany, the church of the parish rose up, a humble country chapel, the benefactors of which had been, since the beginning of the thirteenth century, the Malesmains.]

VI.C.12.060(d)

(g)        His words were eloque >

(h)        Quand il eut quitté ses / habits sacerdotaux le bon / abbé prodigua certainement / des paroles de consolation / à l’infortuné connétable. / Elles, à n’en pas douter, / éloquentes et persuasives: / quelques mois après / Duguesclin épousait / Jeanne de Laval

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 235-6: Il y avait à peine trois ans que Tiphaine n’habitait plus sa maison du Mont Saint-Michel, quand, en 1374, elle tomba malade à Dinan, peut-être dans ce logis de la rue de la Croix, où la tradition seule prétend qu’elle demeura. Sentant sa fin très prochaine, bien que son quarantième printemps n’eut pas encore fleuri, elle appela auprès d’elle Goeffroy de Servon. Il accourut. Six heures suffisaient pour se rendre du Mont à Dinan. En passant par Pleudihen, il dut jeter un regard attristé sur le château de la Bellière où Tiphaine aimait aussi à venir. Il la réconforta par de pieuses paroles et ils évoquèrent, assurément, plus d’un souvenir du Mont Saint-Michel; puis le bon abbé, ayant fait à dame Duguesclin les suprêmes onctions, l’âme un peu mystique de la fée s’échappa de son corps gentil et s’envola vers l’éternité à travers les espaces | éthérés où roulent les mondes. Deux jours après, Geoffroy officiait pontificalement en l’église Saint-Sauveur de Dinan et sa voix tremblait, sans doute d’émotion, quand il donna la dernière absoute; enfin le convoi se dirigea, lentement, vers le couvent des Jacobins et le cercueil disparut bientôt dans les sombres caveaux de la chapelle. / Quand il eut quitté ses habits sacerdotaux, le bon abbé prodigua certainement des paroles de consolation à l’infortuné connétable. Elles furent, à n’en pas douter, éloquentes et persuasives: quelques mois après Duguesclin épousait Jeanne de Laval. [It was not yet three years since Tiphaine had lived in her house in Mont Saint-Michel, when, in 1374, she fell ill in Dinan, perhaps at her lodgings in the rue de la Croix, where tradition tells us she lived. Feeling that she was close to the end, although her fortieth spring had not yet blossomed, she called Geoffroy de Servon to her side. He came. Six hours was enough to go from the Mont to Dinan. Passing through Pleudihen, he must have cast a sad glance at the castle of Bellière where Tiphaine had enjoyed going. He consoled her with pious words and these evoked, one can be sure, quite a few memories of Mont Saint-Michel; then the abbot gave lady Duguesclin the last sacraments and the rather mystical soul of the fairy lady escaped from her gentle body and flew away into eternity through the ethereal spaces in which the worlds rotate. Two days later, Geoffroy officiated pontifically at the church of Saint-Saviour in Dinan and his voice trembled, surely from emotion, when he gave the last blessing; in the end the convoy went, slowly, towards the convent of the Jacobins and the coffin disappeared soon in the dark caves of the chapel. When he had discarded his priestly vestments, the good abbot certainly lavished consolations on the unfortunate constable. These were undoubtedly eloquent and persuasive: a few months later Duguesclin married Jeanne de Laval.]

Note: See 20(c). Duguesclin married his second wife, Jeanne de Laval, in 1373.

VI.C.12.060(e)–061(a)

VI.B.14.069

(a)        excellent catholic

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 238: Mlle Zoë de V..... appartenait à la meilleure noblesse de la Basse-Normandie; un de ses ancêtres faisait partie de la fameuse expédition de 1066 et plusieurs de ses aïeux avaient joué un rôle considérable dans l’histoire du Mont Saint-Michel. Excellente catholique, elle ne s’offusquait pas de ce que plusieurs membres de sa famille aient été huguenots et même elle rappelait volontiers qu’une de ses arrière-grand’mères, dont la naissance remontait au début du dix-septième siècle, lui disait vers 1789: « Ma petite Zoë, je ne te souhaite pas de revoir jamais des moines au Mont Saint-Michel. » [Mlle Zoë de V… belonged to the best nobility of Lower Normandy ; one of her ancestors was part of the famous expedition of 1066 and several of them played an important part in the history of Mont Saint-Michel. Excellent Catholic as she was, she did not mind that several members of her family had been Huguenots and she even liked to recall that one of her great-grandmothers, who was born at the beginning of the seventeenth century, told her around 1789: “My little Zoë, I wish you would never see the monks in Mont Saint-Michel again.”]

VI.C.12.061(b)

(b)        Send turbot to bishop / to get power to confess

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 250-1: Cependant, le prélat ne demeurait pas toujours sensible à la politesse que lui faisaient les moines; c’est ainsi qu’en mai 1646 « un estur- [250] geon parfaitement beau, gros et grand», fut péché entre le Mont et Tombelaine, il fut apporté « tout vif, dans la cuisine du monastère et là y fut mesuré, ayant 9 pieds et demi de longueur et gros à proportion. Le R. P. Dom Dominique Huillard, prieur, de l’advis de la communauté l’envoya, dès le bon matin, à Messire Roger d’Aumont, révérendissime et illustrissime évêque d’Avranches, lequel eut fort agréable ce présent qui méritait bien aussi estre agréé, croyant par là obliger le seigneur à aimer le monastère et la Religion ; mais l’issue en a été différente ainsi que je le dirai en son lieu [1]. »

 

[1] Les moines voulaient obtenir de l’évêque l’autorisation de confesser tous ceux qui se présenteraient à eux; ils engagèrent à ce sujet des conversations avec l’évêque d’Avranches et c’est au cours de ces négociations qu’ils offrirent le beau turbot. Ils en furent pour leurs frais. Le 2 mai 1647, Monseigneur d’Avranches défendit aux religieux d’ « ouyr les confessions du peuple et invalida toutes les absolutions ». Cette mesure irrita les moines à un degré que l’on ne saurait imaginer. Aussi firent-ils sur son nom un jeu de mots; ils l’appelèrent Rodomont.

[Still, the prelate was not always susceptible to the politeness shown him by the monks ; thus in May 1646 “a perfectly beautiful, heavy and big sturgeon” was caught between the Mont and Tombelaine. It was brought “all alive, into the kitchen of the monastery and was there measured, being 9 feet and a half in length and big in proportion. The Reverend Father Dom Dominique Seuillard, prior, on the advice of the community, sent it the next morning to Monsieur Roger d’Aumont, the very reverend and illustrious bishop of Avranches, where it was very gratefully received, this gift which was worth the gratitude, because he felt that this would oblige the Lord to love the monastery and religion; but the results were rather different as I will tell in its proper place.[1]

 

1. The monks wanted from the bishop the privilege of being able to hear confession of everybody who came to them; they started negotiations with the bishop of Avranches for that purpose and it was during these that they offered him this beautiful fish. It was in vain. On May 2, 1647, His Grace of Avranches forbade the monks to “hear confessions of the people and he invalidated all their absolutions.” This decision irritated the monks to a degree that cannot be imagined. So they made a pun on his name: they called him Rodomont.]

VI.C.12.061(c)

(c)        like a Montgomery >

Note: See 021(h).

VI.C.12.061(d)

(d)        horse shod backwards

Le Mont Saint-Michel Inconnu 252-3: Les Montgommery étaient, peut-être, les plus grands personnages du pays; ils brillaient au premier rang parmi les huguenots dans ce coin de province dont fait partie le Mont Saint-Michel, l’Avranchin. Jacques, sieur de Lorges, comte de Montgommery, originaire d’Ecosse, attaché au service de François 1er, avait eu un fils Gabriel Ier, dit le Grand Montgommery, celui-là même qui avait blessé à mort, dans une joute d’armes, le roi Henri II. Marié avec Isabeau de la Tiral qui fut, après sa mort, dame de Ducey, il eut quatre garçons et quatre filles. Il fut décapité en 1574, mais la sentence de villenage portée sur ses enfants n’eut pas de suites. Son fils aîné, Gabriel II, marié à Suzanne de Boucquetot dont il eut cinq fils et une fille, fut pour le Mont un terrible adversaire. On sait qu’il faillit s’emparer par ruse de l’abbaye-forteresse, dans la nuit du 29 au 30 septembre 1591. /    Cette tragique aventure le rendit célèbre et odieux dans le pays; tout homme vindicatif, injuste, impie et cruel, était immédiatement ap- [252] parenté par le peuple à Montgommery, tant et si bien qu’on ne distingua plus entre eux les membres de la famille. On ne faisait aucune différence entre Jacques ni les deux Gabriel. La fatalité, qui avait pesé sur les Montgommery, dont le second chef était devenu dans la langue populaire « celui qui avait tué le roi » (et un autre aïeul en jouant, n’avait-il pas brûlé cruellement, avec un tison, le roi François 1er?), avait encore accru leur renommée. La légende le représentait comme errant sans cesse sur la côte normande, de Coutances à Pontorson. Pas un seul château qu’il ne visitât tous les mois. Il venait battre de la fausse monnaie à Tombelaine; la nuit, détrousseur de grands chemins, ferrant son cheval au rebours, afin de dépister ceux qui osaient se lancer à sa poursuite, il arrêtait les pèlerins attardés; devenu le diable en personne, dès qu’il était en selle, il martyrisait les pauvres prêtres qu’il forçait de célébrer des messes sacrilèges dans ses prêches de Chasseguay, de Cormeray et de Ducey.

[The Montgommercys were, perhaps, the greatest of the land ; they were among the first of the Huguenots in this corner of the province of which Mont Saint-Michel was a part, the Avrancin. Jacques, sire of Lorges, count of Montgommery, originally Scottish, in the service of François I, had a son Gabriel I, called the Great Montgommery, the same one who had mortally wounded, in a joust, Henry II. Married to Isabeau de la Tiral who was, after his death, dame of Ducey, he had four boys and four girls. He wsa beheaded in 1574, but the sentence of villenage against his children was never executed. His elder son, Gabriel II, married to Suzanne de Boucquetot with whom he had five sons and a daughter, was a terrible enemy of the Mont. We know that he failed to take the abbey-fortresse by guile on the night of 29 and 30 August 1591. / This tragic adventure made him famous and infamous in the land. Any person who was vindictive, unjust, impious or cruel, was immediately likened by the people to Montgommery, so much that one ceased to distinguish between the members of the family. No difference was made between Jacques and the two Gabriels. The fatality that had struck the Montgommerys, whose second in command had become in popular parlance “the one who killed the king” (and had not another ancestor, while playing, cruelly burned King François I with a cinder?), had only made them more infamous. The legend represented him as ceasely roaming the Normandy coast, from Coutances to Pontorson. Not a single castle that he did not visit every month; he tried to spend counterfeit money in Tombelaine; at night he traveled with a horse shod backwards to confuse those who attempted to follow him, he arrested pilgrims who were late; having become the devil himself, as soon as he was on horseback, he martyred poor priests whom he forced to say sacrilegious masses in his parishes of Chasseguay, Cormeray and de Ducey.]

VI.C.12.061(e)

(e)        C’est la part de >

VI.C.12.061(f)

(f)        Rien pour les autres, tout pour lui

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 258n2: Voici sur Montgommery un dicton de l’Avranchin:

           C’est la part de Montgommery

           Rien pour les autres, tout pour lui. [This is a saying on Montgommery from Avranchin : This is the part of Montgommery / Nothing for the others, all for him.] 

Note: From ‘la part de’ Joyce drew a line to ‘Montgommery’.

VI.C.12.061(g)

(g)        Cyrographum >

Note: Cyrographum. Obsolete form of ‘chirograph’, a word with various meanings: an indenture; a bond given in writing; one of three forms in which the will of the Papal See is expressed in writing (OED).

VI.C.12.062(a)

(h)        Litis Divisio >

Note: L. Litis divisio. The division of a legal argument.

VI.C.12.062(b)

(i)         souch  cheque >

Note: Fr. Souche. Stub.

See reproduction: there is a zigzagging line between the two words, representing the perforation between the cheque and the stub.

VI.C.12.062(c)

(j)         v false abbatial titledeed

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 262-3: Il suffit de remarquer que la charte confirmant la prétendue donation est datée de 1085; or, elle est signée de Léofric, lequel mourut en 1072. Elle porte donc en elle-même la preuve de sa fausseté. Ces supercheries ne sont pas rares; tantôt elles procèdent d’un excès d’amour des religieux pour leur moustier; plus l’origine de l’abbaye ou du prieuré était reculée, plus grande paraissait sa gloire; tantôt les faussaires avaient pour but de faciliter aux descendants des donateurs la revendication des biens concédés par leurs ancêtres. Cette pratique coupable, contre laquelle des peines sévères étaient édictées, fit naître les chartes doubles, sur lesquelles on écrivait en grosses lettres les mots CYROGRAPHUM ou LITIS DIVISIO; on coupait ensuite le titre en deux parties, soit en ligne droite, soit [262] en ligne ondulée, soit en dents de scies ou en créneaux, mais ces endentures ne supprimèrent pas les fraudes. [It is enough to say that the charter that seems to confirm this donation is dated 1085 ; yet it is signed by Leofric, who died in 1072. It carries thus in itself the proof its mendacity. These frauds are not rare; mostly they derive from an excessive love on the part of the monks for their monastery; the older the abbey or the priory, the greater its glory; so the forgers wanted to help the descendants of the donors to regain the goods that had been given by their ancestors. This guilty practice, against which severe penalties were enacted, gave rise to double charters, on which one wrote in large letters the words CYROGRAPHUM or LITIS DIVISIO; the title was then cut in two, either in a straight or a wavy line or in saw teeth or in battlements, but these indentures did not suppress the frauds.]

VI.C.12.062(d)

(k)        a hide of grassland

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 265: Dans un autre passage de l’Exon Domesday, le Mont Saint-Michel de Normandie est porté comme tenant une hide de terre et deux églises dont l’une avait appartenu au comte Harold et l’autre à lady Eadgyth; dans le Devonshire, il possédait trois seigneuries, dont Harold et Gytha avaient été spoliés. Enfin dans le Hampshire, il tenait du roi une hide et la dîme du manoir de Basinguestoches, aujourd’hui Basingstoke. [In another section of the Exon Domesday, the Mont Saint-Michel of Normandy is described as containing one hide of land and two churches, one of which had belonged to the count Harold and the other to Lady Eadgyth; in Devonshire it owned three lordships, which had been taken from Harold and Gytha. Finally in Hampshire he held from the king one hide and the tithing for the manor of Basinguestoches, today Basingtoke.]

Note: Hide. Old English measure of land, the equivalent of 120 acres, variously defined as sufficient to support a family, or as much as could be ploughed in one year.

VI.C.12.062(e)

(l)         Hastings Senlac

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 266n3: Le débarquement des troupes de Guillaume eut lieu à Pevensey, le 28 septembre; la bataille de Senlac se livra le 14 octobre: elle est improprement appelée bataille de Hastings par tous les historiens français; plus de 3 lieues séparent Hastings de la colline où s’engagea l’action de Guillaume contre Harold. [The landing of William’s army took place at Pevensey, on 28 September ; the battle of Senlac was on 14 October, it is wrongly called the battle of Hastings by French historians; there are more than three leagues between Hastings and the hill where William fought Harold.]

VI.C.12.062(f)

(m)       Chinese seals in Irish / fields

? Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 280: Enfin, il y a quelques années, un archéologue appelait notre attention sur une excavation creusée en plein roc, derrière une maison située à gauche en montant l’unique rue de la ville, tout auprès d’un assez beau logis, remarquable par ses larges cintres en granit et ses longues fenêtres décorées, que les vieux montois nomment la Chapelle Saint-Sébastien et où M. Pigeon a voulu placer l’ancien Hôtel des Monnaies. Au fond du trou, creusé dans le granit, on avait trouvé deux ou trois petits lingots de métal. [Finally a few years ago an archeologist called our attention to an excavation in the rock, behind a house to the left when one goes up the only street in the city, close to a rather nice lodging that the old Montois called the Chapel of Saint Sebastian and where M. Pigeon had wanted to place the old Hotel des Monnaies. At the bottom of the hole, carved into the granite, one found two or three metal ingots.]

Note: Possibly inspired by this account of an archeological excavation, or by the ‘Munich stones’ in the next quotation.

VI.C.12.062(g)

(n)        beatille in his hat

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 280-1 [immediately following the previous quotation]: Un examen rapide nous démontra que cette [280] excavation n’avait rien de commun avec un four monétaire, le local eût été trop exigu comme atelier; de plus, on ne l’eût certainement pas établi en pleine ville en raison des gros risques qu’il y aurait couru; sa place eût été dans l’intérieur de l’abbaye, non autre part. Il est bien plus probable que cette excavation servait fondre des béatilles ou plombs de pèlerinage; la nature du métal trouvé, étain et plomb, le démontre. Ce four devait dépendre d’une boutique de quincaillerie, car s’il est certain que l’on vendait au Mont des enseignes de pèlerinages, fabriqués surtout à Paris [1], on en confectionnait aussi sur place, puisque l’ordonnance de dégrévement, rendue par Charles VI, le 15 février 1395 en faveur des boutiquiers du Mont, porte que le roi « ouït la supplication des povres gens demeurant au Mont Saint-Michel faisans et vendant enseignes de Monseigneur Saint Michel ». 

1. L’enseigne (on appelait ainsi tout objet de métal, bijou, figurine ou médaille) se portait attachée à la bérette. La plupart de ces images étaient fondues dans des moules d’ardoise ou en pierre de Munich. [A rapid examination showed that this excavation had nothing in common with a coin smithy, the place was too narrow for a workshop; also it would never have been built in the city because of the risks involved; its place would have been in the abbey, nowhere else. It is much more reasonable to assume that this excavation was supposed to serve as foundation for a shop used to melt béatilles or leads for pilgrims; this is evident from the nature of the metal found, tin and lead. This oven was part of a shop of an ironsmith, because it is certain that while the pilgrimage signs sold on the Mont were usually made in Paris [1], they were also made in the city, because the ordonance of relief given by Charles VI on 15 February 1395 in favour of the shopkeepers of the Mont, claims that the king “hears the complaints of the poor people living on the Mont Saint-Michel who make and sell signs of Monsieur Saint Michel.”

1. The sign (this was the name of any object of metal, jewel, figure or medal) was worn attached to a beret. Most of the images were molten in slate or Munich stone molds.]

Note: Fr. Béatilles. See 032(h).

VI.C.12.062(h)

(o)        Aber = bay >

Note: Breton. Aber. The mouth of a river. It is used in geography to designate a narrow valley invaded by the sea.

VI.C.12.062(i)

(p)        r8th wonder of world

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 284-5: Il est certain que la baie du Mont Saint-Michel, limitée par le cap Lihou (Granville) et le Groin de Cancale, est plus bretonne que normande | par l’étendue de ses côtes, la nature de ses falaises et sa configuration générale; il ne lui manque que la profondeur de ses eaux pour être tout à fait un « aber » armoricain. / Les Normands eux-mêmes, si fiers de posséder sur leur terre-marine — (ce mot est du trouvère Wace) — la huitième merveille du monde, ont reconnu, de vieille date, que la baie appartient plus à la Bretagne qu’à leur propre province. [It is certain that the bay of Mont Saint-Michel, between cape Lihou (Granville) and Groin de Cancale, is more Breton than Normand by the extent of its coast, the nature of its rockfaces and the general configuration; it only lacks water depth in order to be altogether an Armorican “aber”. The Normans themselves, so proud to have on their marine land (the expression was coined by the troubadour Wace) the eighth wonder of the world, have long realized that the bay belongs more to the Bretons than to their own province.]

MS 47472-131, LMA: white elephant, ^+Dirty Butter, Cainandabler Ireland’s Eighth Wonderful Wonder, Codsoilman, […]+^, gouty ghibellino, | JJA 45:182 | early 1927 | I.3§1.3/2.3/3.3 | FW 071.14

VI.B.14.070

(a)        knights of moon / gaugers >

Note: Gauger, gouger. Dublin slang. A cadger, a chancer, a scoundrel.

VI.C.12.062(j)-(k)

(b)        Catula (qu’as-tu-là?)

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 296-7: Elles ont disparu à jamais pour les Chevaliers de la Lune — titre donné jadis aux douaniers par les contrebandiers de la côte — ces aventureuses nuitées que passaient, très patiemment, [296] dans l’espoir souvent déçu d’une prise importante, ces braves Catula (autre sobriquet né de leur interpellation : « Qu’as-tu là? ») Aujourd’hui plus de contrebandiers dont les sacs étaient plus encore bondés de ruses et de malice, que de sel, de poudre et de tabac. [They have disappeared forever for the Knights of the Moon—a title given in the old days to the custom’s officers by the coastal smugglers—these adventurous night that they spent patiently but so often in vain in the hope of an important catch, these brave Catula (another of their names born of their address: “What do you have there?”). Today no more smugglers with sacks that contain more subterfuge and malice than salt, powder or tobacco.]

Note: Fr. Qu’as-tu là? What do you have there?

VI.C.12.062(l)

(c)        saumure (brine) >

Note: Fr. Saumure. Brine.

VI.C.12.063(a)

(d)        rnoah = culvert

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu 299-300: Sur la tangue, que les marées imprègnent, le flot dépose le sel dont il est chargé; les sauniers râclaient le sablon avec une sorte de rabot, traîné par un cheval; quand une quantité suffisante de ce sable vierge était amassée auprès de la saline, on l’entassait dans une fosse, sur laquelle on versait de l’eau de mer ; cette eau, en traversant le sablon, en dissolvait le sel et s’écoulait par des noës ou anches, dans des tonneaux enfoncés dans la saline. Le saunier, après s’être assuré, au moyen d’un instrument très primitif de l’état de saturation du liquide appelé brine (c’est le mot anglais, brine, saumure), y puisait au moyen d’un vase dit plongeou, puis il répandait la brine sur des plombs recouvrant des fourneaux en terre sous lesquels brûlaient [299] les fumerots. [In the sands, impregnated by the tides, the flow deposits the salt it carries ; the salt workers scraped the sand with a kind of plane, pulled by a horse; when enough of this virgin sand has been assembled near the salt works, it was put in a pit in which sea water was poured; this water, going through the sand, dissolved the salt and then flowed in “noës” or reeds, into barrels that are buried in the salt works. The salt worker then with a very primitive instrument checks the level of salinity of the liquid that is called brine (this is the English word for “saumure”) which he then draws out with the help of a vessel that is called “plongeou”, then he poured the brine on lead covers over clay stoves under which burned wood fires.]

MS 47474-28, TsILA: ^+and noahs and culverts agush with tears of joy,+^ | JJA 47:409 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 178.12

(e)        du dernier bien

Le Mont Saint-Michel Inconnu 308: Le menu est de choix, puisque c’est la fête « du patron Saint Maur »; M. de la Chastière se retire enchanté, mais voici qu’une heure après, le couvent est envahi par les soldats de la garde. Mme de la Chastière, furieuse sans doute de n’avoir pas été invitée avec son mari, a donné l’ordre à certains officiers avec lesquels elle est probablement « du dernier bien », de faire envahir le monastère; mais les religieux résistent et il faut chasser de haute lutte les trois frères portiers, auxquels les sbires du gouverneur finissent par « ravir les clefs du chasteau ». [There is a choice menu because it is the feast of “the patron Saint Maur”; M. de la Chastière retires overjoyed, but not an hour later the convent is invaded by soldiers of the guard. Mme de la Chastière, no doubt furious that she has not been invited with her husband, has ordered a number of officers with whom she is probably “close,” to invade the monastery; but the religious resist and a big fight is necessary to get rid of the three brother-gatekeepers, from whom the governor’s henchmen “ravish the keys of the castle.”]

Note: Fr. Du dernier bien. Literally ‘of the last good’, meaning ‘as well as it is possible to be’. One says euphemistically that a man is du dernier bien with a woman to express the fact that he is her lover.

VI.C.12.063(b)

VI.B.14.071

(h)        rSP bell

Fleming St Patrick 171: St. Patrick’s bell, ‘Clog-Phadruig,’ is now preserved in the museum of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. It is generally believed that this is the identical bell of the Saint to which allusion is made in the ancient Irish records.

MS 47474-031v, LPA: and brandishing his: ^+bellbearing+^ pen, the shining keyman of the door of | JJA 47:416 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 186.15

VI.B.14.072

(b)        Nemhthur / heavenly (high) tower

Boulogne-sur-Mer 42: St. Fiacc states that the Apostle of Ireland was born at Nemthur—Nemthur, as all commentators agree, is not the name of a town, but of a tower.[...] “Neamthur is an Irish word which denotes a heavenly, or a high tower” (Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores Veteres, Tom i., p. 96—O’Conor).

VI.C.12.065(d)-(e)

VI.B.14.073

(d)        Niall’s raid narrated / at Tara

Boulogne-sur-Mer 18-19: Muir N’Icht, or Portus Ictius, then possessed the finest harbour in northern Gaul. From the days of Julius Caesar, Portus Ictius, or the harbour of Boulogne, was the port from which the Roman troops sailed to Britain, and the harbour to which they steered on their return. On top of Caligula’s tower there was a lighthouse for the guidance of the vessals at sea. The very fact that King Niall made use of this harbour when he raided Armorica in the twenty-seventh year of his reign, makes it likely that he sailed into the same harbour when first invading that country [...] The records of both expeditions were undoubtedly read at the annual Feast of Tara

VI.C.12.066(f)

VI.B.14.074

(d)        Succoth = feast of Tabernacles

Boulogne-sur-Mer 62: he received the name of Suchet at baptism […] This town [SP’s birthplace, Nemthur] was situated in Campo Taberniae, which is called the Field of Tents because, at one time, the Roman army pitched their tents there. In the British tongue Campus Tavern is the same as Campus Tabernaculorum.

Note: See 034(p), 109(c), 155(e). Joyce here equates Patrick’s name with Succoth, the Jewish Feast of Tabernacles (15-23 October), which commemorates the dwelling of the Israelites in their tents during their sojourn in the wilderness. The association reverberates through the Wake: see Census III, ‘Sucat’ for references.

VI.C.12.067(f)

(k)        Schwyz Uri Unterwalden >

VI.C.12.068(d)

(o)        Arnold Melchthal

Note: According to the legend of William Tell, in 1307, at Rütli, Werner Stauffacher, Walter Fürst, and Arnold von Melchthal swore an oath of union binding the three districts of Schwyz, Uri and Unterwalden. This was the founding act of the Swiss Confederation.

VI.C.12.068(h)

VI.B.14.075

(k)        massiers >

Note: Fr. Massiers. Mace-bearers.

VI.C.12.069(g)

(l)         hart / fouet >

Note: This entry is written to the right of (k) and (m).

Old Fr. Hart The more common meaning is noose or hanging, but it originally meant a thin branch, hence, in dialect, a whip (Fr. fouet) made from a branch. So this could either be a linguistic note or refer to the two penalties of hanging and whipping.

VI.C.12.069(h)

(m)       croix du Fief >

Note: Fr. Croix du Fief. Cross of the fief: the name of a square in Saint Malo.

VI.C.12.069(h)

(n)        all Jews & pagans out from / Spy Wedns to E - W -

Note: Hiberno English. Spy Wednesday. The Wednesday before Easter.

Annales 1911, 160 : l’ancienne croix du Fief, qui disparut à la Révolution. La croix se dressait jadis, en dehors des murs et dans le port, sur un îlot de pierres brutes qui lui servait de piédestal. Elle était l’intersigne de la juridiction de la seigneurie commune de l'Evêque et du Chapitre de Saint-Malo. C’est au pied de cette croix, “que tous les trois mois, les gens de la prévôté ecclésiastique venaient avertir, à son de trompe, après le dernier coup de l’Angelus de midi, tous les tenanciers en rôture de l’évêque et du chapitre, d’avoir à payer leurs redevances sous les trois jours, si mieux n’aimaient voir leurs meubles vendus et leurs personnes emprisonnées, pour encourir le bannissement, non seulement de la ville, mais aussi de tout le territoire relevant de la juridiction ecclésiastique" (E. Herpin). C’est aussi à la croix du Fief que “le Mercredi-Saint de chaque année, le grand chanoine pénitencier, accompagné de son chapelain, de son enfant de choeur et de quatre massiers, se rendait, en habit de choeur, publier l’ordonnance qui prescrivait à tous les Juifs et païens, sous peine du hart et du fouet, de déguerpir avant le premier son de l’Angelus, avec défense de rentrer avant le mercredi de Pâques à midi” (E. Herpin)] [the ancient cross of the Fief, which disappeared during the Revolution. This cross used to stand, outside of the walls and in the port, in a little island of rough stones that served as a pedestal. It was a symbol of the jurisdiction of the common lordship of the Bishop and the Chapter of Saint-Malo. It was on the foot of this cross “that every three months, people from the church’s Provost came to warn, with the sound of trumpets after the last bell of the noon Angelus, all the tenants in the service of the bishop and the chapter, to pay their dues within three days, if they did not want to see their furniture sold and themselves in prison, to be banned from the city and also from all the land within the jurisdiction of the church”  (E. Herpin). It is also at the cross of the Fief that “on Ash Wednesday of each year, the great penitentiary canon, accompanied by his chaplain, his choir boy and four mace-bearers, went, in choir dress, to proclaim the ordinance that ordered all jews and pagans, under pain of the rope and the whip, to leave before the first sound of the Angelus, and to come back before Easter at noon” (E. Herpin)]

VI.C.12.069(i)

VI.B.14.076

(a)        templar’s cross / Lorrain

Note: The double cross is also known as the Lorraine cross

Annales 1911, 162: On ne la remarquerait pas si elle n’avait pas été peinte en rouge et si elle n’affectait la forme à deux croisillons, que quelques-uns appellent, à tort, croix archiépiscopale et qu’il serait plus just de nommer, conformément à la science héraldique, Croix de Lorraine, ou des Templiers. [One could hardly see it if it had not been painted red and if it did not have the two braces that some, wrongly, call an episcopal cross and that should more correctly be called, according to the science of heraldry, a Lorraine or Templar’s Cross.]

VI.C.12.070(a)

VI.B.14.077

(h)        Death & judgment / brought by sin n

VI.C.12.072(d)

VI.B.14.079

(a)        Merlin, Irish stones Africa / water in cavities cures eyes / plants at root

Myrdhinn 105-07: « Il y a en Irlande, dit le devin, au sommet d'une haute montagne, des pierres d'une prodigieuse grandeur, rangées en cercle, et formant comme une ronde, appelées pour cela la Danse [105] des Géants. Personne de notre âge ne connaît leur histoire; aucune force humaine ne les a mises debout; seule, la puissance de l'esprit a pu les élever. Or voici ce que je vous propose: envoyez-les chercher, et dressons-les ici dans le même ordre qu'elles le sont là. Nul monument plus convénable ne pourrait être bâti en l'honneur de nos guerriers, nul ne durera plus longtemps. »

En entendant Merlin parler ainsi, le roi ne put s'empêcher de sourire.

« Y pensez-vous? Faire venir de tels blocs de granit de si loin! Est-ce que notre île manque de pierres?

— Ne riez pas, seigneur, répondit Merlin, car je vous parle sérieusement. Ces pierres-là sont des pierres mystérieuses.

« Elles ont la vertu de guérir bien des maladies. L'eau que le ciel verse dans leurs cavités ferme les blessures et rend la vue aux yeux malades. À leurs pieds croissent des plantes douées de mille vertus salutaires. Il y a de cela bien longtemps, des géants venus du fond de l'Afrique apportèrent ces pierres précieuses, et les [106] rangèrent en cercle en Irlande, comme elles l’étaient dans leur pays. »

En entendant parler Merlin, les guerriers bretons s'écrièrent:

« Ne tardons pas plus longtemps, partons! »

Et quinze mille hommes se présentèrent pour prendre part à l'entreprise. Le roi mit à leur tête son frère Uter; les navires furent bientôt prêts, et on les vit s'avancer vers l'Irlande, leurs voiles gonflées par le vent, et Merlin debout à la barre du vaisseau amiral.

[There are in Ireland, the diviner says, at the top of a great mountain, enormous stones, arranged in a circle, in a round form that is called for that reason the “Dance of the Giants”. No-one today know their history; no human strength has been able to set them up; only the power of the spirit was able to raise them. So this is what I propose: go and get them, and set them up here in the same order as they are there. No more suitable monument can be built to honour our warriors, none will last this long.”

Hearing Merlin speak like this, the king could not help smiling.

“Is this what you’re thinking of? To make such blocks of granite travel such a distance! Don’t we have enough stones in this island?

— Don’t mock me, lord, answered Merlin, I am serious. These stones are really mysterious.

“They heal many illnesses. The water that is poured by the heavens in their cavities closes wounds and gives sight to blind eyes. At their feet grow plants that have thousands of good uses. It has been like this for a long time, ever since the giants who brought these stones from deepest Africa and placed them in a circle in Ireland, just as they had been in their own country.” In hearing Merlin speak, the Breton warriors called out:

“Let’s wait no longer and let’s go!” And fifteen thousand men volunteered for this mission. The king gave them his brother Uter as their commander; the boats were soon ready and they were seen travelling to Ireland, their sails filled by the wind, and Merlin standing at the bow of the leading ship.]

Note: A line connects ‘Merlin’ with ‘SP’ in the following entry.

(h)        white ---

Not found in Myrdhinn, but the word ‘gwen’ has that meaning, see 62(f).

VI.C.12.075(d)

VI.B.14.080

(b)        Tu quoque veni ^+saepe+^ veni / O soror, O dilecta

Myrdhinn 129n1: Tu quoque saepe veni, soror, o dilecta [Come you also often, sister, loved one.]

VI.C.12.075(i)

VI.B.14.081

(l)         shyster lawyer

VI.C.12.078(c)

VI.B.14.082

(g)        PMG b

Note: P. M. G. Postmaster General.

Criterion II, VIII (July 1924) ‘Wordsworth Revisited-1’ 475: In 1813 he was appointed Stamp Distributor for Westmoreland.

Note: Alternatively, this and the following unit may be associated with the Wireless Broadcasting Inquiry. See the note for 193(e). Post Master General J.J. Walsh was a key person in the scandal.

VI.C.12.079(e)

(h)        rtraverse yr statement

Note: See. 195(n).

Traverse. To deny at law.

MS 47482b-82v, MT: I beg to traverse above statement | JJA 58:040 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2/3B.*0 | FW 492.14

(i)         otiose

VI.C.12.079(f)

(j)         aver

VI.C.12.079(f)

(k)        scuttle dash ventilator

Note: Advertisement in the papers at the time for the Hudson and Essex Coach mentioned its ‘scuttle dash ventilator’.

VI.C.12.079(g)

(l)         at home on a horse

Irish Independent 19 August 1924-7/4: Famous Cowboy Clown. […] Many thrilling “stunts” were done by the riders, who are certainly very much at home on horseback. Some wonderful riding was done by Tommy Tiernan, the world’s champion.

VI.C.12.079(h)

VI.B.14.085

(f)        couette >

Note: Fr. Couette. A down bed.

VI.C.12.083(f)

VI.B.14.087

(d)        kept (lived)

Miscellanies 60 [Euphranor and the narrator are going to visit Lexilogus in his Cambridge student’s lodgings]: So, without more ado, we turn’d into Trinity Great gate, and round by the right up a staircase to the attic where Lexilogus kept.

VI.C.12.085(h)

(e)        should (for this time only) not

Miscellanies 63: At last, after a little hesitation as to whether he should wear cap and gown, (which I decided he should, for this time only, not,) Lexilogus was ready: and calling out on the staircase to some invisible Bed-maker, that his books should not be meddled with, we ran downstairs

VI.C.12.086(a)

(f)        whenever he was

Miscellanies 69: “I suppose,” said Lycion, “your man—whatever his name is—would carry us back to the days of King Arthur, and the Seven Champions, whenever they were—that one used to read about when a Child? I thought Don Quixote had put an end to all that long ago.”

VI.C.12.086(b)

(g)        Childhood / Knighthood / Manhood / Come day I’ll be a night

Miscellanies 73: The Anglo-Saxons distinguished the period between Childhood and Manhood by the term ‘Cnihthade,’ Knighthood: a term which still continued to indicate the connexion between Youth and Chivalry, when Knights were styled ‘Children,’ as in the historic song beginning, “Child Rowland to the dark tower came:” an excellent expression, no doubt; for every Boy and Youth is, in his mind and sentiments, a Knight, and essentially a Son of Chivalry.”

VI.C.12.086(c)

(h)        though (Lat) - - - / when - - - (Greek / Said X laughing (?!)

Miscellanies 74: For, as Demopho says of young men: “Ecce autem similia omnia: omnes congruunt: Unum cognoris, omnes noris.” Mark the courage of him who is green and fresh in this Old world. Amyntas beheld and dreaded the insolence of the Persians; but not so Alexander, the son of Amyntas, άτε υέος τε έωυ, και κακωυ άπαθης (says Herodotus).

VI.C.12.086(d)

VI.B.14.088

(a)        oso far as me b

Miscellanies 89: Euphranor laughed a little; and I went on: “Better surely, for all sakes, to build up for her—as far as we may—for we cannot yet ensure the foundation—a spacious, airy, and wholesome Tenement becoming so Divine a Tenant, of so strong a foundation and masonry as to resist the wear and tear of Elements without, and herself within. Yes; and a handsome house withal—unless indeed you think the handsome Soul will fashion that about herself from within—like a shell—which, so far as her Top-storey, where she is supposed chiefly to reside, I think may be the case.”

?MS 47484a-275, TsILA: ^+who ^+so far as him was concerned+^ was only standing to the corner of Turbot Street, preparing to spit+^ | JJA 58:369 | Dec 1928-Jan 1929 | III§3A.8/3B.8 | FW 516.26

(b)        did not he >

MS 47472-153v, TsLPA: ^+Did not she […] thrice sfidare him […] And did not he […] misbrand her behaveyour […]+^ | JJA 45:194 | early 1927 | I.3§1.3/2.3/3.3 | FW 068.13-19

(c)        Euphranor >

 (d)       ocasehardened

Miscellanies 90 [immediatly following the previous quotation]: “Ah,” said Euphranor, “one of the most beautiful of human Souls, as I think, could scarce accomplish that.”      “Socrates?” said I. “No; but did not he profess that his Soul was naturally an ugly soul to begin with? So, by the time he had beautified her within, it was too late to re-front her Outside, which had case-hardened, I suppose.”

MS 47472-160, TsILA: but it oozed out in crossexamination ^+of the casehardened testies+^ | JJA 46:037 | 1926-7 | I.4§1A.3 | FW 087.34

(e)        — , I doubt n

Miscellanies 91: Euphranor thought not.

           “However, I know not yet whether I have ever had an Infant Hero of any kind to deal with; none, certainly, who gave any indication of any such ‘clouds of glory’ as your Wordsworth tells of, even when just arrived from their several homes—in Alexander‘s case, of a somewhat sulphureous nature, according to Skythrops, I doubt. No, nor of any young Wordsworth neither under our diviner auspices.”

VI.C.12.086(e)

(f)        ‘gays’ Suffolk

Miscellanies 97 [discussing nursery rhymes they learned when young, Little Bopeep, Little Boy Blue, the London Bells etc.]: “Then that Tragedy of ‘Cock Robin’—the Fly that saw it with that little Eye of his—and the Owl with his spade and ‘Showl’—proper old word that too—and the Bull who the Bell could pull—and—but I doubt whether you will approve of the Rook reading the Burial Service, nor do I like bringing the Lark, only for a rhyme’s sake, down from Heaven, to make the responses. And all this illustrated by appropriate—‘Gays,’ as they call them in Suffolk—and recited, if not intoned, according to the different Characters.”

VI.C.12.087(a)

(g)        Thaumas father of Iris

Miscellanies 97-8: “Then as your punning friend Plato, you told me, says that Thaumas—Wonder—is father of Iris, who directly communicates between [97] Heaven and Earth—as in the case of that Bed-post-kissing Apollo—you, being a pious man, doubtless had your Giants, Genii, Enchanters, Fairies, Ogres, Witches, Ghosts——“

VI.C.12.087(b)

(h)        hornbook

Miscellanies 99:

           “To Master John, the Chamber-maid

           A Horn-Book gives of Ginger-bread;

           And, that the Child may learn the better,

           As he can name, he eats the Letter.’”

Note: Hornbook. An early form of child’s primer, usually consisting of the alphabet, the ten digits and the Lord’s Prayer, written on a sheet of paper encased in a protective covering of translucent horn.

VI.C.12.087(c)

?MS 47483-39, TsIA: With his ^+unique hornbook and his+^ prince of the apauper’s pride | JJA 57:173 | Mar 1926 | III§1A.5/1D.5//2A.5/2B.2/2C.5 | FW 422.15

(j)         a piece of arable

Miscellanies 110: “And only think, said I, “if as in some German School Fellenberg’s, I think they were, beside the Playground, a piece of Arable to work in — perhaps at a daily wage of provender according to the work done — what illumination might some young Lycion receive, as to the condition of the Poor, ‘unquenchable by logic and statistics,’ says Carlyle, ‘when he comes, as Duke of Logwood, to legislate in Parliament.”

VI.C.12.087(e)

(k)        no Edwin he

Miscellanies 135-6: “Are you not forgetting,” said I, “that Burns was not then singing of himself, but of some forsaken damsel, as appears by the second stanza? which few, by the way, care to remember. As unremember'd it may have been," I continued, after a pause, “by the only living — and like to live — Poet I had known, when, so many years after, he found himself beside that ' bonnie Doon ' and — whether it were from recollection of poor Burns, or of 'the days that are no more' which haunt us all, I know not — I think he did not know — but, he somehow ' broke ' as he told me, ' broke into a passion of tears.' — Of tears, which during a pretty long and intimate intercourse, I had never seen glisten in his eye but once, when reading Virgil ‘dear old Virgil,’ as he call'd him — together : and then of the burning of Troy in the Second Eneid whether moved by the catastrophe's self, or the majesty of the Verse it is told in — or, as before, scarce knowing why. For, as King Arthur shall bear witness, no young Edwin he, though, as a great Poet, comprehending all the [135] softer stops of human Emotion in that Register where the Intellectual, no less than

what is call'd the Poetical, faculty predominated.

VI.C.12.087(f)

(l)         ‘mismeasure’ >

VI.C.12.087(g)

(m)       closet

Miscellanies 136-7: Something to this effect I said, though, were it but for lack of walking breath, at no so long-winded a stretch of eloquence. And then Euphranor, whose lungs were in so much better order than mine, though I had left him so little opportunity for using them, took up where I left off, and partly read, and partly told us of a delightful passage from his Godefridus, to this effect, that, if the Poet could not invent, neither could his Reader understand him, when he told of Ulysses and Diomed listening to the crane clanging in the marsh by night, without [136]  having experienced something of the sort. And so we went on, partly in jest, partly in earnest, drawing Philosophers of all kinds into the same net in which we had entangled the Poet and his Critic — How the Moralist who worked alone in his closet was apt to mismeasure Humanity, and be very angry when the cloth he cut out for him would not fit — how the best Histories were written

by those who themselves had been actors in them Gibbon, one of the next best, I believe, recording how the discipline of the Hampshire Militia he served as Captain in — how odd he must have looked in uniform — enlighten'd him as to the evolutions of a Roman Legion — And so on a great deal more; till, suddenly observing how the sun had declined from his meridian, I look'd at my watch, and ask'd my companions did not they begin to feel hungry, like myself? They agreed with me; and we turn'd homeward

VI.C.12.087(h)

(n)        , for anything I now / know,

Miscellanies 139-40: I then inquired about his own reading, which, though not much, was not utterly neglected, it seemed; and he said he had [139] meant to ask one of us to beat something into his stupid head this summer in Yorkshire. Lexilogus, I knew, meant to stop at Cambridge all the long Vacation; but Euphranor said he should be at home, for anything he then knew, and they could talk the matter over when the time came. We then again fell to talking of our County; and among other things I asked Phidippus if his horse were Yorkshire, of old famous for its breed, as well as of Riders, and how long he had had her, and so forth.

VI.C.12.087(i)

(o)        a plaister >

Note: Plaister. Alternative spelling of ‘plaster’ and sharing its varied senses; but this form is now archaic, though it survives in Scottish and Northern English dialect.

VI.C.12.087(j)

(p)        olaughter (witness joined)

Miscellanies 143-4: “One knows so exactly," said Lycion, “what the Doctor would choose, — a woman”

‘Well versed in the Arts Of Pies, Puddings, and Tarts,’ as one used to read of somewhere, I remember.”

“Not forgetting,” said I, “the being able to help in compounding a pill or a plaister; which I dare say your Great-grandmother knew something about, Lycion, for in those days, you know, Great ladies studied Simples. Well, so I am fitted, — as Lycion is to be [143] with one who can Valse through life with him.”

“‘And follow so the ever-rolling Year

With profitable labour to their graves,’”

added Euphranor, laughing.

Note: See reproduction. This has been written sideways in the right margin. Cf. VI.B.5.023(i)

MS 47472-160, TsBMA: outbroke much laughters, in which ^+, under the mollification of methaglin,+^ the witness ^+testifier+^ ^+reluctingly+^ joined | JJA 46:037 | 1926-7 | I.4§1A.3 | FW 092.02-5

VI.B.14.089

(a)        the Chair

Miscellanies 145: “Not, however, till we have the Doctor's famous Ballad about Miss Middleton's possible Great-Great-Grandmother," cried Euphranor, “by way of Pindaric close to this Heroic entertainment, sung from the Chair, who probably composed it—”

“As little as could sing it,” I assured him.

VI.C.12.087(k)

(b)        oespecially when old, which / they soon get to look

Miscellanies 146: So with a prelusive “Well then,” I began — “I’ll sing you a Song, and a merry, merry Song—”

By the way, Phidippus, what an odd notion of merriment is a Jockey’s, if this Song be a sample. I think I have observed they have grave, taciturn faces, especially when old, which they soon get to look. Is this from much wasting, to carry little Flesh — and large — Responsibility?”

MS 47478-254, TsBMA: she will […] learn from Dalcrose how to drop her umbrella ^+for disorderliness is their sex’s bugbear especially when old which they soon get to look.+^ | JJA 52:159 | 1932 | II.2§4.2 | [MS ®] MS 47478-288, TsBMA: 3. Especially ^+It must be some bugbear in the gender especially+^ when old which they soon get to look. | JJA 52:210 | 1934 | II.2§5.0 | FW 275.F3

(f)        gb drags feet

MS 47484a-47, TsILA: Faith then, first he come up, ^+^+the rake,+^ dragging his feet in the usual course ^+like a schottisch+^+^ | JJA 58:187 | Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2+/3B.*0+ | FW 516.10

(k)        it shall be asked / for us

Miscellanies 163: Not but we can feel the warning whisper too, when Jeremy Taylor tells us that one day the bell shall toll, and it shall be asked, ‘For whom?’ and answered, ‘For us.

VI.C.12.088(f)

(l)         odurum & durum non / faciunt murum

Miscellanies 172: Some extracts are from note-books, where the author’s name was forgot; some from the conversation of friends that must alike remain anonymous; and some that glance but lightly at the truth are not without purpose inserted to relieve a book of dogmatic morals. “Durum et durum non faciunt murum.”

Note: L. Durum et durum non faciunt murum. Hard and hard (i.e. stern measures) won’t build a (protective) wall.

MS 47472-6, LMA: domecreepers ^+thurum and thurum in fancymud murum+^ | JJA 44:107 | Nov-Dec 1926 | I.1§1.*2/2.*2 | FW 006.05-6

(m)       presented to vicarage of —

Miscellanies 173: … took his degree in 1807, at Trinity College Cambridge; a year after was ordained deacon, and entered on the curacy of Allington in Lincolnshire, where he continued till 1811, when he went to reside at Trowbridge, in Wiltshire, to which Rectory his father had just been presented by the Duke of Rutland.

VI.C.12.088(g)

(n)        jest for it

Miscellanies 181: 1802 Visit with Mary to Coleridge at Keswick, who, afterward engaging to write for the Morning Post, gets Lamb to jest for it, at £2 2s. a week.

VI.C.12.088(h)

(o)        Mr Salt

Miscellanies 179: 1797 His Father dying, and carrying with him what pension he had from Mr. Salt, Charles takes his sister home, and lives with her on little more than his Clerkship of £100 a year.

VI.C.12.088(i)

VI.B.14.090

(c)        Et Le Temps (Ohl)

Note: Fr. Et le temps. And the time.

VI.C.12.089(b)

(d)        who wont to live

Miscellanies 163:

Fair violet! sweet saint!

Answer us—Whither art thou gone ?

Ever thou wert so still, and faint,

And fearing to be look'd upon.

We cannot say that one hath died,

Who wont to live so unespied,

But crept away unto a stiller spot,

Where men may stir the grass, and find thee not.

VI.C.12.089(c)

(e)        mettant du desordre dans les / hommes et de l’ordre / dans les maisons

Note: From a text by Tristan Tzara : Comme les abeilles et les rames battant l’eau, les femmes travaillent l’air avec des gestes agressifs et agiles, mettant du désordre dans les hommes et de l’ordre dans les maisons.

VI.C.12.089(d)

(k)        20 yrs back it had (wd have) / elated one)

VI.C.12.089(i)

(l)         gvery like him in the face

MS 47483-115, TsILA: ^+and very like me ancestor^+, Old Father Knickerbocker,+^ +^  in ^+about+^ their faces,+^ | JJA 57:182 | Mar 1926 | III§1A.5/1D.5//2A.5/2B.2/2C.5  | FW 442.06-10

(m)       hypp’d

Miscellanies 34-5: I am free of acute suffering, and not so much hypp’d as might be forgiven in a man who has such trouble about his breathing that it

Note: Hypped. Affected with hypochondria, depressed.

VI.C.12.090(a)

(n)        a skeely doctor >

VI.C.12.090(b)

(o)        ryounkers

Miscellanies 35: I have no very acute pain, a skeely doctor, a good nurse, kind solicitous friends, a remission of the worst pain of my desk hours—so why should I fret? […] Love to the younkers.” Thine, “B”.

Note: Skeely. Skilled, skilful. The word survives chiefly in Scottish and Northern dialect.

Younker. A young man, especially a fashionable one. A child.

MS 47482b-47, LMA: the time we ^+younkers+^ were tossing ourselves in bed | JJA 57:095 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 431.35

VI.B.14.091

(a)        keeping-room

Miscellanies 40: But nowhere was he more amiable than is some of those humbler meetings — about the fire in the keeping-room at Christmas, or under the walnut tree in summer.

Note: Keeping-room. A sitting-room or parlour.

VI.C.12.090(c)

(b)        faultless monster / (Edw. FitzG—)

Miscellanies 52: He was content with a poem so long as it was good in the main, without minding those smaller beauties which go to make up perfection — content with a letter that told of health and goodwill, with very little other news — and content with a friend who had the average virtues and accomplishments of men, without being the faultless monster which the world never saw, but so many are half their lives looking for.

Note: Edward FitzGerald (1809-83), friend of Carlyle, Thackeray and Tennyson. Most famous as the translator of the ‘Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám’. See 088(b).

VI.C.12.090(d)

(e)        Ag 16 / July 31 / June 30 / May 31 / April 30 / March 31 / Feb [28] / Jan 31 / [=] 197

Apocryphal New Testament 199: [Jesus] turned to the apostles — to me Peter and John — and said that Mary should appear to them again. ‘There are 206 days from her death unto her holy assumption. I will bring her unto you arrayed in this body.’

VI.C.12.090(e)

(f)        astonied

Apocryphal New Testament 205: But [the Jews] being yet more inflamed in spirit went unto the governor, crying out and saying: The nation of the Jews is destroyed because of this woman [the Virgin Mary]: drive thou her away from Bethlehem and from the province of Jerusalem. But the governor was astonied at the wonders and said unto them: I will not drive her out from Bethlehem nor from any other place.  

VI.C.12.090(f)

(g)        Lord’s Day - All great event / Sonntag >

Note: G. Sonntag. Sunday.

VI.C.12.091(a)-(b)

(h)        Mary’s wall cures lepers

Apocryphal New Testament 205: And it came to pass after that sound that the sun and the moon appeared about the house, and an assembly of the first-begotten saints came unto the house where the mother of the Lord lay, for her honour and glory. And I saw many signs come to pass, blind receiving sight, deaf hearing, lame walking, lepers cleansed, and them that were possessed of unclean spirits healed. And every one that was under any sickness or disease came and touched the wall where she lay, and cried: Holy Mary, thou didst bear Christ our God, have mercy on us. And forthwith they were cured.

VI.C.12.091(c)

(i)         J.C prefers John  . . .  ^+b+^ virgin >

VI.C.12.091(d)

(j)         apostles cast lots for / preaching areas

Apocryphal New Testament 205: When therefore the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ for the life of the whole world hung on the tree of the cross pierced with nails, he saw standing beside the cross his mother and John the evangelist, whom he more especially loved beyond the other apostles because he alone of them was a virgin in body. Unto him therefore he committed the charge of the holy Mary, saying to him: Behold thy mother; and to her: Behold thy son. From that hour the holy mother of God continued in the especial care of John so long as she endured the sojourn of this life. And when the apostles had taken the world by their lots for preaching, she abode in the house of his parents beside the Mount of Olivet.

VI.C.12.091(e)

VI.B.14.092

(a)        to even myself with / you

Apocryphal New Testament 211-12: And Paul came with them who was turned from the circumcision and taken with Barnabas to minister to the Gentiles. And when there arose among them a godly contention, which of them should first pray the Lord to show them the cause of their coming, and Peter exhorted Paul to pray first, Paul answered, saying: That is thine office, to begin first, since thou wast chosen of God to be a pillar of the church, and thou art before all in the apostleship: but me it befits not all all, for I am the least of all of you, and Christ was seen of me as of one born out of due time, neither presume I to even myself with you; yet by the grace of God I am what I am.

VI.C.12.091(f)

(b)        began he >

VI.C.12.091(g)

(c)        take [their palm] at the hand of John

Apocryphal New Testament 215: And he came near and kissed the bed, and forthwith all pain left him and his hands were made whole. Then began he to bless God greatly and to speak out of the books of Moses testimonies unto the praise of Christ, so that even the apostles themselves marvelled and wept for gladness, praising the name of the Lord. But Peter said to him: Take this palm at the hand of our brother John, and go into the city and thou wilt find much people blinded; and declare unto them the mighty works of God, and whosoever believeth on the Lord Jesus Christ, lay this palm upon their eyes and they shall see: but whoso believe not shall continue blind.

VI.C.12.091(h)

(d)        S.P asks to be 13th judge

Apocryphal New Testament 217: All the disciples except Thomas now arrived on clouds, and greeted her. They were John, James his brother, Peter, Paul, Andrew, Philip, Luke, Barnabas, Bartholomew, Matthew, Matthias surnamed Justus, Simon the Canaanite, Jude and his brother, Nicodemus, Maximianus (this must be the legendary Maximin of Aix en Provence who figures in the late legend of Mary Magdalene’s mission to Marseilles).

VI.C.12.091(i)

(e)        hour to rise after [that v]

Apocryphal New Testament 217: On the Sunday at the third hour Christ came down with a host of angels and took the soul of his mother. Such was the light and fragrance that all fell on their faces (as at Mount Tabor) and none could rise for an hour and a half.

VI.C.12.092(a)

(f)        assumption visible only to / Thomas to whom BVM / throws her girdle / (Prato)

Apocryphal New Testament 217-18: Thomas was suddenly brought to the Mount of Olives and saw the holy body being taken up, and cried out to Mary: ‘make thy servant glad by thy mercy, for now thou goest to heaven’. And the girdle with which the apostles had girt the body was thrown down to him; he took it and went to the valley of Josaphat. When he had greeted the apostles, Peter said: ‘Thou wast always unbelieving, and so the Lord hath not suffered thee to be at his mother’s burial.’ He smote his breast and said: ‘I know it and I ask pardon of you all,’ and they all prayed for him. Then he said: ‘Where have ye laid her body?’ and they pointed to the sepulchre. But he said: The holy body is not there. Peter said: ‘Formerly you would not believe in the resurrection of the Lord before you touched him: how should you believe us?’ Thomas went on saying: ‘It is not here.’ Then in anger they went and took away the stone, and the body was not there; and they knew not what to say, being vanquished by Thomas’ words.(1)

(1) The episode of Thomas and the girdle is peculiar to this writing. The girdle is the great relic of Prato; and the prominence given to this incident is another indication that we have here a mediaeval Italian composition, not earlier, I imagine, than the thirteenth century.

VI.C.12.092(b)

(g)        chiliarch

Note: Chiliarch. The commander of a thousand men.

Apocryphal New Testament 220: The priests insisted on Mary’s banishment by the governor. He sent a chiliarch to Bethlehem with thirty men. The Spirit told the apostles to take Mary to Jerusalem. They did so and held a five days’ service. Meanwhile the chiliarch found nothing at Bethlehem, and the priests said this was due to magic.

VI.C.12.092(c)

(h)        Apostles taken to I — to see / hell, W angels pray for / devils, angel of waters

Apocryphal New Testament 225: The apostles then asked the Lord to show them the place of torment, reminding him of his promise that on the day of the departure of Mary they should see it. They were all taken on a cloud to the west. The Lord spoke to the angels of the pit, and the earth sprang upwards and they saw the pit.(1) The lost saw Michael and begged for respite. Mary and the apostles fell down and interceded for them. Michael spoke to them, telling them that at all the twelve hours of the day and of the night the angels intercede for creation. The angel of the waters intercedes for the waters. Here the fragment ends.

(1) I have pointed out, and the Rev. St. J. Seymour has elaborated the thesis, that this visit of the apostles to Hell was known in Ireland at an early date, and that the Irish form must be derived somehow from this Syriac text.

VI.C.12.092(d)

(k)        for future H count / nettlespikes

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 348 [the customs concerning the Consultations amoureuses et présages]: A Plouagat, les jeunes gens et les jeunes filles, pour savoir ce que seront celles ou ceux qui les épouseront, prennent une feuille de houx et en comptent le “picôts” en disant sur chacun un mot. Celui qui tombe sur le dernier picôt indique la qualité de celui ou de celle qu’on épousera.

Koant: Joli ou jolie

Kaer: Beau ou belle

Friponn: Espiègle

Dogen: Cocu ou cocue

Laër: Voleur ou voleuse”

 [In Plouagat, the young boys and girls, in order to find out whom they are going to marry, take a leaf of nettle and count the spikes by saying a word for each one. The word that falls on the last spike indicates the quality of the person that one will marry.

Koant: Pretty

Kaer: Beautiful

Friponn: Mischievous

Dogen: Cheated

Laër: Thievish”]

VI.C.12.093(b)

(l)         fiancees stick pins in / S. Guirec’s nose / (Hindenberg)

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 349: A Ploumanac’h, sur un rocher au bord de la grève se trouve l’oratoire de Zant Gwirek (Saint-Guirec). C’est une toute petite construction au milieu de laquelle se trouvait une statue en bois représentant ce bienheureux. Les jeunes filles désireuses de se marier dans l’année allaient piquer une épingle dans le nez du saint. [In Ploumanac’h, on a rock at the beach one can find the oratory of Zant Gwirek (Saint-Guirec). This is a small construction in the middle of which there is a wooden statue of the saint. Young girls who want to marry that year come and stick a pin in the nose of the saint.]

Note: During the first world war there were wooden statues of Paul von Hindenburg all over Germany and people would nail money to them for war bonds.

VI.C.12.093(c)

VI.B.14.093

(a)        opattern

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 349: De même que dans toute la Bretagne, c’est dans les Pardons et les assemblées populaires que se créent au pays Trégorrois les premières relations entre les jeunes gens et les filles à marier. [Just as in the rest of Brittany, it is at the Pardons and the people’s gatherings in the land of Trégor that young boys and girls who want to marry first meet each other.]

Note: In Hiiberno-English, a pattern is the feast-day of a patron saint.

MS 47478-252, TsILA: his singing likeness ^+pattern+^ | JJA 52:157 | 1932 | II.2§4.2 | FW 000.00

(b)        M carries her umbrella

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 349-50: S’il ne lui plaît pas, elle doit lui accorder au moins un tour pendant lequel elle [349] lui fait comprendre qu’il perd ses frais, ou bien, elle s’arrange pour le quitter. Dès que la jeune fille a consenti, le galant prend son parapluie et le lui porte; il ne lui donne le bras que s’il la connaît beaucoup. [If she does not like him, she has to give him at least one round during which she makes him understand that she is not interested, or she gets ready to leave him. As soon as the young girl agrees, the young gallant carries her umbrella and brings it to her; he does not take her arm unless he knows her very well.]

VI.C.12.093(d)

(c)        1.v. lay birchen bouquet / on sill

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 350: Le 1er mai, les jeunes gens qui courtisent une jeune fille vont la nuit poser sur ou près de la fenêtre la plus proche de son lit un énorme bouquet de bouleau orné de fleurs. [On May Day the young men who court a girl go out at night and place on or close to the window closest to her bed an enormous bouquet of birch decorated with flowers.]

Note: 1.v. May 1.

VI.C.12.093(e)

(d)        The Demand in Marriage >

VI.C.12.093(f)

(e)        qui va là

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 351: Ar Goulenadec (La demande). - Lorsqu’un jeune homme est bien décidé à épouser une jeune fille, il se rend à la maison où elle demeure, un soir quelconque, très tard, vers onze heures, alors que tout le monde est couché. Le jeune homme se fait accompagner par son père ou, si celui-ci est mort, par son plus proche parent. Ils frappent à la porte et disent leurs noms, alors, tous les gens de la maison se rhabillent et on leur ouvre. [Ar Goulenadec (The proposal). When a young man has really decided to marry a young girl, he goes to the house where she lives, late one night, around eleven, when everybody is asleep. The young man is accompanied by his father, or, when the latter is dead, by his closest relative. They knock at the door and say their names and then all the inhabitants of the house get dressed again and the door is opened for them.]

VI.C.12.093(g)

(f)        Father offers them in the / pauses salt bacon >

VI.C.12.093(h)

(g)        talk of beau temps >

VI.C.12.094(a)

(h)        don’t wake the children

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 351-2: Selon les règles de la politesse du pays, on ne leur adresse aucune question et on les laisse causer; il est toutefois d’usage de leur offrir [351] à manger du lard ou du boeuf salé. On cause d’abord des choses les plus diverses, excepté du mariage; à la fin cependant, le père (ou le proche parent venu avec le jeune homme) fait la demande aux parents de la jeune fille. A ce moment, le galant sort de son panier la bouteille d’eau-de-vie (dans le pays de Lannion c’est une bouteille de vin blanc) et en offre à toutes les personnes présentes de tout âge et de tout sexe, sauf aux tout petits enfants qu’on n’a pas réveillés. [According to the country’s politeness rules, they are not asked a single question and they are left to say whatever they want; but the custom is to offer them lard or salt beef to eat. First they talk of the most varied subjects, except marriage; at the end though, the father (or the closest relative who has come with the young man) asks the girl’s parents the question. At that moment, the gallant takes out of his basket the bottle of liquor (in the Lannion region it is bottle of white wine) and offers some of it to all the people present, of all ages and all sexes, except to the little children who haven’t been woken up.]

VI.C.12.094(b)

(i)         milk soup = rejected >

VI.C.12.094(c)

(j)         garlantez or grains of barley

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 352: Si le jeune homme ne plaît pas à la jeune fille ou aux parents, la première fois qu’il revient, on lui sert une assiette pleine de soupe de lait. Sans qu’il soit besoin de le lui dire, il comprend ainsi que sa demande est rejetée. Pour parler d’un galant éconduit, on dit souvent: Il s’est fait servir la soupe au lait. § Quand le refus a pour motif une préférence des parents et de la jeune fille pour un autre galant, les amis de celui-ci se font un malin plaisir d’aller, la nuit, accrocher sur sa maison, ou non loin dans un endroit visible un bouquet, un chiffon ou un journal qu’on appelle alors garlantez (gui[r]lande). Les passants, en voyant la garlantez riront de prétendant évincé, mais il aura soin d’enlever l’objet dès qu’il l’apercevra; aussi les amis du rival emploient-ils souvent un moyen plus durable d‘apprendre la mésaventure aus gens qui passent: ils sèment de la balle d’orge (elez) devant la maison ou dans le chemin qui y mène; il est impossible d’enlever les milliers de paillettes répandues sur le sol, et de cacher ce signal de l’évincement du jeune homme de la maison.

[When a young girl or her parents do not like the young man, they serve him a plate of milk soup, the first time he returns. Without having to tell him explicitly, they make it clear that his request has not been granted. Of a jilted lover it is often said: He was served milk soup. When the rejection has to do with a preference of either the parents or the girl for another young man, the friends of the latter like to go out at night and hang near his house or not far from it a quite visible bouquet of flowers, a piece of cloth or a newspaper, which is called garlantez (garland). The passers-by seeing the garlantez will laugh at the rejected suitor, so he will immediately take it away when he sees it; but sometimes the friends of the rival have a more durable way of making known the misadventure to the passers-by: they sow barley chaff (elez) before the house or on the road that leads to it; it is impossible to remove the thousands of flakes from the soil and thus to hide the sign of the rejection of the young man of the house.]

VI.C.12.094(d)

(k)        T best man

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 352: Quelques temps après la cérémonie de goulenadec, un samedi, vers six heures, le fiancé et la fiancée, le garçon et la fille d’honneur choisis par eux s’en vont au presbytère donner leurs noms au recteur pour que l’annonce du mariage soit bannie les deux dimanches suivants. Cela s’appelle lakaat an hano (donner le nom).

[Sometime after the ceremony of the goulenadec, on a Saturday, around six, the engaged couple, the best man and maid of honour chosen by them go to the parish to give their names to the priest so that the marriage can be announced on the following two Sundays. This is called lakaat an hano (to give the name).]

VI.C.12.094(e)

(l)         H presents robe de deuil >

VI.C.12.094(f)

(m)       rRemember, th ^+maid+^ thou art but / powder

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 353: Le seul cadeau que le fiancé fasse à sa future femme (à part l’anneau de noce que seul elle porte) est un manteau de deuil, en étoffe noire avec un capuchon, c’est pour le cas où il y aurait des décès dans la famille. Il est à remarquer que seules les femmes mariées quand elles sont en deuil, portent ces manteaux.

[The only present that the groom gives his future wife (apart from the wedding ring that only she will wear) is a robe of mourning, in black linen and with a hood, for use when there has been a death in the family. It is interesting that only married women wear these mourning robes.]

MS 47482b-48v, LPA: for the betterment of your mind. ^+Remember, maid, thou art but powder+^ | JJA 57:098 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 440.26-7

(n)        nuptial feast, seated on ladders

Paul-Yves Sébillot, La Bretagne et ses traditions 1, l’enfance etc., 121: Pour les grandes noces, quand les invités sont au nombre de plusieurs centaines, à la belle saison, le repas a lieu en plein air; des échelles posées sur leur longueur perpendiculairement au sol et solidement fixées, forment des bancs immenses et ingénieux. Le couvert est alors dressé par terre, entre deux rangées d’échelles. [For great wedding parties, when there are several hundred guests and in the summer, the meal is set outdoors; ladders laid lengthwise perpendicularly to the ground and solidly attached, become immense and ingenious seating arrangements. The meal is served on the ground between two rows of ladders.]

VI.C.12.094(g)

(o)        — jests, plate of bones, / trip up,

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 354: Farces pendant le repas. — A la fin du dîner, on fait passer un plat dans lequel on a placé des os. Il est recouvert d’une serviette. Ceux qui ne sont pas au courant des farces du pays soulèvent la serviette, et aperçoivent les os, aux grands éclats de rire de tous ceux qui assistent au repas.

An Drezen. — Souvent, après le dîner ou même avant, quand les gens de la noce se promènent par les chemins, ils sont souvent arrêtés par des ficelles auxquelles sont attachées des épines et que des gamins ont tendu au travers de la route.

[Jokes during the meal. At the end of dinner, a plate on which there are bones is passed round. It is covered with a napkin. Those who don’t know the local jokes will lift the napkin and then see the bones, to great peals of laugther from everybody else.

An Drezen. — Often, after and sometimes even before dinner, when the wedding guests walk along the roads, they are often stopped by string on which thorns have been attached and which kids have tied across the road.]

VI.C.12.094(h)

(p)        collect >

VI.C.12.094(i)

(q)        sums x 2

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 354: Le Prové. — Dans les familles peu aisées, à la fin du repas, un personnage important de la noce passe parmi les convives en tenant un linge tendu sur une assiette. Chacun y dépose son obole; le montant en est annoncé par le porteur de l’assiette qui en double toujours le montant

[Le Prové. –In poor families, at the end of the meal an important wedding guest will pass round the other guests holding a piece of cloth stretched over a plate. Everyone will contribute; the total is announced by the holder of the plate who always doubles the amount.]

VI.C.12.094(j)

VI.B.14.094

(a)        rosary of bread in milk soup

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 355: Quand les mariés sont couchés, à Plounérin, on leur apporte une soupe de lait pleine de chapelets de morceaux de pain enfilés. [In Plounérin, when the newly wed are in bed, they are brought a milk soup full of pieces of bread strung together.]

VI.C.12.094(k)-095(a)

(b)        hairpins in bed

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 355: Les trois premières nuits, à la campagne, les nouveaux mariés couchent dans la demeure de la jeune fille; souvent ils trouvent les draps du lit dérangés, ou parsemés de miettes de pain, de cheveux ou de crins. [The first three nights, in the country-side, the newly-weds sleep at the girl’s house; often they’ll find the bedclothes in disarray, or sprinkled with bread crumbs, hairs or bristles.]

VI.C.12.095(b)

(c)        widow, marry },  potbeating,

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 355: A Guerleskin, si une veuve se remarie, pendant toute la nuit de ses noces, les voisins lui font un charivari en frappant sur des chaudrons. Si elle est divorcée, le charivari dure parfois huit nuits de suite. [When a widow remarries in Guerleskin, her wedding night is disturbed by the neighbours making lots of noise by beating on pots. If she is divorced, the noise may last up to eight nights in a row.]

VI.C.12.095(c)

(d)        after mass for dead

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 355: Le lendemain de la noce, tout le monde se lève de bonne heure; les plus proches parents et les invités vont à une messe que l’on fait dire pour les défunts des deux familles. [The day after the wedding everybody gets up early ; the immediate family and the guests attend a mass for the two families’ dead.]

VI.C.12.095(d)

(e)        la pleurade

Revue des Traditions Populaires (1904) 356: Souvent la jeune femme pleure en quittant ses parents qui eux aussi versent souvent des larmes, d’où le nom d’Ar oueladen (la pleurade). [Often the young woman cries when she leaves her parents, who also often shed tears, hence the name d’Ar oueladen, ‘the crying).]

VI.C.12.095(e)

(j)         low Irish (W) / high Irish (E)

Revue de Bretagne (1904) 227-8: Rien n’est plus faux, attendu que la majeure partie de la Haute Bretagne a parlé breton autrefois et que la limite actuelle entre la Basse et la Haute Bretagne ne correspond nullement à une différence de situation géographique ou géologique. C’est une limite linguistique et par conséquent variable: là ou l’on parle breton c’est la Basse Bretagne ou Pays Bretonnant; là ou l’on [227] parle le patois gallo c’est la Haute Bretagne ou Pays Gallo.

           A l’époque de Nomenoé (IXe siècle), cette limite se trouvait marquée par une ligne partant de l’embouchure du Couesnon (Ille-et-Vilaine) et allant aboutir à Savenay (Loire-Inférieure) en passant à peu près par Tinténiac, Montfort, Bain et Guémené. Les Invasions normandes la firent reculer considérablement, mais depuis le XVe siècle elle n’a presque pas bougé, elle commence à Plouha (Côtes-du-Nord) et se termine à l’est de Vannes. A gauche donc: la Basse Bretagne, à droite: la Haute Bretagne. [Nothing is more untrue, given that the major part of Upper Brittany used to speak Breton and that the current border between Upper and Lower Brittany does not follow a geographic or geological border. It is a linguistic border and thus variable: Lower Brittany is where Breton is spoken;  where the Gallic dialect is spoken is Upper Brittany or the Gallic Land. At the time of the Nomenoé (eleventh century), the border ran from the delta of the river Couesnon (Ille-et-Villaine) to Savenay (Lower Loire) passing more or less throught Tinténiac, Montfort, Bain and Guémené. The Norman invasions pushed it back considerably, but since the fifteenth century the border has not changed much, it begins at Plouha (Côtes-du-Nord) and it ends east of Vannes. To the left, Lower Brittany, on the right, Upper Brittany.]

Note: The distinction between Western, Breton-speaking, Low Brittany (Basse-Bretagne) and Eastern, French or Gallo-speaking, High Brittany (Haute-Bretagne) is projected upon Ireland.

VI.C.12.095(h)-(i)

(k)        J suis un sot breton >

VI.C.12.095(j)

(l)         (z’haut)

Revue de Bretagne (1904) 230: Si vous le questionnez sur la Basse-Bretagne, il vous dira que c’est là qu’on parle breton, mais que les gens de son pays ne le savent pas et qu’ils sont des sots-bretons. Je ne sais quelle est l’origine de ce mot, peut-être est-il la pour haut et qu’à l’origine on disait des z’hauts-bretons. Toujours est-il que, maintenant, le paysan gallo n’a nulle honte en disant : je suis un sot-breton. Il le dit avec une intonation franche, mais dans laquelle perce comme une vague intuition de son infériorité au point de vue breton, de ne pas avoir conservé la langue que parlent toujours ses frères de Basse-Bretagne. [If you ask them about Lower Brittany, you will be told that it is there where Breton is spoken, but that his own people do not know it and that they are fool-breton. I don’t know the origins of that word, maybe it means high and at the origin it was the high Bretons. In any case nowadays the peasant from Gallo is not ashamed to say that he is a “fool-breton”. He makes the claim with assurance, but with a vague sense of inferiority in terms of being a breton, of not having preserved the language still spoken by his brothers in Lower Brittany.]

VI.C.12.095(k)

(m)       b accordeon

Revue de Bretagne (1904) 232: Il y a encore en Haute-Bretagne quelques pardons. Le plus vivant est celui de Saint-Marthurin de Moncontour (Côtes-du-Nord) à la Pentecôte; on y danse même au son du biniou et de la bombarde. Les Hauts-Bretons ont aussi leurs danses particulières : outre la ronde, les plus en vogue sont les avant-deux, les gigouiettes et les polkas-piquées. Les valses et les mazurkas, quioque tendant à les supplanter, ne les ont pas encore remplacées, car elles sont bien ternes à côté de ces danses locales pleines de mouvement, dansées avec accompagnement d’accordéon ou, le plus souvent, de la voix. [There are stll “pardons” in Upper-Brittany. The most popular is the one at Saint-Marthurin de Moncontour (Côtes-du-Nord) at Pentecost; people dance there by the music of bagpipes and bombards. People in Upper-Brittany also have their own particular dances: apart from the ronde, the most popular are the avant-deux, the gigouiettes and the polkas-piquées. Waltzes and mazurkas, although becoming more popular, have not yet replaced them, because they are quite dull compared to the local dances that are full of movement, danced to the accompaniment of an accordion or, most often, a singing voice.]

VI.C.12.095(l)

(n)        gwriting he was

Revue de Bretagne (1904) 232: L’hiver, les Hauts-Bretons se réunissent également à la veillée et, au point de vue de l’abondance, les conteurs de la Haute-Bretagne ne le cèdent en rien à ceux de la Basse. En 1892 mon père enregistrait :

                                           550 récits pour le pays Gallo,

                                           Et 480   -     -    -    Bretonnant. [In the winter the Upper-Bretons also come together in the evenings in terms of abundance, the story tellers of Upper-Brittany are in no way inferior to the ones in the lower region. In 1892 my father registered 550 tales in the land of Gallo, and 480 in the Breton speaking lands.]

Not located in MS/FW

(o)        w Sits on coif to iron it

Revue de Bretagne (1904) 235: Autrefois, les coiffes étaient bien plus économiques; elles étaient souvent en toile, comme dans le environs de Dinan. Elles coùtaient bien moins cher que les coiffes en dentelle d’aujourd’hui, on pouvait les laver et, comme m’expliquait une bonne femme du pays gallo, pour les repasser, il n’t avait … qu’à s’asseoir dessus. [In the old days the caps were cheaper ; they were often made of canvas, as in the area around Dinan. They were a lot less costly than the caps in lace we see nowadays, they could be washed and, as a good lady of the Gallo region told me, if they needed ironing, you could just sit on them.]

VI.C.12.095(m)

VI.B.14.098

(e)        Jakez, Jalm

Note: Jakez and Jalm are Breton forms of Jacques or James.

VI.C.12.100(d)

VI.B.14.099

(c)        Fanche (mariée)

Cf. Paul Sébillot, Les littératures populaires de toutes les nations: Coutumes populaires de la Haute-Bretagne (1886), 325: Françoise, FanchetteFanchonChonne, la Chon. (Fanche, vers Bécherel; en ce pays les filles s’appellent Fanchette et les femmes mariées Fanche).

VI.C.12.101(e)

VI.B.14.100

(f)        double row of buttons

VI.C.12.103(a)

(i)         flowered masts

Note: cf La Bretagne et ses Traditions 2, 52: D'abord, le bateau neuf est orné d'un drapeau tricolore qui flotte sur le plus haut de ses mâts, autour de la hampe, duquel on a placé un bouquet de fleurs cueillies dans le jardin du patron du nouveau bâtiment. [First the new boat is decorated with the three-coloured flag that flies from the pole on the highest mast, on which one has placed a bunch of flowers gathered from the garden of the new boat’s patron.]

VI.C.12.103(d)

(j)         built in eclipse on / Good Friday

Note: cf Bretagne et ses traditions 2, 52: Que le navire ait quelque défectuosité dans sa construction ou paraisse voué à la malchance, il ne tiendra pas bien la mer, il ne pourra pas se comporter comme il faudrait aux jours de gros temps. Et, si le « mauvais œil » s’est attaché à lui, le poisson insensible à l’appât que lui jetteront les pêcheurs, fuira les filets qu’ils lui tendent, et quelque jour un coup de vent soudain ou une tempête le feront chavirer. Il importe qu’il soit solidement construit. [When the boat has some defect in its construction or seems destined to have bad luck, it will not ride well on the sea, it will not behave as it should on days with bad weather. And if the “evil eye” is on it, the fish will be blind to the bait that the fishermen throw at them and will flee their nets, and one day a sudden wind or a tempest will make it capsize. It must be built solidly.]

VI.C.12.103(e)

(k)        compère de bois (S.S.) >

Note: Fr. Compère de bois. Wooden fellow.

VI.C.12.103(f)

(l)         [quincunx pattern] { stuffed with blessed / bread & a peg >

VI.C.12.103(g)

(m)       draughtboard cake >

Note: Possibly a Battenberg cake, which is an oblong cake covered with almond paste, usually in two alternating colours of sponge, so that each cross-section shows a checkerwork pattern.

VI.C.12.103(h)

(n)        wine = black cock’s blood >

VI.C.12.103(i)

(o)        Cpt led [home] by W halter >

Note : cf La Bretagne et ses Traditions 2, 53-55: Pendant la cérémonie du baptême religieux, on distribue du pain bénit aux assistants. Le nouveau baptisé a, comme l'enfant, son parrain et sa marraine. Ils s'appellent réciproquement «commère de bois» et «compère de bois», parce que celui qu'ils ont « nommé » est en bois et non en chair et en os.

Aux environs de Paimpol, le prêtre assisié du sacristain et des choristes chante le Te Deum, puis le parrain et la marraine se livrent à une pratique étrange et probablement très ancienne:

En haut de l'étrave (pièce de bois qui limite le navire à l'avant et va de la quille au mât d'avant) on a creusé d'avance, disposés en forme de croix, cinq trous dans lesquels ils placent du pain bénit, puis ils enfoncent dans chaque trou une cheville de bois. Le chant de l'Ave Maris Stella qui suit celle opération la christianise en quelque sorte, et c'est à ce moment que le compère et la commère « de bois », distribuent à tous des morceaux d'un gâteau sucré, fabriqué spécialement pour cette cérémonie. Le dessus de ces gâteaux forme un damier, et chaque personne présente en reçoit un petit carré découpé par le parrain.

Autrefois, le patron du nouveau navire se livrait à un véritable sacrifice païen: il se procurait un coq noir et l'égorgeait sur le pont. Son sang, dont on aspergeait le bateau neuf, était destiné à lui porter [53] chance, comme à terre il préservait du malheur les maisons nouvellement construites. Vers 1900, cette coutume se perpétuait, mais atténuée, sous une forme aussi symbolique, mais moins barbare. Une bouteille de vin rouge remplaçait le coq et le patron la brisait sur le bateau.

Le vin, dont la couleur rappelle le sang, tachait, comme lui, le bois d'une empreinte pourpre... Le patron se signait ensuite et écrasait du biscuit dans le liquide répandu en prononçant une formule rituelle :

           Biscuit et bouteille de vin,

           Fais que sur mon bateau ne manque jamais le pain.

Et c'est l'origine, encore de nos jours, de la bouteille de Champagne brisée lors du lancement officiel des navires les plus grands.

***

Le bateau baptisé chrétiennement et païennement, la fête n'était pas encore terminée.

Jadis, aussitôt après ces différents baptêmes, le patron descendait sur le quai; sa femme lui passait un licol autour de la tête et le conduisait à la maison; il la suivait docilement, comme un mouton; il ne devait pas manger ce soir-là et se couchait sans souper. Voici le sens très symbolique de cette coutume bizarre; si le patron est maître souverain à son bord, c'est la femme qui est maîtresse à terre...

C'est elle qui « tient la bourse », veille au logis, répare les filets, cultive le jardin et le petit champ près de la maison, et se charge souvent de la vente du poisson que son mari a rapporté de la pêche.

Quand le nouveau bateau va à la pêche pour la première fois, il laisse partir toute la flottille avant de hisser ses voiles; l'équipage, au retour, paye; à boire à celui des pêcheurs du bord qui a pris le plus de poisson; un joyeux repas termine presque toujours cette première sortie.

Mais, s'il a des avaries, on le ramène an port et on l'y laisse pendant huit jours avant de le sortir une seconde fois.

Ainsi, les précautions prises pour assurer la chance à l'embarcation étaient nombreuses; la plupart, à présent, tombent en désuétude. Toutefois le baptême chrétien des nouveaux bateaux se pra- [53] tique encore et certains rites païens sont observés, plus ou moins secrètement. Mais l'usage de boire à sa santé ne souffre pas d'exception...

[During the ceremony of religious baptism, consecrated bread is distributed among the people present. The newly baptized has, like the child, a godmother and godfather. They call each other, respectively, woodmother and woodfather, because the one whom they are “naming” is made of wood and not of flesh and bones.

Around Paimpol the priest, with the help of the sexton and the choir sings the Te Deum, while godfather and godmother engage in a strange and probably very old practice:

On top of the bow (the piece of wood at the front of the ship between the keel and the front mast, five holes have been made beforehand, distributed in the form of a cross, in which they place pieces of consecrated bread, and then they plug each hole with a wooden peg; the singing of the Ave Maris Stella that follows this operation christianizes it in a way, and it is at this point that all those present are given cakes with sugar that have been baked for this special occasion by the woodfather and woodmother. One side of these cakes forms a checkerboard and each person present is given one small square cut by the woodfather.

In the old days the patron of the boat then performed a real pagan sacrifice: a black rooster was slaughtered on the bridge, the blood was then sprinkled on the boat in the hope of bringing it good luck, in the same way that on land it protected newly built buildings from evil. Around 1900 this custom survived in a lesser and more symbolic and civilized form. A bottle of wine replaced the rooster and the patron hit the boat with it.

The wine, the colour of which is linked to the blood, also coloured the wood with a purple shine … The patron then crossed himself and crushed a bit of bisquit in the liquid in speaking this ritual formula:

           Bisquit and bottle of wine,

           Make that on my ship there will always be enough bread.

And that is the origin, even today, of the bottle of Champagne that is dashed against the largest ships at their official launch.

***

The boat is now baptized in a Christian and a pagan manner, but the party isn’t over yet. In the old days, immediately after the different baptisms, the patron would go on land; his wife put a halter around his head and then took him home; he followed her obediently, like a sheep; he was not allowed to eat that night and went to bed without dinner. This is the very symbolical meaning of this strange custom; if the patron is the sovereign master on board, it is his wife who is master on land…

She “keeps the purse”, keeps the house, repairs the nets and tends the garden and the field close to the house; she is also sometimes involved in selling the fish that her husband brings home.

When the boat goes out fishing for the first time, he lets the whole fleet leave before he hoists the sails; on returning the crew buys a drink for the fisherman on board who brought the biggest catch; this first trip almost always ends with a great dinner.

But if there is some damage, the ship is brought back to port and left there for eight days before it will go out a second time.

But all those precautions that used to be taken in order to enhance the chances of a lucky launch have now almost all disappeared. In any case new boats still get the Christian baptism and some of the pagan rites still exist, more or less in secret. But the habit of drinking to its health never fails to be followed ….

VI.C.12.103(j)

VI.B.14.102

 (d)       rlay to heart

MS 47474-160, TsILS: and lay at ^+till+^^+to+^+^ his feet ^+heartsfoot+^ her meddery eygs | JJA 48:085 | !Jun 1924-Jul 1925 | I.8§1.4 | FW 199.16

VI.B.14.103

(b)        rlolling a

Selected Essays 23: There is not perhaps in existence a product of the human mind so extraordinary as the Irish annals. From a time dating for more than three thousand years before the birth of Christ, the stream of Hibernian history flows down uninterrupted, copious and abounding, between accurately defined banks, with here and there picturesque meanderings, here and there flowers lolling on those delusive waters, but never concealed in mists or lost in a marsh.

MS 47474-133, TsILS: lying ^+lolling+^ and leasing on Lazy Wall | JJA 48:067 | Apr-May 1925 | I.8§1.3 | FW 209.03

(c)        dislimn >

Note: Dislimn. The opposite of limn: to efface (something limned), to obliterate.

VI.C.12.105(d)

(d)        grouting >

VI.C.12.105(e)

(e)        shot rubbish

Selected Essays 24: Romances and poems supplied the great blocks with which the fabric was reared. These the chroniclers fitted into their places, into the interstices pouring shot-rubbish, and grouting. The bardic intellect, revolving round certain material facts, namely, the mighty barrows of their ancestors, produced gradually a vast body of definite historic lore, life-like kings and heroes, real-seeming queens. The mechanical intellect followed with perspicuous arrangement, with a thirst for accuracy, minuteness, and verisimilitude. With such quarrymen and such builders the work went on apace, and anon a fabric huge rose like an exhalation, and like an exhalation its towers and pinnacles of empurpled mist are blown asunder and dislimn.

VI.C.12.105(f)

(f)        Eocha of heavy sighs >

VI.C.12.105(g)

(g)        Morans of stranglecollar / Lara of ships

Selected Essays 25: Eocha of the heavy sighs, how shall we certify or how deny the existence of that melancholy man, or of Tiernmas, who introduced the worship of fire? Lara of the ships, did he really cross the sea to Gaul, and return thence to give her name to Leinster, and beget Leinster kings? Ugainey More, did he rule to the Torrian sea, holding sea-coast towns in fee, or was he a prehistoric shadow thrown into the past from the stalwart figure of Niall of the Hostages? Was Morann a real Brehon, or fabulous as the collar that threatened to strangle him in the utterances of unjust judgments?

Note: Morann, son of Carbri, King of Ireland, was known as the ‘Just Judge’. He, and his successors in the office of Chief Justice wore a collar of gold, which would choke the wearer if he was about to give an unjust decision.

VI.C.12.105(h)

(h)        kerds wrought

Note: See 175 (d).

Selected Essays 30: There, too, at one time, the same phantasmagoria prevailed, real-seeming warriors thundered, kings glittered, kerds wrought, harpers harped, chariots rolled.

VI.C.12.105(i)-(j)

(i)         Fintan lived on both / sides of flood

Note: See also 175 (g).

Selected Essays 30: there the Queen Ceasair and her comrades, pre-Noachian wanderers; there Fintann, who lived on both sides of the great flood, and roamed the depths when the world was submerged; there Partholanus and his ill-starred race

VI.C.12.105(k)

(j)         walled cathair

Note: Ir. cathair. Various evolving meanings include a walled enclosure, fortress, dwelling; a monastic enclosure; a fortified city.

Selected Essays 33: We see the stone cist with its great smooth flags, the rocky cairn, and huge barrow and massive walled cathair, but the interest which they invariably excite is only aroused to subside again unsatisfied.

VI.C.12.105(l)

(k)        milldam of Nemna (1st)

Selected Essays 34: On the plain of Tara, beside the little stream Nemna, itself famous as that which first turned a mill-wheel in Ireland, there lies a barrow, not itself very conspicuous in the midst of others, all named and illustrious in the ancient literature of the country.

VI.C.12.106(a)

(l)         rselfraising >

MS 47474-33, TsILA: present of ^+a selfraising+^ syringue | JJA 47:419 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 188.30

(m)       rath of Slieve Mish >

Note: Ir. Ráth. Ring fort. Slieve Mish, mountains in County Kerry.

VI.C.12.106(b)

(n)        caiseal (Aran)

Note: Ir. Caiseal. Ancient stone fort. There are a number of stone forts on the Aran Islands, perhaps the most famous is Dun Aengus, on Inishmore.

Selected Essays 38-9: The mounds of Tara, the great barrows along the shores of the Boyne, the raths of Slieve Mish, Rathcrogan, and Teltown, the stone caiseals of Aran and Innishowen, and those that alone or in smaller groups stud the country over, are all, or nearly all, mentioned in this ancient literature, with the names and traditional histories over whom they were raised.

VI.C.12.106(c)

 

VI.B.14.104

(a)        rpagany

?Selected Essays 39 (the start of the paragraph following the one with ‘caiseals of Aran’): The indigenous history of the surrounding nations commences with the Christian ages—that of Ireland runs back into the pre-Christian. [...] The stream of the Irish bardic literature still lingers in the mountains which gave it birth. It is near the well-head.

MS 47482b-85v, ILA: – You know ^+Are you acquainted+^ a ^+pagany+^ man ^+better+^ known as Toucher Doyle | JJA 58:046 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2/3B.*0 | FW 506.28

(g)        O.W. pea beat pots for / dead to come & warn se

Note: O. W. Joyce’s usual abbreviation for Oscar Wilde, but here probably Old Woman. See 72(d), 94(c), 104(g), 105(i).

VI.C.12.106(g)

(k)        ob it is foreign to me

Connacht Tribune 16 August 1924-2/3: D.C. in Jail. Alleged Sequel to Compensation Claim. […] Mr. Delaney asked who were the tenants of labourers’ cottages that had land.

Mr. Conway: Find them out. You must know them.

Mr. Delaney: But I don’t. If they have, it is foreign to me.

Mr. Conway: You need not pretend to be so innocent. As an old member of the council you should know.

?MS 47484a-41, TsILA: Look at my brand ^+jailbrand+^ ^+highmarked ^+High marked+^+^ on me ^+in the foreign+^ Eggs squawfish | JJA 58:175 | Jan 1925-Apr 1926 | III§3A.4/3B.4 | FW 484.35

(l)         harp & crown

Connacht Tribune 16 August 1924-3/6: Ring Out the Old. The new garda crest over the guards’ barracks, at Ballinasloe, which replaces the “Crown and harp,” adds immensely to the aesthetic appearance of the building and has been the centre of much attraction. Market day in the town.

VI.C.12.106(j)

(m)       hell on its hind legs

Connacht Tribune 16 August 1924-3/6-8: [advertisement] HELL ON ITS HIND LEGS. […] Dublin’s First Rodeo or Championship Exhibition of Cowboy Sports at Croke Park

VI.C.12.107(a)

VI.B.14.105

(c)        ^+roast+^ pigs in street run >

Note: Units (c)-(f) appear to form a group.

VI.C.12.107(c)

(d)        gsalt & pepper in ear >

MS 47483-37, TsIA: incensed ^+as he shook the ^+red+^ pepper out of his ears ^+auricles.+^+^ | JJA 57:171 | Mar 1926 | III§1A.5/1D.5//2A.5/2B.2/2C.5 | FW 412.14-15

(e)        fork in [e]chine >

VI.C.12.107(d)

(f)        mustard under tails

Note: Traditional ending of Breton fairy tale: See Revue des Traditions Populaires 1902, 242-3: Ils firent de belles noces: il y a avait des barriques à tous les coins de rues, des cochons rôtis qui couraient par les rues avec la fourchette sur le dos, du poivre et du sel dans les oreilles et la moutarde sous la queue, et qui en voulait, coupait un morceau. J’étais chargé [242] de faire la sauce, mais j’eus la sottise d’y goûter et l’on me mit dehors; alors je m’en allai par sur le pont de Ganédic, et voilà le conte fini.          

[They had a wonderful wedding : there were barrels at every corner of the street, roasted pigs ran in the street with forks in their back, salt and pepper in their ears and mustard under their tails, and everybody who wanted, could slice off a piece. I was responsible for the sauce, but I made the mistake of tasting it and I was kicked outside; so I went to the bridge of Ganédic and that is the end of my tale.]

VI.C.12.107(e)

VI.B.14.106

(h)        b & n heads long & / short of it

VI.C.12.108(e)

VI.B.14.108

 (f)       Wherever you go find / a Finn (S[v]ea[r])

VI.C.12.110(g)

(l)         Tromenie

Note: 108(l)-109(k) apparently derive from a description of the Troménie, a Breton ‘pardon’ procession.

VI.C.12.111(a)

VI.B.14.109

(b)        8 days under tents / (Tromenie)

Note: See 108(l).

VI.C.12.111(e)

 (i)        Eutrope – hospitals

Note: Saint Eutropius was a great healer.

VI.C.12.112(c)

VI.B.14.112

(e)        sapiential

Saint Colomban (Vers 540-615) 14n1: Nous ne pouvons guère juger des études que fit Colomban que d’après ses oeuvres; mais cette enquête, forcément incomplète, nous donne déjà une haute idée de sa science. Il connaît à fond l’Ecriture, surtout les Psaumes, les livres sapientiaux et le Nouveau Testament; il cite saint Jérôme (Liber de Viris illustribus; lib. In Ezechiel) [We can hardly judge Colomban’s studies except through his works; but this research, incomplete in any case, gives us great esteem for his learning. He knew Scripture completely, especially the Psalms, the wisdom literature and the New Testament; he cites saint Hieronymus (Liber de Viris illustribus; lib. In Ezechiel)]

Note: Sapiential. Characterised by wisdom, hence it is usually applied to the ‘wisdom’ books of the Bible—Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus—as well as to some of the similar, non-canonical writings.

VI.C.12.115(b)

(m)       the gossips (menhirs)

Note: See 006(d)

South of Penmarch there are a few menhirs that are called ‘Fistillerien’ or the ‘Gossips’.

VI.C.12.115(h)

VI.B.14.113

(d)        rvoices of Swaabs

Saint Colomban (Vers 540-615) 37: Un jour, absorbé dans de pieuses considérations, il se demandait s’il valait mieux tomber entre les mains des brigands ou sous la griffe des fauves: il venait de conclure pour la seconde alternative, car un animal, si cruel soit-il envers sa victime, fait son œuvre d’animal et n’offense point le Très-Haut. Tout à coup, il se voit cerné par douze loups furieux. Sans s’émouvoir il invoque le secours d’En Haut par le verset Deus in adjutorium meum intende, qui déjà se répétait souvent dans le cours de la psalmodie. Cependant les bêtes s’approchent... leur cercle se resserre... déjà, elles sont sur lui ; elles flairent ses vêtements ; mais, ô prodige, elles reculent, vaincues par cette intrépidité ou plutôt par cette confiance surhumaine dans l’assistance du Tout Puissant. A peine ce danger passé, il entendit les pas et les voix de Suèves qui circulaient par le fourré, cherchant aventure ; mais ils ne le virent point... [One day, absorbed in pious thought, he wondered whether it would be better to fall into the hands of brigands or under the claws of wild beasts. He settled upon the second alternative, since an animal, however cruel it might be towards its victim, is doing the work of an animal and does not offend the Almighty. All of a sudden he found himself surrounded by twelve angry wolves. Without being moved he invoked help from the Almighty through the verse Deus in adjutorium meum intende, which he had already repeated frequently in the course of the psalmody. Meanwhile the beasts approached him… their circle tightened… soon they were on him. They smelled his clothes, but, O marvel, they retreated, defeated by his fearlessness or rather by his superhuman confidence in the aid of the Almighty. This danger had hardly passed when he heard the steps and the voices of the Suevi who were wandering through the woods looking for adventure, but they did not see him at all.]

MS 47482b-69v, LPA: old fellow ^+^+^+What about the old peachlover ^+esquire earwugs?+^ +^ The Swaaber!+^ The twicer! Bloody curse to him!+^ | JJA 58:069 | Nov-Dec 1924 | II§3A.*1+ | FW 485.24

(h)        S Azenora / milk for males

Note: S. Azenor or Azenora is a saint worshipped in Brittany. She gave birth to a (male) child, while floating on the ocean in a barrel. Near Lesneven, in Finistère, there is a sacred well, visited by mothers whose milk is insufficient to feed their child. In Gould’s guide to Brittany (1924) we read: ‘Benzec-Cap-Sizun. The church (S. Budoc)  has a fine 16th cent, tower. Near the hamlet of Kerbanalec is an allee couverte. The holy well of Ste. Azenora (the Cornish Sennara), mother of S. Budoc, is supposed to have the peculiarity of filling with milk the breasts of any man who drinks thereof. Mothers nursing their children frequent it. P. at N.D. de la Clarte on the Sunday after the 15th August (40)’.

VI.C.12.116(d)

VI.B.14.114

(e)        Winioc, comp[?], >

VI.C.12.117(h)

VI.B.14.115

(e)        back to 55 yrs ago

Irish Times 22 August 1924-6/4: POSTAL RETROGRESSION. Mr. P. Donohue, Chairman, at the meeting of the Kilkenny Farmers’ Union, stated that an old postman had informed him that the postal services are back to where they were fifty-five years ago, both as regards services and charges. It was decided to ask the Government to appoint a commission to inquire into the postal and telegraphic services in rural areas.

VI.C.12.118(i)

(f)        omake act of contrition >

?MS 47472-158, TsILA: and lay him out ^+contritely+^ as soon as he ^+the+^ ^+b – r+^ had his “^+night+^ prayers | JJA 46:034 | 1926-27 | I.4§1A.3 | FW 081.27

(g)        gyr pudding is cooked

Irish Times 22 August 1924-6/3: MONAGHAN BANK RAID. APPEAL BY CONVICTED MEN. […] In this particular case an officer said to one of the prisoners: “If you don’t tell who robbed the bank we will plug you,” and “Make an act of contrition,” and “If you don’t tell, your pudding is cooked.” The prisoner was put in fear and terror of death when he made the alleged confession, and, consequently, it was not legally admissible in evidence.

MS 47483-39, TsIS: ^+One time ^+tempe+^ he wanted to put his ^+bilingual+^ head ^+intentionally+^ through the Irish Temes ^+Tames+^. The Inkupot! Your pudding is cooked! You’re served, cramm you!+^ | JJA 57:173 | Mar 1926 | III§1A.5/1D.5//2A.5/2B.2/2C.5 | FW 424.12

(h)        Only an ant or a fool / wd make + lines

VI.C.12.118(j)

(k)        perambulatory court

Saint Colomban (Vers 540-615) 100: ils le virent quitter son désert et se rendre à Epoisses, villa royale où la cour, toujours ambulante sous les Mérovingiens, venait de se transporter. [they saw him leave his wilderness and go to Epoisses, the royal villa where the court, always ambulatory under the Merovingians, had just arrived.]

(m)       gPeace! b

Saint Colomban (Vers 540-615) 121: Sa première parole est une parole de paix : « La paix soit avec vous! » n’est-ce pas le souhait que le Sauveur ressuscité adressait à ses disciples? mais cette paix, pour le vaillant athlète, n’est point le nonchaloir qui s’endort dans une fallacieuse sécurité [His first word is a word of peace : « May peace be with you! » isn’t that what the resurrected Saviour told his disciples? but this peace, for the brave athlete, is hardly the indolent who falls asleep as a result of a false feeling of security]

Note: See 24(e)

MS 47483-40, TsILS: Shaun replied ^+in penultimatum+^ ^+ --No-one could^+Peace, peace!+^, Shaun replied, | JJA 57:174 | late 1924 | III§1A.5/1D.5//2A.5/2B.2/2C.5 | FW 424.26

VI.B.14.116

(b)        u better known as oo

VI.C.12.119(d)

(f)        bears respected him

Saint Colomban (Vers 540-615) 141-2: les ours respectaient la nourri-[141]ture du père abbé  [the bears spared the food of the abbot]

VI.C.12.119(g)

(h)        Col. adonique verses^+vers+^

Saint Colomban (Vers 540-615) 143-4: Tantôt, recourant à la poésie qui charma tant de loisir et endormit tant de souffrances, il se plaisait à composer, pour servir de thèmes aux méditations, de / petits morceaux en vers hexamètres ou adoniques, acrostiches ou en prose rythmée, qu’il adressait, suivant les occasions, à l’un ou l’autre, à Hunald, à Séthus, à Fidolius. [Presently, having recourse to the poetry that charmed so many leisure hours and put so many sufferings to rest, he took delight in composing, as themes for meditation, little pieces in hexameter or adonic verse, acrostics, or measured prose, that he addressed, depending on the occasion, to Hunald, Sethus or Fidolius.]

Note: Adonic. A metre in Latin and Greek prosody, consisting of a dactyl followed by a spondee or trochee.

VI.C.12.119(i)

(m)       ^+melior+^ Canis quam Leo

Saint Colomban (Vers 540-615) 85: « […] Votre science se dérobe derrière l’opinion de vos prédecesseurs, de saint Léon en particulier. En une telle question, l’humilité qui s’efface derrière l’opinion des défunts, s’expose à ne pas rencontrer la vérité.» Et, empruntant à un vieux proverbe populaire un jeu de mots quelque peu déplacé, il ajoutait: «Dans le cas présent, un chien vivant est plus utile qu’un lion mort (n1)». [ “[…] Your science takes refuge behind the opinion of your predecessors, Saint Leon in particular. In such matters, the kind of humility that effaces itself behind the opinion of the deceased is liable never to reach the truth”. And, borrowing a pun for an old proverb, he added: “In the present case a living dog is more useful than a dead lion (n1)”]

n1: Leo, en latin, signifie également lion et Léon. [n1: Leo, in Latin, signifies both lion and Leon]

Note: Fr. Mâtin. Mastiff.

VI.C.12.120(c)

VI.B.14.118

 (e)       te (26, 23, 21, 24)  xi / paschal? "

Saint Colomban (Vers 540-615) 197n2: La fête de saint Colomban est encore célébrée dans plusieurs diocèses, entre autres Nancy, au 27 novembre ; Saint-Dié, au 26 ; Tortone, au 23 ; Plaisance, Chiavari, Saint-Gall, au 24, etc. [The feast of Saint Columbanus is still celebrated in various dioceses, among others Nancy, on November 27th; Saint-Dié on the 26th; Tortone on the 23rd; Plaisance, Chiavari, Saint-Gall on the 24th, etc.]

Note: The last word of the entry probably alludes to the variations in the date of celebration of Easter. See 115(a).

VI.C.12.121(g)-(h)

(f)        er ger ’mañ >

VI.C.12.121(i)

(g)        [?] , in the house he is

Note: These two probably make a single unit. In Breton dictionaries ‘ger’ is defined as ‘word’, but here it may be an alternative form of ‘ker’ (so transformed when coming after “er”?) which means ‘house’ (or village). The preposition “er” means “in” and “mañ is equivalent to French ‘-ci.’ Thus, from a Grammaire celto-bretonne: ‘Kéreñam euz er ger-mañ, j’ai des parens dans cette ville-ci.’

VI.C.12.121(j)

VI.B.14.119

(j)         Mel Beniget / stone mallet to kill O.M. >

Note: Breton. Mel Benijet. Blessed hammer.

O.M. Old men.

VI.C.12.123(c)-(d)

VI.B.14.121

(n)        odressed stone >

MS 47471a-5, ILA: to rise ^+in undress masonr mas maisonry+^ upstanded | JJA 44:049 | Nov 1926 | I.1§1.*1 | FW 004.35

(o)        flaked

The Megalithic Monuments 9: The Eolithic or split stones of the earliest period, discovered in the tertiary strata, are of very doubtful authenticity, and are the subject of much discussion. Not so the Palaeolithic, or flaked, or worked stones, of the second period, discovered at the bottom of the quaternary strata with the remains of extinct or migrated animals. These flaked stones are divided into different types, of which the most ancient is the Chellean type, of Chelles (Seine-et-Marne), having more or less the shape of an almond, dressed on its two faces, but differing very much in form, shape, and finish.

VI.C.12.125(k)

VI.B.14.122

(a)        Man lived

The Megalithic Monuments 10: Coincident with the deterioration of the Stone Age was the appearance of several new implements; these latter were developed during the later quaternary period with a climate cold and dry, during which the Elephas primigenius and the Rhinoceros Tichorhinus existed. Man himself lived in caves and wore clothes made of skins, and had ornaments made especially of shells.

VI.C.12.126(a)

(b)        domesticates a goat h >

VI.C.12.126(b)

(c)        earthenware >

VI.C.12.126(c)

(d)        oterracotta >

MS 47484a-40, TsILA: That is an old fellow now ^+, Tommy Terracotta,+^ | JJA 58:174 | Jan 1925-Apr 1926 | III§3A.4/3B.4 | FW 481.32

(e)        bronze { awl gouge / pile dweller / soft rock fabrique / trepanning / handlemakers >

Note: Trepan. To cut an annular groove or hole in something.

VI.C.12.126(d)

(f)        sacred pottery >

VI.C.12.126(e)

(g)        chariot sepulture >

VI.C.12.126(f)

(h)        Earth burial { over / on / under

The Megalithic Monuments 10-12: Besides the implements which we have mentioned man had a good many others during the Chellean epoch, such as blades and scrapers, and, later on, saws, rakes, scrapers, double-edged and notched burins or graving tools, awls, etc. […] From the cold, dry climate of the reindeer period we arrive by transition at our present climate. Certain of the animals which existed in our district have migrated, others have developed; some have been domesticated by man, such as the dog, the ox, the horse, the sheep, the goat; at this epoch a new implement made its appearance—the polished axe. Thus appears the Neolithic or New Stone Age. Earthenware also appeared, but already so perfect that the art had evidently been practiced earlier. [10] Man makes himself huts, and on the lakes pile-dwellings; he cultivates corn and flax and weaves cloth. From a hunter he becomes a shepherd and a husbandman. His implements, weapons and tools change and increase in number; the dressed flint continues, the axe, the gouge and the hammer are polished and are provided with handles. Manufactories for the working of different hard and soft rocks appear and their produce is sent into all parts. With this new industry we find certain indications of a religion in the care which is taken of the dead. Special chambers are prepared for their bodies, and with the corpses are laid their weapons, jewels, and amulets; alongside, but in less important sepulchres, the slaves and servants are placed. In certain districts these sepulchral chambers are dug in the earth, in others they are built above ground with detached blocks of stone and then covered with earth and stone, thus forming a tumulus. The monuments being burial-places, the human bones of this period are very numerous. The races are already very much mixed; they practised trepanning, and certain indications lead us to believe that they were cannibals. [...] Bronze makes its appearance about this time in the shape of axes which were at first flat. [...] The weapons and implements of stone of the dead are no longer [11] utilitarian but votive objects; pottery even attains a sacred character. [...] It was also the time of the chariot-sepulture in Champagne called Marnienne (fourth century, B.C.). It was, to sum up, the dawn of our history.

VI.C.12.126(g)

(i)         rbarrow >>

MS 47482b-67v, LPA: – You told us a moment since of this barrow. | JJA 58:014 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*1+ | FW 479.24

VI.B.14.123

(a)        omound

The Megalithic Monuments 14: 9. Tumulus: The tumulus is a mass of earth forming an artificial mound. There are two kinds of tumili: the oblong, also called “barrow”; example: The Tumulus of St. Michel; and the circular tumulus; example: The Tumulus of Kercado.

MS 47484a-39, TsILA: about this ^+mound or+^ barrow. | JJA 58:173 | Jan 1925-Apr 1926 | III§3A.4/3B.4 | FW 479.23

(b)        capped menhir

The Megalithic Monuments 20: A menhir among a small group, and lying to the west of the road, is capped.

VI.C.12.126(h)

(c)        peuhen

?The Megalithic Monuments 23: Menhir: —In Breton “men” = “stone,” “hir” = “long.” The menhir is an unfashioned stone placed vertically, and is found isolated or in groups; it is also sometimes called “Peulven.” Example: The Giant of Kerderf at Carnac.”

VI.C.12.126(i)

(d)        erratics

The Megalithic Monuments 23: The large stone blocks forming the monuments called megalithic are of the granite of the district and are doubtless erratics, i.e., blocks of stone remaining on the surface after the receding of the ice of the glacial age.

VI.C.12.127(a)

(e)        Killed by a Kelt

The Megalithic Monuments 24 [also inspired by the numerous k-sounds in the following sentence]: This last excavation having led to the discovery of a crypt containing 32 axes or stone celts, three turquoise necklaces and remains of human bones not cremated aroused considerable interest.

VI.C.12.127(b)

(f)        ossuary

The Megalithic Monuments 25: The objects found in these tombs are principally:— 1. Human bones, cremated and natural, sometimes in great quantities indicating collective sepulchres or ossuaries; sometimes in very small quantities indicating individual sepulchres. Animal bones, chiefly of horses and cattle, are also found.

VI.C.12.127(c)

(g)        Men- gurun / (thunderstone)

The Megalithic Monuments 26: Axes or celts generally in hard stone, occasionally in rare stone. Some of them are pierced at the heel to allow of their being suspended. Several, from 10-42 centimetres long, are wonderfully perfect. They do not appear to have been used and can only have been votive axes; even at the present day our peasants consider them valuable talismans and call them Men-Gurun, or thunderbolts.

VI.C.12.127(d)

(h)        sub ascia

The Megalithic Monuments 27: [Quotation from Bulletin de La Société Polymathique] In the religion of the primitive Armorican who built the dolmens of Morbihan, the stone celt, or Men-Gurun, was purely and simply a sacred object to be placed in the tomb beside the dead, a sort of image or idol to be adored as a tutelary god. We are, moreover, led to imagine that this superstition concerning the dead became a dogma, and was handed down by uninterrupted tradition to the Romanised Gauls. They adopted the custom of consecrating their tombs to the deified spirits of the dead, whom they represented by figures in the shape of an axe under which was written the dedication:—“Sub ascia.”

Note: L. Sub ascia. Under the axe (or adze).

VI.C.12.127(e)

(j)         menhir grow smaller

Note: Cf. 006(c).

The Megalithic Monuments 28: It is equally difficult to understand why the large menhirs are always placed near a cromlech and why the menhirs themselves take an easterly direction and gradually diminish in size.

VI.C.12.127(g)

VI.B.14.124

(a)        soldiers petrified

Note: Cf. 005(l).

The Megalithic Monuments 31 [a legend about St. Cornély and the origin of the megaliths]: One evening he arrived on the outskirts of a village called Le Moustoir where he wished to stop; having however heard a young girl insulting her mother he continued his way and arrived shortly at the foot of a mountain where there was another small village. He then saw the sea in front of him and immediately behind him soldiers in battle array. He stopped and transformed the whole army into stones. [...] Pilgrims from all countries flocked to the place to implore St. Cornély to cure their diseased cattle. He cured them all in remembrance of the great services rendered to him by his yoke of oxen during his flight. The pilgrims, coming to the ‘Pardon of St. Cornély,’ passed among the stone soldiers. The men were supposed to bring stones, the women earth, and to drop them on an elevatioin near to Carnac where in time they formed the mount of St. Michel.

VI.C.12.127(h)

(b)        down with bronze!

The Megalithic Monuments 34: The date of origin of the menhirs and dolmens is undoubtedly to be found in the Neolithic or New Stone Age, but the religious use of these stone monuments was continued long after that period, and many of them date from a time when metals were well known. To begin with, gold is found in connection with them; other objects, such as weapons and ornaments of bronze, have also been found, and we have seen that the greater part of the objects found in the tombs were ritual and votive and were made especially to be placed there for use in the next world. Doubtless the use of metal was excluded by the religious caste which made and sold such articles. Not being able or willing to work the metals the priests of that time in this district, the centre of their religion, resisted the use of metal much longer than was the case elsewhere.

VI.C.12.127(i)

(c)        bury ass with him >

VI.C.12.127(j)

(d)        tomb for bargain)

The Megalithic Monuments 34: In the monuments everything—construction, orientation, contents—indicates a very advanced civilisation. We have seen that in several tumuli bones of horses and oxen have been discovered, and not far from a dolmen tombs containing what are doubtless the ashes and bones of slaves and servants have been found. It was customary for these primitive people to kill the animals, and probably the servants, of the dead so that they could be found again in another world. This shows us that they believed in a world to come. Everything tends to prove that the worship of the dead formed a great part of their religion, and that certain ceremonies and their bargains always took place beside the tombs.

VI.C.12.127(k)

(h)        rh half in Wood Quay / — Arran

Note: Wood Quay. South side of the Liffey, near Winetavern Street. Arran Quay. North side of the Liffey, between Queen Streen and Church Street.

MS 47482b-63v, LPA: ^+^+the half of him in Conn's half & the whole of him in Owen's five quarters,+^ chained down upon a bed of flowers+^ | JJA 58:006 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*1+ | FW 475.06-7

VI.B.14.125

(k)        maitre (SS) >

Saint Vincent Ferrier iii: Un assez récent biographe, le Père Fages l’avait compris: il lui fallait prendre le bâton de pèlerin de maître Vincent et visiter, en quête des pièces d’archives, les centaines de villes françaises, [ii] espagnoles, italiennes, où le saint avait jadis prêché. Il consacra son existence à cette tâche (1) et fut ainsi en mesure de publier, outre son Histoire de saint Vincent, quatre précieux volumes d’éditions de textes (2). / Malheureusement, cette figure de maître Vincent Ferrier que le Père Fages avait réussi en partie à faire revivre, est demeurée peu connue. [A rather recent biographer, Father Fages, seems to have understood : he needed to take the pilgrim staff from Master Vincent and visit, in search of archival evidence, hundreds of French, Spanish and Italian cities, where the saint had preached. He devoted his life to this task and was thus able to publish his History of saint Vincent, four precious volumes of editions of texts. Unfortunately, the figure of master Vincent Ferrier that Father Fages had succeeded in part to bring to life, has remained little known.]

VI.C.12.129(f)

(l)         S V. Ferrier’s soup

Saint Vincent Ferrier iii-iv: Les documents livrent des faits très matériels. Ils disent en détail combien a coûté chacun des [iii] légumes de la soupe de maître Vincent, ou chaque fagot de son feu, ou l’avoine de son âne, ou le pourboire de l’ouvrier qui décora la chaire de belles draperies d’or; mais nous ignorons complètement les conversations de Vincent avec le duc de Bretagne et le roi d’Angleterre et nous ne saisissons son activité diplomatique que dans ses conséquences, au jour où en grande pompe il nomme un roi ou dépose un pape. [The documents give us very material information. They tell us in detail how much cost the vegetables in the soup of master Vincent, or each piece of wood of his fire, or the oats for his donkey, or the tip for the labourer who decorated his chair with beautiful golden drapes; but we completely do not know anything of Vincent’s conversations with the duke of Brittany and the king of England and we have no sense of his diplomatic activities, except through the results as when one day with great pomp he names a king or deposes a pope.]

VI.C.12.129(g)

VI.B.14.126

(a)        take mother’s name

Saint Vincent Ferrier 3n1: Il est à noter que Vincent devrait ainsi s’appeler Vincent Lopez, le nom de Ferrer lui venant de son ascendance féminine. [We should note that Vincent was supposed to be called Vincent Lopez, the name of Ferrer came through the female line.]

VI.C.12.129(h)

(b)        He was born (—)

Saint Vincent Ferrier 3: L’enfant naquit (3) probablement en janvier 1350 [The child was born probably in January 1350.]

Note: Note (3) mentions that certain hagiographers report miracles accompaying this birth, but Gorce refuses to believe them. Joyce probably picks up the odd placement of the intruding footnote, as if to be born was an interesting fact of itself for a child.

VI.C.12.129(i)

(c)        no catholics before protestant

Saint Vincent Ferrier 5-6n3: A cette époque où le protestantisme n’existait pas, il n’y avait que des chrétiens et pas à proprement parler de catho-[5] liques. Mais les formes de piété, la mentalité même de ce christianisme espagnol du quatorzième siècle sont celles du catholicisme. [At that time protestantism did not exist yet, there were only christians and thus, properly speaking, no catholics. But the forms of piety, the mentality itself of the Spanish Christianity in the fourteenth century are those of Catholicism.]

VI.C.12.129(j)

(d)        tonsure at 7 >

VI.C.12.129(k)

(e)        benefice of chapel at 11 >

VI.C.12.129(l)

(f)        (lamp out / and 1 mass unsaid)

Saint Vincent Ferrier 6: C’était le grand rêve de son enfance et c’était surtout le grand désir de son père, personnage plein de sagesse et de prévoyance qui le fit tonsurer à sept ans et le pourvut à onze ans d’un bénéfice ecclésiastique, à savoir de revenus de la chapelle de sainte Anne, sise en l’église paroissiale de Saint-Thomas(1)."

Note 1. […] On avait laissé éteindre la lampe de l’autel de sainte Anne et négligé de célébrer une messe anniversaire, l’une et l’autre obligations à la charge du bénéficiaire Vincent Ferrier. L’évêque de Valence dans une visite s’en était aperçu. Nou ne connaissons pas la fin de cette anecdote.

[This was the great dream of his youth and it was above all the wish of his father, a person full of wisdom and foresight who made him take a tonsure at age seven and gave him a church benefice at eleven, i.e. the revenues of the chapel of Saint Anne, at the parish church of Saint-Thomas (1).

Note 1. […] The lamp on the altar of saint Anne had been allowed to go out and no anniversary masses had been held, both of them obligations of the person holding the benefice, Vincent Ferrier. The bishop of Valencia had noticed this on a visit. We don’t know how this anecdote ends.]

VI.C.12.129(m)-130(a)

(g)        S P beggarmonk

Saint Vincent Ferrier 7: Vincent coudoyait sans cesse dans les rues, dans l’officine paternelle, ces moines de toutes couleurs: moines à proprement parler: fils de saint Benoît; religieux mendiants surtout, vrais maîtres de ces villes du bas moyen âge: augustins, carmes, franciscains, dominicains.

Note 2.  Louis Gillet, Histoire artistique des ordres mendiants, p. 349. [Vincent met everywhere in the streets and in his father’s pharmacy, those monks of many colours: monks strictly speaking: sons of Saint Benedict; mendicant friars mostly, the real masters of the cities in the early middle ages: augustins, carmels, Franciscans, Dominicans.]

VI.C.12.130(b)

(j)         monks special table / & skivvy

Saint Vincent Ferrier 9: Les religieux devinrent propriétaires. Ils eurent leur bourse et lorsque cette bourse était bien garnie, ils se bâtissaient dans l’intérieur de la clôture des appartements particuliers. Ils eurent tables à part et domestiques. [The monks became property owners. They had their own purses and when their purse was well filled, they built in the cloister their private apartments. They had their own tables and domestic servants.]

VI.C.12.130(e)-(f)

(k)        a downright little / celebrity

Saint Vincent Ferrier 15: Vincent Ferrier gagna donc son nouveau poste de Lérida, modeste et gentille petite ville au beau milieu de la Calalogne [sic]. Il y fut un professeur merveilleux et acquit à la ronde une véritable petite célébrité. [Vincent then reached his new post in Lerida, modest and nice little city right in the centre of Catalogne. There he was a wonderful teacher and acquired all around a right little celebrity.]

VI.C.12.130(g)

VI.B.14.127

(a)        owhat use giving them / names

Saint Vincent Ferrier 20: Note 1: Même remarque que pour les professeurs de Barcelone: à quoi bon donner des noms puisque nous ignorons l’influence directe de tel ou tel d’entre eux sur Vincent Ferrier. [The same goes for the professors of Barcelona: why give their names if we have no idea about the direct influence of any of them on Vincent Ferrier.]

Not located in MS/FW

(b)        offer holy water at / church door

Saint Vincent Ferrier 21: A l’ordinaire, les offices étaient moins solennels. Et lorsqu’ils entraient le soir, pour chanter Complies, deux par deux, en se donnant de l’eau bénite, dans la vaste nef mal éclairée par un maigre luminaire, les frères étudiants de Toulouse devaient avoir une sensation de frisson et d’effroi. [Normally, the offices were less solemn. And when they entered in the evening, to sing Compline, two by two, offering each other holy water, in the vast nave not very well lit with a small light, the monk students of Toulouse must have had a shudder of thrill and fear.]

VI.C.12.130(h)

(d)        regulars teach seculars / theology

Saint Vincent Ferrier 24: En 1383, il devient lecteur en théologie à la “Seo” — le Siège — entendre par là la cathédrale de Valence. Ce cours de théologie est public. Tout laïc instruit peut l’entendre, mais il s’adresse surtout au clergé séculier. [In 1383 he became reader in theology at the Seo, the Seat, meaning the cathedral at Valence. This theology course was public. Every educated layman could attend, but it was addressed mostly to the secular clergy.]

Note: Regular. Subject to a religious rule, belonging to an order, as opposed to secular, member of the clergy living in the world.

VI.C.12.131(b)

(e)        lay buried in Dominican / graveyard

Saint Vincent Ferrier 26: Des laïcs se faisaient enterrer au cimetière des religieux. C’était pour les finances des paroisses une perte sèche. [Laymen were burried at the cemetery of the monks. That represented a clear loss for the finances of the parishes.]

VI.C.12.131(c)

(f)        Trinity in host?

Saint Vincent Ferrier 27: Entre les deux théologiens [Vincent Ferrier and a man named Nicolas Eymeric], la brouille commença sans doute à propos de l’incident suivant. Les curés de Valence avaient pris l’habitude de présenter l’hostie aux malades en leur demandant s’ils croyaient que le Père, le Fils et le Saint-Esprit y étaient présents. Que la Trinité intervînt ainsi dans l’Eucharistie, cela parut suspect à Eymeric. Il écrivit de savants mémoires, adressa des reproches véhéments. Ce fut sans résultat. Les curés continuèrent leurs pratiques. C’est alors que saint Vincent Ferrier intervint. Il édicta quelques règlements concrets et simples et apaisa le conflit comme en se jouant. [Between the two theologians the fight­ must have started with the following incident. The parish priests of Valence had the habit of presenting the host to the sick while asking them if they believed that the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost were present in it. That the Trinity was involved in the Eucharist seemed to Eymeric very suspect. He wrote learned treatises, reproached them vehemently. Without result. The priests continued their practice. This is when Vincent Ferrier intervened. He created a few concrete and simple rules and appeased the conflict as if playing.]

VI.C.12.131(d)

(g)        little brother in S. Patrick

Saint Vincent Ferrier 27: Eymeric conçut-il quelques jalousie de l’habileté de son jeune frère en saint Dominique. [Eymeric may have developed some jealousy of the skils of his young brother in saint Dominic.]

VI.C.12.131(e)

(h)        master of sacred palace >

VI.C.12.131(f)

(i)         director of conscience

Saint Vincent Ferrier 32: Et s’il ne fut pas officiellement maître du sacré Palais apostolique [the Pope’s living quarters in Avignon] comme on l’a dit parfois, il devint officieusement bien davantage. En fait, il fut conseiller du pape et demeura pendant trois ans, de 1395 à 1398, son chapelain intime et son directeur de conscience. [And if he was not officially master of the sacred apostolic palace as used to be thought, behind the scenes he was much more important. In fact he advised the pope and was for three years, between 1395 and 1398, his private chaplain and director of conscience.]

VI.C.12.131(g)

VI.B.14.128

(g)        Froissart & Renart

Saint Vincent Ferrier 63: C’était l’effondrement de l’empire grec, l’écrasement du tsar Lazare et de ses Serbes à Kossovo, le grand deuil de l’Occident dont la fleur de la chevalerie, partie pour la croisade contre l’Islam, périssait ou était faite prisonnière dans le désastre de Nicopolis. Ajoutez à cela l’anarchie des idées. Ajoutez surtout le cynisme des mœurs. C’est le siècle qui a enfanté le cauteleux roman de Renart et aussi Froissard, le prêtre sans idéal qui raconte ses aventures d’amour. [This was the period of the downfall of the Greek Empire, the crushing of Czar Lazar and his Serbs in Kosovo, the great disaster of the West when the flower of chivalry, having departed in a crusade against Islam, had died or had been taken prisoner at Nicopolis. Add to this the anarchy of ideas. And moral cynism. This was the century of the naughty novel Renart and of Froissard, the priest without ideals who tells of his amorous adventures.]

Note: Jean Froissart (c 1330-c 1410). Best known as the historian, in his Chroniques, of the Hundred Years War, he was also a distinguished poet. Renart is Reynard the Fox, as he appears in the Roman de Renart. Units (j)-(k) are probably derived from an account of Froissart.

VI.C.12.133(b)

(h)        archery v cavalry / guns v bows

Saint Vincent Ferrier 63: Un grand malaise pèse sur cette société médiévale finissante. La pompeuse chevalerie devient inutile maintenant que les archers à pied font meilleure besogne de guerre que les cavalcades. [A great illness weighed on this dying medieval society. The pompous cavalry had become useless now that archers on foot were much more useful in a war than horses.]

VI.C.12.133(c)-(d)

(i)         h’s hat hung up

Saint Vincent Ferrier 68: Benoît XIII en ces tristes circonstances eût bien voulu s’assurer encore le concours de maître Vincent. Il fit tout pour le retenir. Vincent, paraît-il, refusa le chapeau de cardinal. [In these sad conditions Benedict XIII would have preferred to have the help of master Vincent and he did all he could to retain him. But Vincent, it seems, refused the cardinal’s hat.]

VI.C.12.133(e)

VI.B.14.129

(k)        rmusicianly

MS 47474-27v, TsILA: which he so loved as ^+patricianly+^ to manuscribe after his name | JJA 47:408 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 179.23

VI.B.14.130

(a)        Brit imp! feet

VI.C.12.134(c)

(b)        a furore Normannorum / libera nos, Domine

Note: L. From the madness of the Normans, deliver us, Lord.

VI.C.12.134(d)

VI.B.14.131

VI.B.14.132

(c)        rCosgrave (aet 50) / [brothers & trousers] / does messages

Note: Vincent Cosgrave (‘Lynch’) would have been forty-seven when this note was taken (he was born on 22 November 1877), but the age is an approximation, both here and in FW.

MS 47482b-85v, LMA: – ^+He is a man of fifty who does messages?+^ Have you ever seen ^+heard of+^ him being ^+seen+^ down at the Green Man? ^+beyond?+^ | JJA 58:046 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2/3B.*0 | FW 506.34­-5

VI.B.14.134

(g)        Sen Patrick / oldpatrick

Dottin Saint Patrice 62: Quand Patrice partit, il alla vers l’autre Patrice (4). Ensemble ils montèrent vers Jésus, fils de Marie. [When Patrick departed, he went to the other Patrick. Together they ascended towards Jesus, son of Mary.]

Dottin Saint Patrice 62n4: C’est le vieux Patrice, Sen-Patrice, abbé, dont la mort eut lieu le 24 août d’après certains Martyrologes, tandis que l’apôtre de l’Irlande mourut un 17 mars. M. H. D’Arbois De Jubainville, Revue celtique, t. IX, p.111-118, suppose que ce personnage a été imaginé pour supprimer les contradictions qu’offraient l’histoire et la légende de saint Patrice. [This is Old Patrick, Sen-Patrick, abbot, whose death took place 24 August, according to some Martyrologists, while the Apostle of Ireland died one 17 March. M. H. D’Arbois De Jubainville, Revue celtique, Vol. IX, p.111-118, supposes that this character was dreamed up to suppress the contradictions offered by the story and legend of St. Patrick.]

VI.C.12.138(d)

(j)         rtake care, wd y[e] b

MS 47482b-49, LMA: about your glad neck ^+, take care wd you,+^ | JJA 57:099 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 438.05-6

(k)        ra latere †i

Note: L. A latere Christi. From the side of Christ. Vincent Ferrer was appointed legate a latere Christi by Pope Benedict XIII. See VI.B.25.152(g).

MS 47474-28, TsILA: an interlocutor ^+a latere+^ | JJA 47:409 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 177.19

VI.B.14.135

(g)        Caucas. foetus = Negro / — infant = mongol / Kalmuck

The Mongol in Our Midst 9-11 [About Robert Chambers and his proto-Darwinian work from 1844, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation]: Anticipating the doctrine now known as that of recapitulation by the individual of the history of the race, he maintained that a Caucasian foetus represents the Negro stage, and a Caucasian infant the Mongol stage, of human evolution. [9] […] [10] Dr. Langdon-Down’s general ethnic classification of imbeciles has long been forgotten—very unhappily—but the brilliancy of his detailed description of the Mongol or Kalmuck type of imbecile was at once admitted.

VI.C.12.139(c)-(d)

            (i)         facies >

VI.C.12.139(e)

(i)         croupy >

VI.C.12.139(f)

(j)         arrears of love

The Mongol in Our Midst 16: They are obviously devoid of the intelligence normal for their age; they are of Mongolian facies but are even more simian than Mongolian. They represent the ‘Infirmary Mongol.’ § II. At our great hospitals we see children aged between six months and four or five years of age who, brought because they are ‘not getting on,’ or by reason of some croupy or other respiratory trouble, are obviously backward mentally as well as physically, and who are definitely Mongoloid in their make-up. These children represent the Hospital type of Mongol: the weaker die, but some improve and pass into other spheres of observation. Others fall still more into arrears of development and are recognised ultimately as imbecile. § III. In asylums for imbeciles and idiots we meet with boys and girls, aged between seven and fourteen, who—classical Mongolian imbeciles in the sense of Dr. Langdon-Down—represent the Asylum type of Mongol. Some of these, indeed many, die before puberty.

VI.C.12.139(g)

VI.B.14.136

(a)        classical imbecile

The Mongol in Our Midst 20: Since there has been no general recognition of the occurrence in Western Europe of Mongoloids who are not imbecile or idiotic, whilst on the other hand there is a considerable literature relating to those who are, it is best to take as our standard ‘Mongoloid’ the classical imbecile of Langdon-Down, well represented on the frontispice of this book by the picture of a London child who came under my care a few years ago.

VI.C.12.139(h)

(b)        Sinitic

The Mongol in Our Midst 21: If then the Mongol of Central Asia stands as the prototype, we have, as members of the great Mongolian family, the Sinitic or Chinese peoples, the Malays and other Southern Mongols, the many Siberian peoples, the Japanese (who are not wholly Mongolian), the Eskimo, and the North and South American Indians.

VI.C.12.139(i)

(c)        Chazar / (Mongols of / Judaism)

The Mongol in Our Midst 24: Many European Jews are not pure racial Jews, but descended from the Mongolian tribe of the Chazars who, after conversion to Judaism, founded the once powerful Chazar Empire in South-Eastern Europa.

VI.C.12.139(j)-(k)

(d)        Orang (of Asia)

The Mongol in Our Midst 28-9: But, about the same time, having in mind Haeckel’s well-known scheme of human origins in which stress is laid upon the resemblances between the primitive [28] Mongolian races and the orang-utan (or Asiatic anthropoid ape), the present writer enquired whether the apparently pre-human characteristics of Mongolian imbeciles might not find homologies amongst the orang-utans.

VI.C.12.139(k)

(e)        Mongol

The Mongol in Our Midst: passim. Joyce lists the three Crookshankian races.

VI.C.12.139(l)

(f)        orang (Asia ape)

Note: See quotation under (d).

VI.C.12.140(a)

(g)        rmongoloid

Note: See VI.B.01.075(c).

The Mongol in Our Midst 28-9: He was at once forcibly struck with the fact that, while the higher grades of Mongoloids seen in this country are certainly Mongolian, the lower grade Mongolian imbeciles and idiots are as undoubtedly orangoid in their homologies.

MS 47482b-105v, LPA: ^+to my ^+saffron+^ breathing mongoloid I gave+^ | JJA 58:078 | Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2+/3B.*0+ | FW 550.17

(h)        Aryan

The Mongol in Our Midst 26 [after remarking that he has seen a lot of Mongolism in France, especially in Brittany and the Auvergne]: To resume then, in a few words, what is known about the ethnographical distribution of cases of ‘Mongolian’ imbecility, it may be said that such are not seen amongst the Blacks, and are not known to occur amongst the Aryan populations of Asia, or even amongst the Arabs and pure Jews.

VI.C.12.140(b)

(i)         chimpanzee >

VI.C.12.140(c)

(j)         Dementia praecox >

Note: Dementia praecox. Now obsolete psychiatric term, approximating to what is presently called schizophrenia.

VI.C.12.140(d)

(k)        Negro >

VI.C.12.140(e)

(l)         gorilla >

VI.C.12.140(f)

(m)       Ethiotic

The Mongol in Our Midst 33-4: The interest attaching to these homologies is enhanced by the fact that, incidentally to these observations, certain homologies have been found between (1) certain types of the ‘White’ groups of the human race (2) the Chimpanzee and (3) a kind of mentally defective individual, found amongst certain white races, who is said to suffer from Dementia Precox. Furthermore, homologies of the same [33] order appear to obtain between (1) the Black, or Negro division of the human race (2) the Gorilla, or great African ape, and also (3) a type of idiot occasionally (though rarely) seen in Europe, and described by Langdon-Down as of the ‘Ethiopic’ variety.

VI.C.12.140(g)

VI.B.14.137

(a)        Man     Cro-Magnon >

VI.C.12.140(h)

(b)        Ape     Chancelade >

VI.C.12.140(i)

(c)        idiot     Grimaldi

The Mongol in Our Midst 34: In other words, in spite of convergence and miscegenation, three Types or Faces seem to emerge when we survey the whole field; and we see each of these Faces as borne by a Man, by an Ape, and by an Idiot. Moreover, a still wider horizon opens before us when we realise that, during the later Palaeolithic period there existed, side by side in Europe, in certain parts of France, three human races—those of Cro-Magnon, of Chancelade, and of Grimaldi—which tended to approximate to certain primitive types of White, of Yellow and of Black Man respectively.

VI.C.12.140(j)

(d)        dissection of blacks

The Mongol in Our Midst 36-7: Our full anatomical knowledge of Man is almost entirely based upon information obtained in European dissecting rooms from bodies called those of ‘Europeans.’ There is hardly any [36] complete account of the dissection of a body of a pure and ‘typical’ Yellow man, or of any such account of a pure and ‘typical’ Black man. On the other hand, the many variations recorded as noted when examining bodies of ‘Europeans,’ while correlated, it is true, with ‘variations’ known to occur normally in this or other race of man or ape, are never correlated with the individual type of the person dissected.

VI.C.12.140(k)

(e)        posture - engram

The Mongol in Our Midst 39 [in the subsection Posture (a topic that has “escaped the attention of most anthropologists”)]: While differences of opinion in respect of individual cases may be admitted, it is difficult to dispute that the habitual assumption, from infancy, of a particular posture, must be expressive of characters not merely inborn but inbred: that is, of engrams.

VI.C.12.140(l)

(f)        adopts buddha / posture

The Mongol in Our Midst 43: This is however only a partial indication of the truth, for the really ‘typical’ Mongolian imbeciles, when told to sit down, place themselves instinctively in the classical ‘Buddha’ position, as does the little Londoner represented on the frontispice. And in every day life, if a parcel of school-girls or boys in bathing costume be told to squat on the beach as they like, those with Mongolian traits, and those only, will be noticed to adopt the true ‘Buddha’ position.

VI.C.12.140(m)

(g)        K   kowtow

The Mongol in Our Midst 43: It is even more singular that the Mongolian imbeciles should not only love to sit like a Buddha but to sway the head, backwards and forwards, like a porcelain mandarin, whilst I have seen a baby Mongolian idiot prostrate himself in his cot, for hours at a time, doing the Kow-Tow.

VI.C.12.141(a)

(h)        pronated >

VI.C.12.141(b)

(i)         supine

The Mongol in Our Midst 46-7: But, if compelled to sit upon benches or chairs, the chimpanzee attitude becomes at once converted into what Dr. Steen has called the ‘Ancient Egyptian attitude.’ It is interesting to note that, as a rule, in the apes and in the dements, the arm arrangement, (as sometimes in the Egyptians statues) is one of rigid symmetry. Yet, when the Egyptian artists desired to convey the idea of Power or Intelligence, an asymmetrical disposition was featured [46] that is seen to-day when a King is represented on a Throne holding a sceptre in a semi-pronated right hand and an orb in a fully supinated left hand.

VI.C.12.141(c)

VI.B.14.138

(h)        gods parts of goddess

Origin of Magic and Religion 27: [in Sumerian culture] We find that the Great Mother acquired many functions […] she became a potter goddess, a snake goddess, and so forth. For some reason, some of these variations of the Great Mother changed their sex and became gods.

 VI.C.12.142(d)

VI.B.14.139

(f)        gtrouserstree

Origin of Magic and Religion 79: [paradise in Hindu mythology] Instead of sand, round pearls, costly jewels, and gold form the banks of the rivers, which are covered with trees of precious stones, trees of gold shining like fire. The trees always bear flowers and fruits, they swarm with birds, they are of a heavenly smell and touch,

MS 47484a-48, TsILA: It amounts to nil ^+in pounds and pence,+^ v^+not as much as the price of a highlandman’s trousertree […]+^ | JJA 58:188 | Jan 1925-Apr 1926 | III§3A.4/3B.4 | FW 521.07

(g)        rthe best of wine

Origin of Magic and Religion 81: [from The Voyage of Bran]

There is a distant isle,

Around which sea-horses glisten;

A fair course against the white-swelling surge,

Four feet uphold it.

.          .               .

“Unknown is wailing or treachery

In the familiar cultivated land.

There is nothing rough or harsh,

But sweet music striking the ear.

 

Wealth, treasure of every hue,

Are in Cuin, a beauty of freshness,

Listening to sweet music,

Drinking the best of wine.”

MS 47482b-36v, LPS: bacon with some cold breast of veal ^+with beans […] cum cabbage & peas ^+And bread & corn+^ And the best of wine.+^ | JJA 57:074 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 406.22

(h)        S. P’s monk >

VI.C.12.143(f)

(i)         garb reveals / armour t

Origin of Magic and Religion 82: Brendan is but the latest and definitely Christian example of a genre of story-telling which had already flourished for centuries in Ireland, when it seemed good to an unknown writer to dress the old half-pagan marvels in orthodox monkish garb, and thus start them afresh on their triumphal march through the literature of the world.

VI.C.12.143(g)-(h)

VI.B.14.140

(f)        x totem (ass)

Origin of Magic and Religion 145-6: The idea of reincarnation is widespread. It occurs in connection with totemic clans in North America. The Yuchi of the Savannah River, who call themselves Children of the Sun, and believe that they go to the sky after death, say that each person is the reincarnation of a maternal ancestor. Each child is named after a maternal grandparent’s brother or sister; paternal grandparents do not enter into the matter at all. The child is not named for four days after birth, because it is thought that it takes four days for the ghost to get to the land of the dead, and thus, presumably, that it takes the same time for the spirit of the ancestor to get to the child that it is to occupy. The Huron also believed in reincarnation, for they used to bury the bodies of little children by the roadside, in the hope that they would enter passing women and thus be born. They also possessed a set of names for each clan, all derived from the characteristics of the clan totem, from which names the council women of the clan chose one for each child.

VI.C.12.144(d)

(n)        rmanrootr / ginseng

Origin of Magic and Religion 151-3: The mystery society of the Ojibwa has been closely studied […] It was founded by a sky-spirit, through a mediator named the Great Rabbit. The Great Rabbit looked down on earth from the sky, and saw how ignorant men were. So he instructed the Otter in the mysteries, and gave him the sacred rattle, drum and tobacco. He made a lodge and taught the otter all the secrets, and with a bag containing cowrie shells “shot” him, so that he might have immortality, and be able to convey the secrets of his kinsmen.[…] The novice is instructed by the priest prior to his initiation into the first of the four grades of the society. He has to take a sweat-bath […] When he goes into the lodge for the ceremony, the Supreme Being is supposed to be there. The candidate has to stand up, and is approached by a priest with a bag of mink skin containing shells, pigments, effigies, amulets, and so forth. The priest “shoots” him with the bag, and he has to fall down apparently lifeless.[…] The decision to join the society is the result of an experience which each boy has at some time or other. He goes out into the wilds, fasts, and after a time has a vision. If this be of a bear, he kills a bear and wears one of its claws for an amulet, believing that the bear will always protect him, an idea that evidently lay at the back of the custom of wearing bear’s claws in the Upper Palæolithic Age. […] In the third degree use is made of ginseng, “man root,” which is supposed to be of “divine” origin. […] Those who have passed into the third stage become powerful magicians, who derive their power from the sky, and often have sky spirits for “familiars.”

MS 47474-23, TsILS: a stone and a half ^+, a root ^+manroot+^ of all evil+^ | JJA 47:399 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 169.18

VI.C.12.144(k)

VI.B.14.141

(b)        mango

Origin of Magic and Religion 157: From India right across to America the practice of magic is closely associated with the archaic civilization; we find the magicians of India practicising the mango trick, that trich whereby a man causes a mango plant practically to grow into full maturity in the course of a few minutes;

VI.C.12.145(b)

(c)        horse had a / nightmare

Origin of Magic and Religion 160: This idea [of the magic thunderstone] particularly asserted itself in certain case where an injurious influence, the origin of which was unknown, was frequently felt. Thus the thunderstone particularly protects the little unchristened child against being ‘changed’ and the horse in the stall stable against ‘nightmare.’

VI.C.12.145(c)

(d)        blowpipe shot

Origin of Magic and Religion 161: Even such a primitive people as the Punan of Borneo, who are still in the food-gathering stage, use quartz in their magic. “The Punan has great faith in charms, especially for bringing good luck in hunting. He usually carries, tied to his quiver, a bundle of small objects which have forcibly attracted his attention for any reason, e.g. a large quartz cristal, a strangely shaped tusk or tooth or pebble, etc., and the bundle of charms is dipped in the blood of the animals that fall to his blow-pipe.”

VI.C.12.145(d)

(e)        x shift ^+sacred+^ milestone

Origin of Magic and Religion 164-5: In yet other ways have the people of archaic civilizations influenced profoundly the beliefs and practices of the peoples of the regions in which they settled. It is curious to see how that the manner of contact between the people of the archaic civilization and the native tribes has apparently determined the lines upon which native thought should develop. For example, the gold-miners of the past in British New Guinea have left behind them many objects of stone, which are regarded by the native tribes as potent in magic. [164] […] The natives of British New Guinea also use, for their magical practice, stone of the kinds of rock of which the people of the archaic civilization made their implements, of mica-schist, sand-stone, volcanic rock, diabase, diorite, granite, quartz, hornblende, ophicalcite, obsidian and so forth. This is another instance of the transference of supposed power from one object to another that resembles it.

VI.C.12.145(d)-(e)

(f)        b seeks aid in / dream

Origin of Magic and Religion 168: It is found that, in Melanesia, the mana is associated closely with old stone images and also with stones of peculiar shape. When a man finds a stone that he thinks is full of mana, he tries to find out by means of dreams if it be the abode of a spirit. If it is, then he uses it to get rain, good crops, and so on.

VI.C.12.145(f)-(g)

(g)        Micronesia

Note: Micronesia. Island group east of the Philippines. One of the three divisions of Oceania, the others being Polynesia and Melanesia. Probably suggested by ‘Milanesia’ in the entry above.

VI.C.12.145(h)

VI.B.14.142

(h)        1st extra Roman / mission SP

Riguet Saint Patrice 175: Un trait marque l’entreprise de l’apôtre: le premier, parmi les missionnaires, il se rend dans une terre située hors des limites de l’empire romain, pour y porter l’Évangile. [One distinctive characteristic of the apostle’s adventure: he was the first, it seems, to bring the Gospel to a land outside of the borders of the Roman Empire.]

VI.C.12.146(j)

VI.B.14.144

(b)        Tailtenn           (Ulst) >

VI.C.12.148(a)

VI.B.14.146

(i)         miracles affirmed / by himself

Riguet Saint Patrice 167: Il présente donc son oeuvre comme l’oeuvre de Dieu même. L’apôtre a suivi les inspirations surnaturelles en toutes circonstances. […] La Confession ne raconte pas de miracles en détails parce que le plus grand miracle, pour Patrice, lui paraît être sa vie même [140: he represents his work as inspired by God Himself. The Apostle says he has in every circumstance followed supernatural inspirations […] The Confession does not relate any miraculous details, because to Patrick the greatest miracle seems his own life]

VI.C.12.151(b)

VI.B.14.147

(f)        S. Vincent Ferrier >

VI.C.12.152(a)

(g)        with wings & trumpet / ^+[yeech]+^

Saint Vincent Ferrier 144: Ainsi apparaît cette prédication du jugement dernier. Comment se fait-il donc que maître Vincent Ferrier ait été représenté avec des ailes aux épaules et une trompette aux lèvres? Comment se fait-il qu’il ait été mué en un ange apocalyptique? [Thus appeared this prophecy of the last judgement. Why is it then that master Vincent Ferrier has been represented with wings on his shoulders and a trumpet at his lips? How is it that he was changed into an apocalyptic angel?]

VI.C.12.152(a)

(h)        Victor

Note: See reproduction. A line joins this unit to ‘trumpet’ (g).

Saint Vincent Ferrier 145-6: Dans le procès de canonisation les allusions sont très vagues; mais voici dans le même ordre d’idées un compliment que Gerson adresse au maître: “Je me figure que vous êtes l’ange de l’Apocalypse dont le prophète de tout le cours de l’Église, Jean, dit: J’ai vu une cavale blanche et celui qui la montait [145] portait un arc et sur son front était une couronne; il sortit “Vincens”, vainqueur. Tu as paru pour vaincre, glorieux Vincent.” [In the records of the canonisation the allusions are very vague, but here is in the same order of ideas a compliment from Gerson to the master: “I honestly believe that you are the angel of the Apocalypse of whom the prophet of all the course of church history, John, tells us: I have seen a white horse and the one who mounted it carried a bow and on his head was a crown; he came out “Vincens”, winner. You have appeared to win, glorious Vincent.]

VI.C.12.152(b)

(i)         not a virgin among / you under 15

Saint Vincent Ferrier 50 [from the preachings of Saint Vincent, who finally saw the light, after so many years in the service of the Pope]: “On ne trouverait pas (2), parmi vous, un enfant de quinze ans qui fût vierge.” On prétend la chasteté impossible (3)."

Note 2.  Édit. Fages, Sermons, t. I, p.100, t. II, p.464. Tableau peu flatteur des moeurs du quatorzième siècle.

Note 3.  Édit. Fages, Sermons, t. II, p.305, grande crudité d’expressions. [« One does not find (2), among you, a child of fifteen who is a virgin. » Chastity is said to be impossible (3). Note 2. Édit. Fages, Sermons, t. I, p.100, t. II, p.464. Not a flattering picture of the morality of the fourteenth century. Note 3. Édit. Fages, Sermons, t. II, p.305, a great coarseness of expressions.]

VI.C.12.152(c)

(j)         King - sturgeon / workman – herring >

VI.C.12.152(d)-(e)

(k)        O! O!

Saint Vincent Ferrier 150 [from the preachings of Saint Vincent]: Chrétiens, tous les hommes sont frères. Il faut des rois, il faut des papes. Mais aux yeux de Dieu il n’y a que des hommes, aux vocations différentes sans doute, et pourtant tous égaux dans les mérites du Christ crucifié. En la mer, il y a beaucoup de poissons. Lorsqu’un homme riche d’entre vous se convertit, oh? oh?, nous avons pris un gros poisson, un dauphin; et quand au sermon c’est un noble dame qui se convertit, oh? oh?, nous avons pris une anguille ou un thon; et quand au sermon se convertit un laboureur, oh? oh? nous avons pris un goujon ou une sardine. Mais ce dernier poisson, il vous plaît beaucoup à vous, Seigneur. [Christians, all men are brothers. We need kings, we need popes. But in the eyes of God there are only people, with different vocations, no doubt, but still equal for the crucified Christ. There are lots of fish in the sea. When a rich man among you converts, oh, oh, we have caught a great fish, a dolphin; and when a sermon converts a noble lady, oh, oh, we have taken an eel or a tuna; and when a labourer converts we have caught a goby or a sardine, oh, oh. But this last fish, you like it very much, Lord.]

Note: The sturgeon and the herring, as well as the king and the workman, are only implied in this parable. Dauphin = dolphin; anguille = eel; thon = tuna; goujon = goby/gudgeon. The "Oh! oh!" reappears in the sermons on p.162-3 of Saint Vincent Ferrier.

VI.B.14.148

(a)        gwife offers stocking & / veil to hang H

Saint Vincent Ferrier 152: Écoutez, je vais vous raconter une histoire: “Il y avait une femme dont le mari avait tué quelqu’un et, après le jugement, tandis qu’on portait le criminel au gibet, la femme suivait en pleurant son malheur. Et comme on était arrivé au gibet, on s’aperçut qu’on avait oublié la corde pour pendre l’homme. Alors la femme dit: Pourquoi voulez-vous une corde, voilà mon voile de coiffure. Et ainsi fut fait. Le mari fut pendu avec la coiffure de sa femme et je ne sais pas si vous avez de pareilles coiffures pour cette utilité.” [Listen, I will tell you a story: “There was a woman whose husband had killed someone and after the trial, when the criminal was taken to the gallows, the wife followed, bewailing her bad luck. And when they reached the gallows, they noticed that they had forgotten the rope to hang the man. So the woman said: Why do you need a rope, take my veil. And so they did. The man was hanged with his wife’s veil and I don’t know if you have such pieces of clothing for this occasion.”]

MS 47484a-44, TsILA: they had their good reasons. ^+Here’s my ^+snuff and trout+^ stoken for the first if you want to stretch him by starligh[t.]+^ | JJA 58:179 | Jan 1925-Apr 1926 | III§3A.4/3B.4 | FW 495.09

(b)        a bishop = eat capons

Saint Vincent Ferrier 155: On m’a raconté l’histoire d’un prêtre, brave homme d’ailleurs, qui avait tout fait, lui et sa famille, pour obtenir l’épiscopat. On lui demande: Avez-vous ambitionné cette charge. — Bien sûr, tout le monde le sait bien. — Voulez-vous répondre à Dieu des ouailles qui vous seront confiés? — Ah! Mais non. — Dites que oui. — Non, non, mille fois non, et il se démit disant: Je croyais qu’être évêque consistait à manger du poulet tous les jours. [I was told the story of a priest, « a good man » who had done everything, he and his family, to become bishop. He was asked: – Do you want this appointment. – Of course, everybody knows. – Will you answer to God for the flock that will be entrusted to you. – Oh, no. – Say yes. – No, no, a thousand times no, and he resigned saying: I thought that being a bishop means eating chicken every day.]

VI.C.12.152(f)

(c)        separate fornicators

Saint Vincent Ferrier 156 (from a sermon): De même, quand deux personnes ont péché ensemble par luxure, faites dire tant de messes!, mais il eût mieux valu commencer par séparer les délinquants. [In the same way, when two people have sinned together by lust, say so many masses, but it would be better to begin by separating the sinners,]

VI.C.12.152(g)

VI.B.14.149

 (f)       S. Vincent F >

VI.C.12.153(i)

(g)        rules of brothel

Saint Vincent Ferrier 171: Il n'hésitait pas à travailler lui-même à des besognes qui nous paraîtraient un peu risquées. De vieilles traditions assurent qu'il réglementait les statuts de maisons de tolérance. En maints endroits, il réforma les moeurs. On vit donc des villes entières, comme Perpignan à la suite de sa prédication de 1415 (3), où toute la population, y compris les étudiants, vécut d'une vie sans taches.

 [[Saint Vincent Ferrier] did not hesitate to tackle issues that for us would seem a bit risqué. Old traditions claim that he regulated the rules of conduct in brothels. In many places he reformed morality. We can see entire cities, like Perpigan following his preaching in 1415, where the whole population, including the students, began to lead a spotless life.]

VI.C.12.153(i)

(h)        culte du S. Orient / (soleil)

Saint Vincent Ferrier 180-1: Un peu plus loin, dans le pays de Genève, un autre culte hétérodoxe marquait encore le recul de la vie [180] catholique: c’était le culte du Soleil ou Saint-Orient. [A bit further, in the land of Geneva, another heterodox cult marked the retreat of Catholic life: the cult of the Sun or Saint-Orient.]

VI.C.12.154(a)

(i)         Lausanne

Saint Vincent Ferrier 181: [Quoting a letter of Vincent] “Je me dispose à visiter le diocèse de Lausanne, où l’on adore aussi publiquement le soleil, surtout à la campagne.” [‘I am preparing to visit the diocese of Lausanne, where the sun is also publicly worshipped, especially in the countryside.’]

VI.C.12.154(b)

(j)         church fair >

VI.C.12.154(c)

(k)        hairshirts >

VI.C.12.154(d)

(l)         whips

Saint Vincent Ferrier 185 [Saint Vincent goes around with his group of around 200 flagellants]: A l’entrée dans la ville ou le village, ils découvraient leurs épaules et se fouettaient à coups redoublés avec une dure discipline de cordes. [...] Ils chantaient en se frappant de mâles cantiques, composés par le maître, en l’honneur de la Passion du Fils de Dieu. [...] A Toulouse surtout, des disciplinants nouveaux se joignaient sans cesse aux anciens. Il [Vincent] se tint dans la ville des marchés de haires et de fouets. [At the entrance to the city or village, they unovered their elbows and whipped themselves with renewed energy. […]  Whipping themselves they sang they sang masculine songs, composed by the master, in honour of the Passion of the Son of God. […] Especially in Toulouse, new penitents joined them all the time. He was living in a ]

VI.C.12.154(e)

(m)       Froissard (nonpatriot) / Vincent — / Joan (patriot)

Saint Vincent Ferrier 230: Vincent vit à l’époque où l’idée de patrie commence seulement à se former. Il s’intercale dans l’histoire entre deux personnages: Froissard et Jeanne d’Arc, dont l’un est un sans patrie et dont l’autre est l’héroïne de tous les patriotes. [Vincent lived at the time when the idea of fatherland was only beginning to develop. He appears in history between two personalities: Froissard and Joan of Arc, one without country and the other the heroine of all patriots.]

VI.C.12.154(f)-(h)

VI.B.14.150

(a)        rbelfry politics

Saint Vincent Ferrier 235: Il y avait à l’intérieur de ces cinq États bien des petitesses, bien des politiques de clocher, bien des anarchies. [Inside of these five States there were plenty of pettiness and local politics, plenty of anarchy.]

MS 47474-26, TsILS: rusted lawyers, prepaid ^+belfry+^ politicians, | JJA 47:405 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 173.16

(b)        council of Perpignan

Saint Vincent Ferrier 234: Et voici que les événements qui l’avaient tenu éloigné de l’Espagne l’y ramènent en 1409, après le concile de Perpignan. [And this is how the events that had made him stay away from Spain now brought him back in 1409, after the council of Perpignan.]

VI.C.12.154(i)

(c)        Bened XIII

Saint Vincent Ferrier 233: La solidarité de la Castille et de l’Aragon dans la politique du schisme s’affirmait davantage, surtout après les malheurs de l’obédience de Benoît XIII. [The solidarity of Castille and Aragon in the politics of the schism became clear, especially after the misfortunes of the obedience of Benedict XIII.]

VI.C.12.154(j)

(d)        V. F creates Catalan / question >

VI.C.12.154(k)

(e)        rpeninsula = I. F. S.

Note: I. F. S. Italy. France. Spain.

Saint Vincent Ferrier 234-7 [creating the Catalan question is what Saint Vincent does, by insisting on separating and segregating the different ethinic an religious groups in Spain, the moriscos (moors), the maranos (jews) and the christians] 234: Que voyait donc maître Vincent Ferrier lorsqu’il contemplait le tumulte confus de la vie en cette vaste péninsule ibérique? Un spectacle fort banal. Quelque chose de chaotique, de confus. D’abord il y avait cinq États, inégaux, formidablement inégaux. [234] Dans les mêmes villes et dans les mêmes campagnes vivaient, plus ou moins pêle-mêle des Maures, des Juifs, des chrétiens. Et ces chrétiens eux-mêmes formaient des peuples bien différents souvent hostiles les uns aux autres: Gascons, Catalans, Castillans, Aragonais, Portugais, avaient chacun leur langue, leur passé, leurs moeurs et différaient presque autant que peuvent différer des Français, des Anglais, des Allemands et des Italiens. Cependant ces chrétiens, si divisés entre eux, s’unissaient dans une haine commune de l’infidèle: maure ou juif. [What did master Vincent Ferrier see when he thought about the tumultuous life on that vast iberian peninsula? A really banal spectacle, chaotic and confused. First there were five States, unequal, incredibly unequal. In the same cities and the same countryside there lived, more or less helter-skelter, Moors, Jews, Christians. And these Christians belong to different, sometimes hostile peoples: Gascons, Catalonians, Castillians, Aragonians, Portuguese, they all had their own language, their own past, their habits and they were as different as the French, the English, the Germans and the Italians. Yet these Christians, divided among themselves as they were, were united in their common hatred for the infidel: the Moors and the Jews.]

Not located in MS/FW

(f)        cobble words

VI.C.12.155(a)

(g)        fructitude

Saint Vincent Ferrier 290: La fructitude des légendes postérieures étant écartée, il demeure, on l’a vu, à l’actif du maître une quantité de faits merveilleux individuellement possibles et dans leur ensemble très probables. [Now that the rich harvest of later legends has been discarded, there remains, we have seen, to the credit of the master a great number of marvelous deeds that are individually possible and as a whole very probable.]

VI.C.12.155(b)

(h)        ra dams

?MS 47478-252, TsBMA: (though he’s soon to be killed off, old King, she too old dam ^+and embalmed in red honey for dynastic continuity’s sake)+^ | JJA 52:157 | 1932 | II.2§4.2 | [MS ®] MS 47478-321, BMA: ^+Thickathigh and Thinathews with sant their dam.+^ | JJA 52:215 | 1934 | II.2§5.*0 | FW 277.F6

(i)         rn mediterranean

MS 47473-047, EM: ^+(of an early muddy terranean origin [...])+^ | JJA 46:353 | Mar 1925 | I.5§1.3+/4.(*)3+ | FW 120.29

(j)         odynastic continuity

MS 47478-252, TsBMA: (though he’s soon to be killed off, old King, she too old dam ^+and embalmed in red honey for dynastic continuity’s sake)+^ | JJA 52:157 | 1932 | II.2§4.2 | [MS ®] MS 47478-288, TsLMA: ^+^+From+^ Cenogenetic dichotomy through Diagonistic Conciliancy ^+Conciliance+^ to Dynastic Continuity.+^ | JJA 52:210 | 1934 | II.2§5.0 | FW 275.R1

(l)         oembalmed in honey

MS 47478-252, TsBMA: (though he’s soon to be killed off, old King, she too old dam ^+and embalmed in red honey for dynastic continuity’s sake)+^ | JJA 52:157 | 1932| II.2§4.2 | [MS ®] MS 47478-320, MT: 2 I wonder if I put the old buzzerd ^+to go suckling ^+one night to suckle+^ in ^+Millik’s ^+Millick-maam’s+^+^ honey like they use to emballem some of the special popes | JJA 52:213 | 1934 | II.2§5.0 | FW 277.F1

VI.B.14.151

(a)        rthoroughgoing

MS 47474-035, TMA: to conceal your coprophily by using ^+, like a thoroughgoing^+thoroughpaste+^ prosodite,+^ syllables ^+monolsyllables+^ | JJA 47:423 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3  | FW 190.34

VI.B.14.153

(a)        6) Bible = gospel

CE ‘Pelagius’ 605a-b: Paulinus of Milan [...] submitted to the bishop, Aurelius, a memorial in which six theses of Cælestius—perhaps literal extracts from his lost work “Contra traducem peccata”—were branded as heretical. These theses were as follows: (1) Even if Adam had not sinned he would have died. (2) Adam’s sin harmed only himself, not the human race. (3) Children just born are in the same state as Adam before his fall. (4) The whole human race neither dies through Adam’s sin or death, nor rises again through the resurrection of Christ. (5) The (Mosaic) Law is as good a guide to heaven as the Gospel. (6) Even before the advent of Christ there were men who were without sin.

VI.C.12.157(c)

VI.B.14.155

 (f)       equivocation

VI.C.12.161(e)

VI.B.14.157

 (d)       oas brains go

Note: This appears originally to have formed a single unit with (c).

MS 47478-252, TsILA: And to what will’t all ^+this taradiddle ^+as brains go+^+^ serve them | JJA 52:157 | 1932 | II.2§4.2 | FW 000.00

 (f)       ostrongfella = molto

Note: Pidgin. Strongfella. Strong, strongly (used generally as an intensive).

MS 47472-158, TsILA: taken off you, tell us by anyone ^+takee offa you, tell he me, strongfella by pickypocky+^ TsILA: | JJA 46:034 | 1926-7 | I.4§1A.3 | FW 082.13

(i)         (s)kirtle

Note: Kirtle. An archaic word for skirt or outer petticoat.

VI.C.12.161(k)

VI.B.14.158

 (m)      gso whispered a leading —

MS 47485-020, ILA: Gives there not too amongst us after all events ^+(or so grunts a leading hebdromadary)+^ some togethergush of stillandbutallyouknox | JJA 60:271 | Mar-Apr 1926 | III§4.*2 | FW 581.26-7

VI.B.14.159

(m)       rthe silent hours

MS 47482b-87, LMA: ^+from 12.a.m. on ^+by+^ the silent hour+^ | JJA 58:049 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2/3B.*0 | FW 524.22

VI.B.14.160

(f)        bite cauterised

Irish Times 23 Sept 1924-5/2: ATTACKED BY A MONKEY. / MOTOR DRIVER’S UNPLEASANT EXPERIENCE. / To be attacked by a savage monkey, which bit him so severely that the wound had to be cauterised at the Cardiff Royal Infirmary, was the experience of Mr. Mark Harbrone, of Penarth.

VI.C.12.164(g)

VI.B.14.161

(b)        oGoat & Compasseso / God encompass[es] us >

MS 47478-252, TsTMA: in their house of the hundred bottles ^+, the Goat and Compasses+^ | JJA 52:157 | 1932 | II.2§4.2 | FW 275.16

VI.C.12.165(b)

(j)         rmaster seiner (net)

Note: Master. Possibly a variant of ‘maister’. See entry ‘mesh’ in R. Morton Nance. A Glossary of Cornish Sea-Words (Cornwall: The Federation of Old Cornish Societies, 1963), where it is defined as the name given in Cornwall to the instrument used to gauge the size of the mesh in beating nets.

Seiner. A fisherman who uses a seine net. This kind of net was commonly in use among Cornish fishermen. It hangs vertically in the water, the ends being drawn together so that it can enclose a school of fish, especially pilchards, mullet or mackerel seen swimming near the shore.

MS 47482b-76, LMA & MT: what they began to say to him then, ^+the masters+^ […] And as they were spreading abroad their drifter nets, gleamy seiners’ nets | JJA 58:028 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2/3B.*0 | FW 477.02, 12

(o)        rsozzled

Note: See 162(h).

MS 47483-26, MT: All the vitamines is beginning to sozzle | JJA 57:152 | Jan 1925 | III§1A.*4/1D.*4//2A.*4/2C.*4 | FW 456.21

VI.B.14.162

(d)        rrushing for post

?MS 47474-100, PrLMA: ^+(O hell, here comes my ^+our+^ funeral! O pest, I’ll miss the post!) | JJA 47:498 | Sep 1927 | I.7§1.8/2.8 | FW 190.03

MS 47482b-046, LMA: ^+rushing for the post ^+kittering about him and+^+^ making a tremendous fuss over him | JJA 57:093 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 430.20

(i)         beauty rolling pins

VI.C.12.166(e)

VI.B.14.163

(f)        stay in workhouse longer / than usual owing to [wet]

VI.C.12.166(i)

VI.B.14.166

(a)        rMuddybroth!r / curse

St. Patrick 91: According to one story an uncivil and grasping neighbour seized two oxen of St. Patrick, which were at pasture. The saint cursed him: “Mudebrod! Thou hast done ill. They land shall never profit thee.” And on the same day the sea rushed in and covered it, and the fruitful soil was changed into a salt marsh.

?Bury. St. Patrick 91-2n: The curse mudebrod (or mudebroth) has not been explained.

MS 47482b-71, LMA: ^+Muddybroth! I won’t go that length+^ | JJA 58:021 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*1+ | FW 482.05

VI.C.12.167(e)

(b)        lefthandwise

St. Patrick 104-5: [Legend of Patricks Contest with the Druids] Suddenly the company assembled at Tara saw a light shining across the plain of Breg from the hill of Slane. King Loigaire, in surprise and alarm, consulted his magicians, and they said, “O king, unless this fire which you see be quenched this same night, it will never be quenched; and the kindler of it will overcome us all and seduce all the folk of your realm.” And the king replied, “It shall not be. but we will go to see the issue of the matter, and we will put to death those who do such sin against our kingdom.” So he had nine chariots [104] yoked, and, with the queen and his two chief sorcerers and others, he drove through the night over the plain of Breg. And in order to win magic power over them who had kindled the fire, they wheeled lefthandwise, or contrariwise to the sun’s course.

VI.C.12.167(f)

(e)        Scotch street

St. Patrick 156:We know not how long Patrick and his household abode under the hill of Macha, but this settlement was not to be final.1

1. [...] The locality of the first settlement, ubi nunc est Fertae martyrum, “the grave of the relics” (Muirchu, 290), he fixes, by means of the monastery of Temple-fertagh, which existed at the beginning of the seventeenth century, to the land south of Scotch St., near Scotch St. river (p. 10).

VI.C.12.167(i)

(f)        rmetropolitan

Note: See 116(j).

St. Patrick 160-1: The only tenable explanation of the commanding position which Armagh occupied is that the tradition is substantially true, and that Patrick made this foundation, near the derelict palace of the ancient Ulster kings, his own special seat and residence, from which he exercised, and intended that his successors should exercise, in Ireland an authority similar to that which a metropolitan bishop exercised in his province on the continent.1 [...] [160] [...]We shall see presently that though he visited southern Ireland, his work there was relatively slight. The evidence suggests that while the whole island formed a single ecclesiastical province, in which Patrick occupied the position of “metropolitan,” there was actually, though not officially, a province within a province.

1. There can be little question that the (contemporary) expression in provincia nostra in Ann. Ult., A.D. 443, means “in Ireland,” conceived as a single ecclesiastical province, like the province of a metropolitan.

MS 47482b-86v, LPA : was detained very properly ^+very properly detained+^ ^+by the metropolitan+^ | JJA 58:048 | Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2+/3B.*0+ | FW 524.02

(g)        the Christian SP

St. Patrick 161ff [These pages account for St. Patricks conversion of various pagan Irish.]

VI.C.12.167(j)

(h)        Gallican liturgy

Note: Gallican liturgy. The liturgy of the ancient Church of Gaul, in contradistinction to the Roman.

St. Patrick 170: Though we have no direct testimony as to the liturgy which Patrick introduced, we cannot doubt that it was the Gallican.The Gallican liturgy, which differs from the Roman by its oriental character, prevailed in Ireland and Britain up to the end of the seventh century

VI.C.12.167(k)

(i)         free to God & Patrick

St. Patrick 176: In our earliest records we find some ecclesiastical foundations expressly distinguished as “free,” which would seem to imply a release from restrictions and obligations which were usually imposed, and a greater measure of independence of the tribe. Thus in Sligo a large district was offered by its owners “to God and Patrick,” and we are told that the king, who seems to be acting as representative of the tribe, “made it free to God and Patrick.”

VI.C.12.167(l)

(j)         church all bishops

Note: See 146(b).

St. Patrick 181: But whereas elsewhere it was the exception, in Ireland it seems to have become the rule. The desire of new foundations to be self-sufficient and completely independent of the diocesan bishop would not perhaps have been so strong if the diocesan bishop had not usually been associated with one of the older monasteries. But once the practice of bishops without sees was introduced, bishops multiplied like flies. A new and narrow conception of the episcopal office prevailed, and when it was recognised that bishops need not have sees, there was no reason to set a limit to their number. The order of bishop became a dignity to which any man of piety might aspire.

VI.C.12.167(m)

(k)        from the purpose

St. Patrick 183: The difficulties and errors which have arisen as to the spirit and principles of Patrick’s ecclesiastical policy are due to the circumstance that after his death his work was partly undone, and the Irish Church developed on lines which were quite from the purpose of his design.

VI.C.12.167(n)

VI.B.14.167

(e)        Wattle Bridge Ulst >

Note: There is a Wattle Bridge on the Ulster Canal.

VI.C.12.168(e)

(f)        Berehaven (cromlech) >

Note: There is a megalithic stone circle near Castletown Berehaven in County Cork. See 004(a)-(b).

VI.C.12.168(f)

(g)        dallans

Note: Ir. Dallán. Pillar-stone.

Irish Independent 19 Sep 1924-6/4: AN IRELAND OF THE CONTINENT / WHERE CELTIC CLANS MEET / [...] / The Irish delegates to the gathering of the Celtic clans at Quimper will find themselves at home among the Bretons. / [...]

           Rude monuments of a high antiquity, closely akin to those found scattered over Ireland, survive abundantly throughout the province: cromlechs in plenty, dolmens, dallans, the so-called Druid’s altar, and the great stone circle, whence, in the pagan dawn, belts of flame leapt up to glorify the Sun, even as at Wattle Bridge in Ulster, or Berehaven in the far south.

VI.C.12.168(g)

(h)        took human life

Irish Independent 19 Sep 1924-5/1: WORK FOR IRELAND’S BENEFIT. / WHAT THE GOVERNMENT HAS ACHIEVED. / ARCHBISHOP’S TRIBUTE. / [Most Rev. Dr. Curley, Archbishop of Baltimore’s words:] [...] “De Valera’s irregulars blew up bridges by the hundreds, robbed banks, wrecked and looted trains, took human life, destroyed and plundered private homes without a shred of noble purpose in their destructive work.”

VI.C.12.168(h)

(i)         rimpenetrable weather

Irish Independent 19 Sep 1924-7/1: AT BANTRY. /BOAT SWAMPED. / MAN ISOLATED ON THE ROCKS. / IRISHMEN IN THE CREW. / […] CAPTAIN’S EVIDENCE / IMPENETRABLE WEATHER. Dr. J. O’Mahony, Bantry, gave evidence that Flood’s death was due to shock and heart failure following immersion and exposure. There were no traces of drowning.

           Capt. W.E. Wood, Master of the Asian, said he was bound from New Orleans, which he left on August 31, to Liverpool. The ship stranded on the Stagg Rocks at 5 a.m. on Sept. 17, due to thick, heavy weather. Passenegrs and crew all took to the boats.

MS 47474-28, TsILA: his westernmost keyhole ^+, spitting at the impenetrable weather,+^ | JJA 47:409 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 178.30

(j)         made rather light of it

Irish Independent 19 Sep 1924-7/2: HOW THE ASIAN WAS LOST / THRILLING TALE AT BANTRY / BOAT SWAMPED / [...] / OFFICER BOYLE PRAISED. / It was impossible to get them to talk of the scenes which occurred when it was decided to abandon the ship, and, beyond saying that they had great difficulty in lowering the boats, they made rather light of their experiences.

VI.C.12.168(i)

(k)        revolver cursing at me >

VI.C.12.168(j)

(l)         suddenly he gave 3 snores / like as if he had fallen / asleep >

VI.C.12.168(k)

(m)       asked for P. P. but no >

VI.C.12.169(a)

(n)        to see might I stir >>

VI.C.12.169(a)

VI.B.14.168

(b)        rcounting 30 secs & cursing / at him to know who / burned the hay which / the man knew / nothing about

Irish Independent 19 Sep 1924-8/5: TOPICS OF THE DAY. / OPINIONS OF OUR READERS.  / A GOREY RAID. /. To the Editor. “Irish Independent”. […] Then I was ordered to get in across a ditch of briars, which I did, followed by the three men; they pushed me into a drain of water, one man gripped me by the throat to choke me, and I fell back into the briars. I got up and was struck several times by two of the men. I was again put on my knees, told to say my prayers, that I had only 60 secs. to live, I asked for a priest, but no.

           One man then shouted to the other to go for Willie, meaning Mr. Sheehan. This man placed his revolver against my jaw and fired, the blaze and sparks singeing my face, then he lay down on the ditch in front of me covering me with his revolver all the time and cursing at me to tell the names of the men I got to burn the hay. Suddenly he gave three snores like as if he had fallen asleep. I suppose to see might I stir.

           OTHERS ATTACKED

By this time the other two men had Mr Sheehan on his knees lower down, counting 30 seconds, swearing and cursing at him to know who burned the hay, which the man knew nothing about. Then those two men brought Mr. Sheehan up to where I was and I was ordered out of the ditch and told to advance 60 paces forward. Then there was a whistle blown and I was ordered to halt and come back.

MS 47482b-85v, LPA: – First he wanted a match. ^+Then counting 30 seconds and cursed at him to know who burned the hay which the man knew nothing about+^ | JJA 58:046 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2/3B.*0 | FW 516.22-30

(i)         oGaelic Mod

MS 47472-150, TsILA: ^+ [His] Things^+Thing+^ +^Mod+^ have undone ^+him+^: and his mad [thing] has done him Man.+^ | JJA 45:189 | early 1927 | I.3§1.3/2.3/3.3 | FW 058.01

VI.B.14.169

(h)        rkalebrose

Note: Kale-brose. An oatmeal porridge, fortified with meat-broth.

MS 47484a-24, ILA: Ye’ve as much cheek on you now as would boil a cauldron of kale ^+kalebrose+^. | JJA 58:125 | Dec 1924-Jan 1925 | III§3A.*3/3B.*3 | FW 529.01

(i)         quarten

Note: ?Quartan. Of a fever, causing a paroxysm every fourth (or third) day.

VI.C.12.170(h)

VI.B.14.170

(a)        rentered as 2nd class matter

Note: Second class matter. U. S. Postal term (current since 19C) for periodicals sent from publisher, qualifying for the lower of two rate

MS 47482b-40v, LPA: It is a pinch of scribble ^+Nothing but ^+beyond+^ clerical errors ^+et omnia ^+and it is entered as secondclass matter.+^+^ | JJA 57:082 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 419.34-5

(e)        opulpit = coward’s / castle

MS 47478-249, BMA: ^+coward’s castle pulpiter &+^ | [MS ®] MS 47478-319, MT: 5 He gives me pulpitions ^+pulpitpitions+^ with his Castlecowards never in these trowsers | JJA 52:161 | 1932 | II.2§4.(*)2 | FW 000.00

(g)        Dalkey landing place

Gwynn, Leinster 6-7: But to the south of the city (where it lies in the bight of the bay, spilling itself northward along the shore to Clontarf of famous memory, and southward to Kingstown and beyond) mountains rise, a dense huddle of rounded, shouldering heights, stretching away far as you can see. Near Dublin they almost touch the [6] shore: one rocky spur comes down to Dalkey Island, which was the deep-water landing place before Kingstown harbour was built: it rises into the peaked fantastic summit of Killiney Hill.

VI.C.12.171(c)

(h)        12th century >

VI.C.12.171(d)

(i)         Dublin Danish

Gwynn, Leinster 8: The Normans made, indeed, their first landings in Wexford and Waterford, but they quickly consolidated their power in Dublin, which was itself a city of foreign origin—which, even when they came in the twelfth century, wass Danish rather than Irish.

VI.C.12.171(e)

(j)         for dear life >

VI.C.12.171(f)

(k)        Emmet’s Walk / Bachelor’s —

Gwynn, Leinster 9-10: In the grounds of the Priory [9] and of the neighbouring Hermitage, “Emmet’s Walk”, “Emmet’s Seat” are shown: that old story has left many marks. Curran’s name has not been so cherished: instincts are quick in Ireland, though it is only within the last few years that wew have learnt how mean a part the great orator played in that tragic history. Yet it is worth glancing at the Priory, for here came all that was famous in Ireland’s most famous day: famous orators, famous duellists, patriots, and placemen—worse even than placemen, for Curran’s closest friend was Leonard MacNally, who for a lifetime posed as the champion of men like Emmet, and for a lifetime sold their secrets to Government, while acting as their advocate in the courts where they were tried for dear life.

Note: Bachelor’s Walk. A quay running along the north side of the Liffey from O’Connell Bridge.

VI.C.12.171(g)-(h)

(l)         champaign

Gwynn, Leinster 11: From your height on the Dublin hills you can look over two-thirds of Leinster. Southward, the mountains hide Wicklow and Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny. But over all that vast plain, stretching in champaign north and west, your eye can travel till it reaches far into Ulster on the north, and westward there is nothing.

VI.C.12.171(i)

(m)       Lissoy >

Gwynn, Leinster 13: Leaving out of sight, because I must, the famous city of Kildare with its Cathedral (half-church, half-fortress); the broad lakes of West Meath, endeared by hope to patient anglers; the city of Kilkenny, where something of Ireland’s prosperity remains unbroken, where the Butlers’ Castle stands undestroyed, where are churches that were never ruined (almost a prodigy in Ireland); saying nothing of Lissay, where Goldsmith lived in the village that his pen immortalized; briefly dismissing about two-thirds of Leinster with a wave of the hand, let me come back to Dublin and its environment.

VI.C.12.171(j)

(n)        stormy Slieve Bloom

Gwynn, Leinster 12: For twenty miles inland is choice soil, but beyond that you reach the central bog of Allen, where long expanses of brown heather or of land half-reclaimed make up a landscape of melancholy charm. Such a scene as Mr. Williams has drawn somewhere in the Queen’s County is intensely typical of this midland country. Even where the furze blossom makes a flicker of gay colour, the whole effect is dismal, and its loneliness is constantly accentuated by what he has suggested, the flight of wild marsh-haunting birds: the trees are apt to be stunted and weather-twisted by winds off the “stormy Slieve Bloom”, whose veiled purple shapes are shown against the western sky in his picture.

VI.C.12.171(k)

(o)        Swift hooted in streets

Gwynn, Leinster 15: The liberty which Swift upheld was the liberty of Ireland. He sought to free Ireland from that system of laws restricting all industrial development, whose consequences are with us to-day. He came to Dublin in 1715, a politician in disgrace, and was hooted in the streets.

VI.C.12.171(l)

VI.B.14.171

(a)        Christchurch & Patrick’s / 11c Danish

Gwynn, Leinster 14-15: Traces of its earlier history are found in the Castle, Norman built, but standing where the Danish founds of the city set their stronghold by the ford above the tideway; and in Christ Church, first founded by the Danes when in the eleventh century they came over to Christianity. Skilful restoration of the cathedral has disclosed much of the early fabric—Norman work on Danish foundations. And yet that ancient Danish stronghold interests me no more than Cæsa’s Londinium; nor does the medieval city hold any charm for my mind—lying as it did outside the real life of Ireland, [14] merely a fortress of a foreign power. Strongbow’s tomb is there to see in Christ Church, but to my thinking a far more significant monument is to be found in the other cathedral, St. Patrick’s.

VI.C.12.171(m)

(b)        Swift & Stella’s heads / uprooted — on / salon tables

Gwynn, Leinster 16-17: In the north transept an epitaph written by Swift marks the tomb of “Mrs. Hester Johnson, better known to the world by the name of ‘Stella’, under which she is celebrated in the writings of Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of the Cathedral”. The world has always wanted to know, and never will know for certain, whether she ought to have borne the name of him who celebrated her. But his bones were laid by [16] hers, and still lie there, under a column in the nave; though the indecency of antiquarians dragged out their skulls when the cathedral was under restoration, made a show of them at parties, and preserved a memorial of this outrage in plaster casts, now deposited on the robing-room.

VI.C.12.172(a)

(c)        fee to see mad Swift

Gwynn, Leinster 17: You can read also Swift’s epitaph on the tomb which Schomberg’s relatives and heirs declined to pay for, leaving the pious taks to Swift and his chapter. The Latin sentence keeps the vibrant ring of Swift’s indignation. If only his ghost could write the epitaph of those who ransacked tombs and groped among mouldering relics of the immortal and unforgotten dead, to find objects for a peepshow! Yet after all it is in keeping with the story. In the dark end of Swift’s life, while he paced his guarded room between keepers, servants used to admit strangers for a fee, to see that white-haired body which had once housed so great and terrible a mind.

VI.C.12.172(b)

(d)        Guinness rebuilt SP

Gwynn, Leinster 17: St. Patrick’s Cathedral, which Swift made famous, dates, like Christ Church, from Norman builders; but it was renovated fifty years ago at the cost of Sir Benjamin Guinness, head of the famous brewery.

VI.C.12.172(c)

(e)        Roe         Ch. Ch

Gwynn, Leinster 17-18: Christ Church, on the other hand, was rebuilt our of [17] whisky—the restorer was Mr. Henry Roe.

VI.C.12.172(d)

(f)        Sheraton Irish

Gwynn, Leinster 18-19: No great painted adorned that period among us; but all the subsidiary arts flourished exceedingly. Horace Warpole used to send across his books to be bound; Sheraton, Chippendale’s [19] rival, was a Dublin artist-crafstman;

VI.C.12.172(e)

(g)        rh a Dane salmon

Gwynn, Leinster 24-5: Skirting the park to the south, and trending westward, is the valley of the Liffey, and no one looking at the unsightly, sometimes unsavoury, stream which divides Dublin would guess at the beautiful water which [24] the Liffey-bred salmon reaches in a couple of miles after he has left the sea. Mr. Williams has drawn a reach of it, still in the tidal limit, at Palmerston, half-way to Leixlip—that is Salmon Leap: the Norse name tells its story of the city’s founding.

MS 47482b-88, MT: – Have you heard the psalmsinging ^+psalmsobbing+^ salmoner | JJA 58:051 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2/3B.*0 | FW 525.21

            (h)        tern (orn)

Gwynn, Leinster 29: North of the city are broad stretches of green fields, which lead the eye out to that still wider level of blue—colour laid cleanly in mass against colour. Sometimes between the pasture land and the ocean lies a stretch of sand links, beloved of golfers, who have classic ground at Dollymount on the North Bull; at Portmarnock, with the exquisite view of Howth and Ireland’s Eye drawn by Mr. Williams; and, most interesting of all, in the island links at Malahide. This strange jumble of sandhills by the mouth of the pleasant little estuary has a special interest as a bird sanctuary; the terns breed there in hundreds during June and July.

Note: Tern. Sea-bird, akin to the gull, belonging to the genus Sterna. Orn. Ornithology.

VI.C.12.172(f)

(i)         bent (bot) >

Note: Bent. A name for various grasses; also used as a name for the stalk of grasses.

VI.C.12.172(g)

(j)         rtulipfields Rush

Gwynn, Leinster 33: And while we talk of flowers, another sight you can see from Dublin in May, the like of which takes visitors to Holland—the great daffodil and tulip fields at Rush, some fifteen miles north along the coast. There, growing in among the pale sandhills and grey bent, you shall see these huge patches of trumpeting colour—acres of tulips, close ranged like soldiers on parade, all of one type, uniform in their perfection.

MS 47482b-89, TMA: The ^+Or+^ tulipfields of Rush | JJA 58:053 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2/3B.*0 | FW 526.06

(k)        h gazebo

Gwynn, Leinster 39: But supposing that at Kilmacanoge you do what forty thousand other people will have done that year before you, and hold straight on between the Sugar-loaves, the road, curving gradually eastward and seaward, brings you into the Glen of the Downs, another noble defile, wooded to the very crest with scrubby timber, so close as to be almost impassable—lovely as the loveliest in its way. Yet somehow the little gazebo of an octagonal summerhouse set high up on the north side in Bellevue grounds stamps the scene.

VI.C.12.172(h)

(l)         3 phares Wicklow >

Note: Fr. Phares. Lighthouses. In 1818, the two new lighthouses were built on Wicklow Head. One of the two old ones was destroyed, so that three towers remained.

VI.C.12.172(i)

(m)       1 light

Gwynn, Leinster 41: Wicklow Head is adorned with three lighthouses—one carrying a light.

(n)        Skellig

Gwynn, Leinster 47: At last his fame went abroad, and folk flocked to his sanctuary and begged him to found a monastery. He submitted unwillingly, and let them build him (still on the slope of the same mountain, Lugduff) a beehive cell of stones, or “skellig”;

VI.C.12.172(j)-(k)

(o)        h with ladder up >>

VI.C.12.172(l)

VI.B.14.172

(a)        oSee of Dublin & Glendalough

Gwynn, Leinster 48: All that great congeries of ruinds dating from pre-Norman times speaks of a very large community. They are typical. There is the round tower, cloigtheach, a belfry, place of retreat into which the pious monks used to retire, drawing up the ladder after them; there is the big church with high-pitched roof of stone, and its galaxy of lesser chapels, just as in Ciaran’s city of Clonmacnoise. About these doubtless were numberless huts of wattle and clay, dwellings of the clergy and the students. For here was the real metropolitan see of Irish Leinster. Dublin was a Danish foundation, and for centuries the primacy was disputed between them, till the dispute was ended by calling the provincial see the Archbishopric of Dublin and Glendalough—joint dioceses with separate organization to this day.

MS 47472-152, TsTMA: (not a Lucalizodite ^+^+even of the ^+Glendalough+^ diocese+^, but hailing from ^+the prow of+^ Little Britain)+^ | JJA 45:191 | early 1927 | I.3§1.3/2.3/3.3 | FW 062.35-6

(b)        oLuggilaw

Gwynn, Leinster 48: For archaeological and historic interest no place in Wicklow can approach this “glen of two lakes”, Gleann dá Loch. But for romance, I at least should put Glen Malure far before it; and, for beauty, would infinitely prefer the lovely cup of Lough Tay or Luggilaw, where it nestles under the western slopes of Douse.

Not located in MS/FW

Note: FW 203.17 comes from VI.B.06.147(m).

(c)        Wicklowbacon / mutton

Gwynn, Leinster 49: The very antithesis of Wicklow, with its mountains, its small plunging rivers, and its breed of little light-footed sheep, is the plain country of Meath, watered by the deep stream of the Boyne, and grazed over by the finest and biggest cattle.

VI.C.12.173(a)

(d)        Cormac Banquet Hall / 250 yds x 15 yds / 14 doors

Gwynn, Leinster 50: Tara of to-day is only a field or two of rich grass, covered with the trace of ancient earthworks—most curious of them the Banqueting Hall of King Cormac, a long narrow parallelogram—250 yards in length by 15 wide—with the fourteen openings of its doors still traceable, as they are shown in two plans preserved in very ancient Irish manuscripts.

VI.C.12.173(b)-(d)

(e)        Tamhair (Easter Eve)

Gwynn, Leinster 50-1: Looking north-east from Tara you will see easily (any child can point it out) another somewhat higher [50] rise of ground, seven or eight miles distant—the Hill of Slane.That is where, on Easter Eve in the year 433, Patrick lighted the Paschal fire which gave menace and warning to the High King and his druids, keeping their state on Tara.

VI.C.12.173(e)

(f)        must be the muster

Gwynn, Leinster 54-5: [quotation from William Butler’s The Light of the West] Empires have flourished and gone down, whole peoples have passed away, new faiths have arisen, new languages have sprung up, new worlds have been born to man; but those fourteen centuries [since Saint Patrick’s defeat of the druids] have only fed the fire of that faith which he taught the men of Erin, and have spread into a wider horizon the light he kindled. And if there be in the great life beyond the grave a morning trumpet-[54]note to sound the reveille of the army of the dead, glorious indeed must be the muster answering from the tombs of fourteen centuries to the summons of the Apostle of the Gaels.

VI.C.12.173(f)

(g)        Irish heard in W Indies / (O. Crom)

Gwynn, Leinster 59: No record of brutality sullies that feat of arms; but at Drogheda, one of the most picturesquely situated towns in Ireland, and made more picturesque by the high viaduct that spans the river, there are terrible memories connected with those old defences of which one part remains perfect—St. Laurence’s Gate with its two-stories tower. Here it was that Cromwell perpetrated the first of those massacres which disgrace his name. Such of the captured as were not slain were sent for slaves to the West Indies where to-day in certain islands a debased Irish can be heard from negroes, and Irish names are general among the negro population.

VI.C.12.173(g)

(h)        glasher (weir) >

Note: Lasher. Weir: according to the OED, the word is/was in use chiefly along the Thames (last citation 1884).

MS 47483-117, TsIA: to be ^+ reclined by the lasher+^ catching trophies | JJA 57:184 | Mar 1926 | III§1A.5/1D.5//2A.5/2B.2/2C.5 | FW 450.09

(i)         heap scorn on

Gwynn, Leinster 61: Above Navan the Boyne is sedgy and weed-choked; but if you follow the towpath from Navan, between canal and river, you will find yourself heaping scorn on the Thames. […]  [60] […] When I came in sight of Dunmore Castle, a ruined Norman keep of the sixteenth century, perched high on a grassy cliff above one of these lashers, it seemed that here was surely the finest point of all;

VI.C.12.173(h)

VI.B.14.173

(e)        an aged man who had / some children by the / hand >

VI.C.12.174(d)

(f)        threaten to blow the / stomach out of

Freeman’s Journal 4 October 1924-6/3: LIVELY MEETING. Typical Tirade by Mr Larkin / […] There was, he said, an organised conspiracy between certain people, including the Transport Workers’ Union, to reduce wages in Dublin, and in the fish case Joe O’Neill was being made a tool.

           “You are a liar and a fraud, Jim,” shouted an old grey-haired man in the crowd who had some children by the hand.

           “There’s O’Neill,” vehemently retorted Larkin. “He is the tool of the junta of the I.T. and G.W.U. in Parnell square.” […] The aged man concluded his remarks by lifting up a child in his arms and saying: “You’ll never starve that child, Jim.”

           In the midst of the confusion, Larkin exclaimed: “There ‘s a gunman in the crowd. That man (pointing a finger at one of the audience) carries a gun in his pocket, breaks into houses at midnight, and threatens to blow the stomachs out of anyone who does not pay up contributions to the Union to which he belongs.”

VI.C.12.174(e)

(g)        fall of the leaf / (boia)

Freeman’s Journal 4 October 1924-8/6: “The Fall of the Leaf.” The “Fall,” as our American cousins call the golden autumn, is not usually connected with the death of anything but leaves. […] But the saying, once popular in Ireland—“Take care or you’ll die at the fall of the leaf,” had reference to something far more gruesome than one would suppose from the meaning so generally given to the term in our own time.  It was an allusion to the method of hanging adopted in Ireland about 1780, and which was regarded as a great improvement of dealing with those condemned to death; one of the reasons given for its introduction being that it would prevent the culprit being escorted to the scaffold by the general public. With the new system the floor, or the “leaf,” on which the person about to be launched into eternity was made to stand, stood oout from the prison wall, on the outer side of which it was placed, while above it hung the iron rings through which the ropes were passed—for as many as three at least appear to have been sometimes hanged at the same moment. The condemned walked on to the leaf or platform through an open window, and when the “leaf” fell they fell with it.

Note: To go off with the leaf. To be hanged. See Partridge, ‘leaf’, which lists this expression as AI.

It. Boia. Executioner.

VI.C.12.174(f)

(h)        o‘scab’ n

Freeman’s Journal 4 October 1924-8/6: City and District News  […] The Inchicore Hold-Up.—The three young men charged in connection with the armed hold-up of a number of workmen at the Inchicore Railway Works were again before Mr. Cusser in the Dublin District Court yesterday Their names are Christopher Ferguson, Patrick Clair and Henry Callaghan, and they were charged with holding up and robbong a number of men in the employment of the Great Southern and Western Railway Company. Michael Hunt, a labourer, who was with other workmen at the hut, deposed to the raid by armed men one of whom ordered witness into the hut. He was covered by a revolver and told to put up his hands. £3 12/- was taken from his pocket. He identified Ferguson as the man who ordered him into the hut and told him to put up his hands. One of the raiders called witness a “scab.” Accused were remanded for a week on bail.

MS 47478-266, ILA: But trifid tongue ^+scab, if [acted,]+^ | JJA 52:164 | 1932 | II.2§4.*3 | FW 000.00

VI.B.14.174

(c)        saffron cake (Gaffney’s)

Freeman’s Journal 7 October 1924-8/6: Saffron—A Celtic Colour Note. The recent Pan-Celtic Congress is remindful of a problem long a knotty tag to the Celtic fringe. Why namely is saffron a Celtic favourite combine of colour and condiment? […] For instance, though Cornwall is a land of saffron-cakes, the quality does not equal the quantity. Satire views the saffron as a camouflage to give a deceptive hue of golden richness in dearth of the good raw material represented by fresh eggs and butter. Whereas Dublin could boast Gaffney’s saffron-cake a world-speciality in this kind: to its quarter-ounce of saffron went five pints of flour and nine eggs, six ounces of fresh butter and a half pound of castor sugar, with etceteras, including a large glass of brandy.

VI.C.12.175(c)

VI.B.14.175

(a)        isle of woods

Selected Essays 52 (opening paragraph): According to the Irish bards the most ancient name of Ireland was Inis na Veeva—the Isle of Woods—possessing therefore a soil which needed a frequent use of the axe ere her plains were rendered fit for pastureland or tillage.

VI.C.12.175(l)

(b)        h & a — their past?

Selected Essays 52: [This item seems to be inspired by the discussion here about the population of Ireland before the Deluge, e.g]: As we travel down through the chronicles we find, at various points, honourable mention of ancient gods and heroes who ditinguished themselves as extensive fellers of forests. [...] This one repelled the sea from Murthemney, forming the district which is now Louth; another taught men to ride on horses; a third first dicovered an smelted gold in Ireland; a fourth brought cows and bulls from Britain, when all the cattle in the island were destroyed by a plague. Innumerable are the bardic references to such beneficient works.

VI.C.12.176(a)

(c)        queen Ceasair / Bith / Lara Fintann

Selected Essays 52-3: To this Isle of Woods first arrived a colony fleeing out of the east of Europe, the most ancient of those mythical races who preceded the advent of the gods. Bith, Lara, and Fintann were their kings, but, from Ceasair, their Queen, the race has taken its name. It is recorded in the annals as the invasion of Ceasair. This race, according to the monkish historians, was swept away by the Deluge, but I doubt not that the true ethnic traditions represented this remote Ceasair, and the gods of her cycle, as the root whence sprang all the gods and heroes of later times.

VI.C.12.176(b)-(c)

(d)        lands at Dunamarc / Bantry

Selected Essays 55 (about Queen Ceasair): The spot where she first touched Ireland was Dunamarc, a small village between Bantry and Glengariffe, at the upper end of Bantry Bay.

VI.C.12.176(d)-(e)

(e)        Fintann teaches I history / to S P

Selected Essays 56-7: In mediaeval times two theories obtained as to the preservation of the history of the early inhabitants of the isle, one of these was, that Fintann from time to time appeared visibly among the Gael, and taught history to the bards and others. Thus he is represented as coming up from his favourite haunts in the mountains of Kerry, and relating the history of Ireland to St. Patrick.

VI.C.12.176(f)

(f)        rh arrives as Lachs

Selected Essays 57: Queen Ceasair and her people, write he chroniclers, were swept away in the Deluge; Fintann, however, transformed himself into a salmon, and safely roamed the depths of the ocean until its subsidence. On the hill of Tara he was left dry by the retiring flood, when he renewed his human form.

Not located in MS/FW

(g)        oeats nuts of knowledge

Note: See 103(j). See also VI.A.0571: nuts of knowledge (AE)

Selected Essays 58: In the sacred wells at the source of the Boyne and the Shannon, and at the time that the mysterious hazel-tree shed its wisdom-giving nuts, this salmon used to appear and devour the fruit, lest any should meet them afterwards floating upon the river.

MS 47478-249-250, ILA: who ^+having aten knuts of knowledge+^ will be the walker | JJA 52:161-2 | 1932 | II.2§4.2 | FW 000.00

(h)          Sinan rapes / nuts, Connla’s well / rise >

VI.C.12.176(g)-(i)

(i)         +Miss Shannon

Note: See reproduction for layout.

Selected Essays 64 (in the chapter / piece / essay / passage Natural Mythology of the Irish): In ancient times there existed, at the source of the Shannon, a mysterious fountain called Connla’s well. On the margin of this well there grew a hazel-tree, bearing nuts of bright crimson, which would endow with all knowledge those who might eat of them [...] At length, a goddess, Sinan, a daughter of Lir, yielding to the promptings of curiosity, drew nigh, intending to pluck and eat the fruit, but the fountain rose against her, pouring forth an angry flood, which swept her down to the sea. Ever after, the waters of western Erin flowed in the channel thus formed, and the river received the name of the too curious goddess, Sinan, since varied into Shannon. Spenser writes the name, Shenane:— “The stately Shenane spreading like a sea.”

VI.C.12.176(g)

(j)         Boanna & her lapdog / Boyne / m - Nuada Silverhand

Selected Essays 64: The origin of the Boyne is similar — the goddess Boanna, or Boan, being in this case the desecrator of the sacred well. Along with the goddesss, her lap-dog was also swept down to the sea, and there changed into the rock, which from him was named Cnoc Dabil, at the estuary of the Boyne. […] Sinan and Boanna were the water nymphs of their respective streams. The latter was wife of one of the Tuatha De Danan gods, Nuada the Silver-handed. The river was also known as “the arm of the wife of Nuada,” pure and bright as Boan’s arm.

VI.C.12.176(j)-177(a)

VI.B.14.176

(a)        ran Ear/ Nearwicker

Selected Essays 65: Eocha built a house over the well, giving the key to one of his women, with injunctions never to leave the door open. The woman neglected the command, and a flood broke forth which submerged Eocha and his people, forming the great lake, which from him was called Loch n’Eocha, or Lough Neagh. Eocha was, doubtless, the god or genius of this lake.

MS 47484a-36, BMA: Honestly ^+on my honour of a Nearwicked+^ | JJA 58:130 | Dec 1924-Jan 1925 | III§3A.*3/3B.*3 | FW 539.04-5

(b)        orivers break forth / for joy, at funeral

Selected Essays 65-6: The more common mode of representing the breaking [65] forth of rivers and lakes is, that at the burial of him or her whose name it happened to bear, the water burst forth. [...] Sometimes lakes and rivers are represented as having burst forth for joy.

MS 47478-266, R&LMA: and embalmed in honey for dynastic continuity ^+and rivers head forth in joy for his funeral.+^ | JJA 52:164 | 1932 | II.2§4.*3 | FW 277.03-5

(c)        Suir, Nore & Barrow

Selected Essays 66: Spenser, in his own beautiful way, blending the Greek mythology with the physical features of his adopted country, and incorporating, perhaps some now lost legend, makes the Suir, Nore and Barrow three brothers, sons of the giant Blomius and the nymph Rheusa.

VI.C.12.177(b)

(d)        gadze

Note: See 163(j).

Selected Essays 67: The god [Uath of Lough Uath] rose out of the lake, bearing a brazen adze in his hand, and decides in favour of Cuculain.

MS 47474-22v, TsLPA: included ^+an adze of a skull,+ | JJA 47:398 | Apr-May 1925 | I.7§1.3/2.3 | FW 169.11

(e)        couch of glass / robe of green ^+Boyne+^ >

VI.C.12.177(c)-(d)

(f)        offspring seen thro’ skin / a’s children = trout

Selected Essays 70: A wizard of the superantural Fomorian race put the following query to Finn:


“I saw to the south a bright-faced Queen

With couch of crystal and robe of green,

Whose numerous offspring sprightly and small,

Plain through her skin you can see them all.”

 

Finn explains that the bright-faced Queen is the river Boyne; her couch of crystal the shining floor of the stream; her green robe its glassy borders; and her offspring seen through the translucent skin the salmon and trout swimming below.

VI.C.12.177(e)-(f)

(g)        ocleverism

Selected Essays 70 [immediately following the previous quotation]: This pretty thought could not have appeared in the elder literature, and is too ingenious and light-hearted for modern. It is one of those conceits or cleverisms in which primitive peoples delight.

MS 47478-266, ILA: others woo will and work for ^+becaused of his cleverism, who lives more in future than in ^+a+^ past of bloody altars,+^ | JJA 52:164 | 1932 | II.2§4.*3 | FW 000.00

(h)        rbald hills h

Selected Essays 73: Fergus mac Roy, unsheathing, after a long deprivation, the great sword which had been fashioned for him by Mananan the sea-god, wheels it round his head in exultation. In its horizon-sweeping circuit he shears away the tops of three mountains, hurling them into the plains of Meath. These severed mountain crests were known as “the three bald hills of Meath.

MS 47482b-84v, LPA: ^+– There were ^+bon+^fires on every bald hill in ^+holy+^ Ireland that night? – You may say there were. ^+Bonfires; no less!+^ With the blue beards streaming to the heavens.+^ | JJA 58:044 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2/3B.*0 | FW 501.22

(i)         AthaCliath Dublinn >

VI.C.12.177(g)

(j)         —— Mara >

VI.C.12.177(h)

(k)        rEsker ridge >

Note: See VI.B.1.046; VI.B.3.142.

MS 47482b-62v, LPA: The four ^+claymen+^ came ^+clumb together+^ to hold their sworn inquiry to the mead ^+by Esker ridge,+^ the son’s rest. | JJA 58:004 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*1 | FW 475.22

(l)         rN/S Conn / Owen Mor

Selected Essays 73-4: Through the centre of Ireland, running east and west, there extends a long gravel ridge, known in the bardic literature as the Esker Riada, whose origin the geologists refer to the action of the sea when Ireland was submerged. To our wonder-loving ancestors this was the great rampart erected by Conn of the Hundred Fights ans Owen Mor, the southern monarch, when, on the cessation of their second war, they agreed to divide the sovereignity of Ireland by a partition line drawn from Ath-a-Cliah Dub-Linn to Ath-a-Cliah Mara, i.e., from Dublin to Galway.

MS 47482b-63v, LPA: ^+the half of him in Conn’s half & the whole of him in Owen’s five quarters,+^ | JJA 58:006 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*1+ | FW 475.06-7

VI.B.14.177

(c)        Pison / Gihon / Hiddekel / Euphrates

Selected Essays 78 [O’Grady quoting the Old Testament as a motto for a sub-chapter, called The Nuts of Knowledge]: “And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. The name of the first river is Pison, and the name of the second river is Gihon, and the name of the third river is Hiddekel, and the fourth river is the Euphrates.”—Moses.

VI.C.12.177(k)-(m)

(d)        eat forbidden nuts

Note: See 175(g).

Selected Essays 78: Around the well grew hazel-trees, seven in number, with leaves of tender green, and berries of bright crimson, and the nuts that grew on these trees with knowledgen the mind of any who ate them, so that to him the past and present and future were revealed, and the Tuatha Eireen alone had access to that garden, and ate not of the fruit of those trees, for holy fear and ancient prophecy forbade.

VI.C.12.177(n)

(e)        rLimenich

Selected Essays 79 [about Sinan, who ate the forbidden nuts]: And, like a dead leaf, it bore her past the Great Ford, and past the city of the hostings and the fairy hills, where Bove Derg had his habitation, and past Limenich, and cast her into the great sea westward.

MS 47482b-047v: ^+And ribbons of lace limerick's^+limenick's+^ disgrace. [...]+^ | !240009 | III§2A.*3 | FW 434.21

(f)        olive in future more / than past

Selected Essays 82 [in the essay Irish Unity]: In individuals, hope is a stronger spring of life than memory, and it is the same with nations. Nations as well as individuals live even more in the future than in the past.

MS 47478-266, ILA: others woo will and work for ^+becaused of his cleverism, who lives more in future than in ^+a+^ past of bloody altars,+^ | JJA 52:164 | 1932 | II.2§4.*3 | FW 000.00

(h)        otopical hero >

MS 47478-266, ILA: standfest ^+, topical hero,+^ | JJA 52:164 | 1932 | II.2§4.*3 | FW 275.08-9

(i)         rfuneral games

Selected Essays 83: Every district in the island had its topical gods and heroes, and its local traditions embodying what was believed to have been their character and achievements. What held these traditions together, and rendered them enduring and famous, was the periodical games and fairs held on the spot where those ancient heroes were interred.

MS 47482b-86, LMA: – Was that how it all ^+the funeral sports+^ began? | JJA 58:047 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2/3B.*0 | FW 515.23

MS 47482b-98, ILS: – In other words was this how the whole ^+other+^ thing ^+funeral games+^ started? | JJA 58:067 | Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2+/3B.*0+ | FW 515.23

(j)         hurle

Selected Essays 90-1 [in the selected passage about and called Cuculain, Son of Sualtam]: We see him as a little boy, with his sword of lath and toy shield, escaping by night from [90] his mother’s palace, eager to commence his warlike education under his uncle at Emain Macha; not creeping like snail unwillingly to school, but with his little brazen hurle driving hockey-balls before him, casting forward his toy javelin and running to catch it ere it fell, overflowing with eagerness and hope.

VI.C.12.178(a)

(k)        warrioress >

VI.C.12.178(b)

(l)         owet his weapon

Selected Essays 91: We mark how he confounded the great champion Conaill Carna, and laughed back at him discomfited, going southwards alone to wet his weapons in the blood of the southern enemies, his chivalrous modesty an innocence when the naked queens bar his mad path against Emain Macha, his defeat and contumely when Curoi mac Dary cut off his long warlike tresses, after which, with boyish vanity and shame, he retired into lonely places in the North. His love for Emer and the hope long deferred, his education in the isle of Skye under northern warrioresses, and the strong friendship there formed with Fardia the great Fir-bolgic champion, his wars against Queen Meave, when deserted and alone, wetting nightly his sylvan couch with his tears

MS 47478-249, ILA: ^+ and ^+not wetting his weapon+^ shaker of the sacred rattle | JJA 52:161 | 1932 | II.2§4.*2 | FW 000.00

VI.B.14.178

(a)        delg (brooch)

Selected Essays 101 [Fardia speaking]: Bright as the sun is the brooch of Meave, which she has given me, the Royal Brooch of Cruhane, emblem of sovereignty amongst the Gaeil. Gems glitter along the rim. Like a level sunbeam in the forest is the shining delg of it.

VI.C.12.178(c)

(b)        Hound is thy name / Royal — thy nature

Selected Essays 102 [Fardia warning Cuculain]: Go back now, O Cuculain, to thy pleasant Dûn [...] And care no more for the Red Branch, for they have forsaken thee, and given thee over to destruction, who have conspired against thee, trusting in thy great heart that thou wouldst be slain on the marches of the province, holding the gates of the north against their foes, for Hound is thy name and Royal Hound thy nature.

VI.C.12.178(d)-(e)

(c)        oeject

Selected Essays 102 [Cuculain answering]: I will not go back, O Fardia Mic Daman [...] My People have indeed abandoned me and conspired for my destruction; but there is no power in Erin to dissolve my knightship to the son of Nessa and my kinship with the Crave Rue. Though they hate me, yet I cannot eject the love out of my heart.

MS 47478-266, ILA: But trifid tongue ^+scab, if ejected,+^ others woo will and work | JJA 52:164 | 1932 | II.2§4.*3 | FW 000.00

(d)        Aengus of birds b

Selected Essays 108 [from A Hosting of the Sidhe]: Came Brihid, adored by the singing tribe, and Angus-an-Vroga, dazzling bright, round whom flew singing birds, purple-plumed, and no eye sees them, for they sing in the hearts of young maidens.

Note: See U 9.1093.

VI.C.12.178(f)

(e)        oof bloody altars

Selected Essays 113 [from the passage The Prowess of Cuculain]: After that Cuculain slew two other of the champions of that nation, and before him dispersed the Clans of Slieve Mish. Also he routed the descendants of the ancient Luhura, who dwelt by the hill-enfolden lakes of Locha Lein, and thence southwards to Inver Scena and were surnamed the Flaming; also, a strong battalion from Assaroe, where their territory meared with Ultonians, and the children of Laegairey, of the Bloody Altars.

MS 47478-266, ILA: others woo will and work for ^+becaused of his cleverism, who lives more in future than in ^+a+^ past of bloody altars,+^ | JJA 52:164 | 1932 | II.2§4.*3 | FW 276.04

(g)        marbles b >

(h)        Cuchulain 8 / brass balls

Selected Essays 114-15 [Cuculain to his charioteer, Laeg]: “Guide now the steeds to the right centre of the battle. And this shall be as it were a race of chariots at Tailteen; so shall I mock and deride the host of the Four Provinces. Therefore, give to me my balls of jugglery.” [...][114] Then was the mind of Laeg troubled when he remembered the never-failing care with which his master watched over him in danger, and he gave Cuculain the balls of glittering brass, and urged on the steeds. [...] But above the head of Cuculain there was as it were a bright circle, so did he with a single hand cause those eight balls to revolve, watching warily, nevertheless, lest a spear or a bolt from the men of Meave should smite his charioteer or himself, and the Clanna Rury laughed whe they beheld him; and afar off Concobar Mac Nessa, wounded, but vigilant, watched his career and antic feats—but the men of Meave were the more terrified.

VI.C.12.178(g)-(h)

(i)         okeep my peace / follow — war

Selected Essays 154 [about Henry II]: In solemn parliament assembled they proclaimed their Lord Henry no longer Dominus Hiberniae, but Rex, converting his shadowy lordship into an actual sovereignty. They swore themselves the King’s men[,] adopted State titles at his hands, undertook to pay royal rents to keep his peace and follow his war, “rising-out” with foot and horse to all his ocassions.

MS 47478-266, LMA: What a terrible piece of business surely ^+for such as keep his peace & follow his war.+^ | JJA 52:164 | 1932 | II.2§4.*3 | [MS ®] MS 47478-288, MT: with hoodie hearsemen carrawain we keep his peace who follow his law, Sunday King. | JJA 52:213 | 1934 | II.2§5.0 | FW 276.26-7

(j)         oprivate gallows

Selected Essays 154: As for the chieftains, they still remained virtual kings, each man governing his own people, and with a gallows on his lawn to enforce observance of his will.

MS 47478-266, ILA: when bother ^+by private gallows+^ her hair’s | JJA 52:164 | 1932 | II.2§4.*3 | FW 000.00

(k)        oPacata Hibernia

Selected Essays 156: It is at this point that the writer of Pacata Hibernia begins his very singular tale.

Note: Pacata Hibernia, or, A history of the wars in Ireland during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, especially within the province of Munster under the government of Sir George Carew, and compiled by his direction and appointment. (1633). As the lengthy title suggests, this was an account of the Elizabethan campaign in Ireland under Carew. It was attributed to Carew himself, but it was generally believed to be by Sir Thomas Stafford, his illegitimate son, who acted as his secretary (see the DNB).

MS 47478-266, TMA: While ^+in Pacata Hibernia+^, one word burrowing on another | JJA 52:164 | 1932 | II.2§4.*3 | FW 275.04-5

(l)         stout thief >>

VI.C.12.178(i)

VI.B.14.179

(a)        State paper

Selected Essays 158: The same tale of almost subterhuman baseness and wickedness is revealed by he contemporary State Papers; of a brutal soldiery, more like chartered stout-thieves and robbers than soldiers, murderers more than warriors”

VI.C.12.178(j)

(b)        gpoison ivy

Selected Essays 161-2: and there poisoned him ... [161] ... Ratcliff, Earl of Sussex, and Viceroy, sought to poison Shane O’Neill when Shane beat him in the field. Perrott, Viceroy, tried to poison Feagh MacHugh, the Wicklow chieftain.

Not located in MS/FW

Note: FW 186.13 comes from VI.B.3.107.

(c)        oFinn palace of quicken / boughs

Selected Essays 174: In primitive literatures we read much about enchantment; in our own instance those who come readily to mind are “The Stupefaction of the Ultonians” and the enchantment of Finn and his Fianna in the weird palace of the Quicken Boughs.

MS 47478-266, ILA: that royal pair, in their house of the hundred bottles, ^+that palace of quicken boughs+^ | JJA 52:164 | 1932 | II.2§4.*3 | [®] FW 275.15

(k)        beaver hat

Gwynn, Connaught 8: Here and there, too, the ancient beaver hat with its long nap still lingers: such things must be almost indestructible.

VI.C.12.179(b)

(l)         bawneen in 

Gwynn, Connaught 6: In Connemara the “bawneen” or sleeved waistcoat of whitish flannel is general and very becoming to its wearers, among whom are to be found the handsomest men in Ireland.

VI.C.12.179(c)

(m)       bluetail coat

Gwynn, Connaught 7-8: The people have changed very little in themselves since Lever wrote of them: where food has always been too acarce, as at the extremity of the Mullet peninsula curving about Blacksod Bay, famine and famine fever have weakened the stock terribly, and in such places you can see that looped and windowed raggedness and that squalor of hovels which go to make up the Englishman’s conception of the sister island. But you can see also in markets in north Mayo many a handsome old man, springy and active even in his extreme age, who wears the blue tail coat, with its complement of brass buttons, which perhaps his father handed down to him—and a fine figure he makes in it, especially if he still keeps to [7] the  tight knee breeches and  buckled shoes which were universal in his boyhood.

VI.C.12.179(d)

VI.B.14.180

(a)        absentminded W

VI.C.12.179(e)

(b)        gPatrick Sarsfield / earl Lucan

Gwynn, Connaught 12: Except on a fair day, Ballinasloe has no special interest or beauty, but five miles west of it lies the field of Aughrim, where was fought the greatest though not the most decisive battle of the Williamite wars. It is easy to trace the lie of the fight, along the range of hillocks by Aughrim where St. Ruth, James’s general, took up position, facing the bog which divided him from Urrachree, to which Ginkel had mowed out from Ballinasloe. Till quite lately a thorn-tree marked the spot where St Ruth lay, struck down by a cannon shot as he headed what should have been the decisive charge One can guess, too, at the position behind the ridges, where the Frenchman’s jealousy kept Ireland’s own leader, Sarsfield, out of action with the reserves, chafing for action, till St Ruth’s fall disorganized everything, and the call for Sarsield came too late. In the north of Ireland they still perform a play representing this great encounter, and every Orangeman is more anxious to be Sarsfield than any hero on the Orange side.

MS 47482b-55, TMA: the overking of greater Dublin ^+Himself. I’m saying. Before there was ever a man in Ireland there was a lord in Lucan.+^ | JJA 57:111 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 452.28-9

(c)        bad times

Gwynn, Connaught 17: Of sight, if not out of mind. When the Martin estate went down in the ruin that involved so many of the landed gentry sixty years ago, it at least perished nobly; for the Martin of that day beggared himself in the effort to feed the population that was starring by thousands in the great famine. Old folk remember still the droch-aimsir, the bad times, all over Ireland: yet in the nakedness of Connemara I have not beard any such awful tales as come down by word of mouth and written record relating to or less out of reach of help.

 

VI.C.12.179(f)

(d)        Camus water

Gwynn, Connaught 17-18: The Martins are gone from  Ballynahinch and a newcomer has their home, and for the moment something of their lordship,  though here  the Congested Districts Board is at last seriously at work, striving to settle the people not only on holdings of their own, but on holdings which may support them. But the beauty of that region is unchanged: the mountain group which we call the Twelve Pins rises in peaks from out of moor and lake and river; the marble which it holds glistens ill rain and sun; and whether you see it from the south by the shore of Galway Bay, from Camus water near Rosmuck, or side the broader water of Kilkerrin, or from the west where Ballinakill Bay runs up in creeks and windings towards the pretty village of Letterfrack, —wherever you take your view point, no mountain [17] group in all  Ireland can quite compare with it for grace  and for perfection of line.

 

VI.C.12.179(g)

 (f)       pairs of peeltowers >

VI.C.12.179(i)

(g)        ohand to brow

Gwynn, Connaught 34-5: Apart from this the road is over flat land, little raised above the level of Lough Corrib, tilt you near Galway, when it rises over low hills of limestone rock, in springtime blue with gentian, at all times singular enough with their flooring of stone. At the last rise you reach a view point, looking west from which the city comes suddenly into sight with its bay beyond, and beyond the bay the hills of Burren. It tells something of what Galway was that the name of this spot is Bois le h-eadan, “Hand to Brow”, for here it was supposed that you would stop and shade your eyes to consider the glory that lay before you.

           Little enough glory is there to-day; but the city a picturesqueness at this distance, couching at the outflow of the vast sheet of water which is comprised sin  Corrib  and  Mask; and  that blue [34] expanse of bay reaching up into the level land—brown rather than green, since bog and stone and scrub cover most of it—has a beauty all its own; and southward the eye follows with delight the open gap between the hills of Burren by the western sea, and that other line, Slieve Echtge, which divides the plain of Gort from the Shannon. Here was the boundary and pass between Connaught and Munster, the country of the O’Kellys, Hy Many; and no place in Ireland was so often fought over. As you go south from Athenry to Ennis, the whole landscape is studded with old castles and peel-towers, set for the most part in pairs, every one watching his neighbour, like players lined up at football.

Not located in MS/FW

(h)        knock the wall / (no gate)

Gwynn, Connaught 41-2: This fort [Dun Aengus on Inishmore of the Aran Islands] might have seemed defence enough for the island, bat it is studded over with duns—one of them, Dun Eochail, is only half an hour’s walk from the pier, and being set high was once utilized for a lighthouse station. To reach it gives one some idea of the island economy, far half a dozen high-piled walls of loose stone have to be crossed or knocked down.  There are no gates in [41] these fields;  to let in a cow you “knock” the wall and then pile it again.  But you will not easily knock the walls of Dun  Eochaill. The outer ring is only some eight foot high and six wide, but the inner circle rises sixteen foot, and may be twelve in thickness.

VI.C.12.179(j)

(j)         commonage

Gwynn, Connaught 47: Clare island is somewhat unlike the rest, its people baring always depended on agriculture rather than on fishing; and it is one of the best examples of the Congested Districts Board’s beneficent work to purchasing the whole, reselling to the tenants, re-allotting farms, dividing off commonage, and providing materials and instruction for the islanders to put up decent dwellings for themselves.

VI.C.12.179(k)

(k)        hazelwood >

VI.C.12.179(l)

(l)         oCarrowmore >

Not located in MS/FW

(m)       rtrilithons

Gwynn, Connaught 59: The town [Sligo] lies at the outfall of a short broad river which flows from Lough Gill, and the row up to that lake with Hazelwood demesne on your left, rich in varied wooding, may honestly challenge a comparison with whatever is finest at Killamey, The lake itself is girded about with mountains, not perhaps so picturesque as Carrantuohil and Mangerton, yet far moreknown in story. On the west is Knocknarea, crowned with the huge eaira of stones which is named after Maeve, the fierce Queen of Connaught, wife of Ailill, lover of Fergus MacRoy, she who headed the great hosting into Ulster for the Brown Bull of Cooley. Yet earlier by far than this deposit of legend must be placed the great stone remains at Carrowmore three miles out of the town and  in Hazelwood demesne.

           At Carrowmore are stone circles, cromlechs, and subterranean chambers of stone —all far prehistoric: in Hazelwood are what can be seen nowhere else in these islands but at Stonehenge—huge trilithons, part in the ritual of some Druidic cult.

Note: Trilithon. A prehistoric structure consisting of three large stones, two upright and one resting upon them as a lintel (see OED ‘trilith’).

MS 47473-36v, TsLPA: the meant to be baffling chrismon ^+trilithon+^ sign, called Hec | JJA 46:332 | Feb-Mar 1925 | I.5§1.3/4.3 | FW 119.17

(n)        Rosslare (old route)

Gwynn, Munster 5-7: The best way to get to Munster nowadays is undoubtedly by the new route from Fishguard to Ross-tare, in which the Great Western Railway has reopened what was for ancient times the natural and easy way from England to Ireland The Normans, as everyone knows, came across here, an advance party landing on the coast of Wexfardj but the main force under Strongbow sailed straight up the river to Waterford. Many another invader before the Normans took the same route: and there is little doubt but that the peaceful invasion of Christianity had begun in this region, or that south-eastern Ireland was already baptised, before Patrick set out on his mission. Earlier again, the  Milesians  (according to modern  theory) [5] came from Britain, a race of warriors trained to fight on foot in the Roman fashion with sword and javelin and drove before them the chariot-fighting people who then held the wide plain watered by the three great rivers which meet in Waterford harbour.

           For a good sailor, undoubtedly the long passage to Cork, coding with a sail up the beautiful haven and the "pleasant waters of the river Lee", is to be preferred beyond all other routes. But the mast ol mankind, and more specially of womankind, like the short sea and quick rail, and their choice is Fishguard to Rosslare, you enter the southern province of Ireland by a viaduct which leada from the flat lands of Wexford, through which you will have travelled far nearly an hour, on to the steep left bank of the river Suir facing Waterford city. The great bridge crosses the united Barrow and Nora; half a mile lower down is the junction with the Suir, and from the train you have a glorious view of the wide pool made at the confluence—a noble entrance into this province of lovely waters.

           The run along the river is beautiful, too. Citizens of Waterford have built them prosperous villas and mansions facing you along the south bank, and a mile below the city on an island there is seen a castle of the Fitz-Geralds—rebuilt recently, but comprising in it the walls of an ancient place of strength which has [6] never ceased to be a dwelling of this strong Norman-Irish clan. It was the household, too, from which issued a notable man in latter times, Edward Fitz-Gerald, the translator of Omar Khayyam. His portrait, by Laurence, hangs there, picturing him as a chubby, good-humoured boy.

           The city itself may show to you only a line of lights, very picturesque along its great length of quay: but by daylight you can distinguish the low round castle which still keeps the name of Strongbow’s tower. Fragments of the old walls remain, and there are buildings of much antiquarian interest— the restored –cathedral, the ruined Franciscan abbey. But, on the whole, you are not likely to stop in Waterford, with Kerry and West Cork before you.

           Yet let me tell a little of the things which the ordinary tourist visiting Munster passes by in his haste. The route from Rosslare to Killarney strikes across from the valley of the Suir into the valley of the Blackwater, rounding the Comeragh mountains: and I do not suppose it can be disputed that the Black-water ts the most beautiful of Irish rivers. I have seen it at Mallow, at Fermoy, at Lismore, and at Cappoquin, and everywhere it is the same yet different; a chain of long wide pools, but always with a swift flow to keep the water living and sparkling, and they are strung together with great sweeping rapids,

VI.C.12.179(m)

VI.B.14.181

(a)        poledriven cot / (rapids)

Gwynn, Munster 16: From  Killaloe to Limerick the road is pleasant,along the ever-widening valley which is blocked by Keeper to the north, but trends opening and widening towards West Clare and the sea. Yet to understand the beauty and the charm of that characteristic piece of Irish landscape, you should be taken down the stream in the characteristic boat of those waters, the long pole-driven cot. Shooting the rapids in these craft is a wonderful sensation, and even on a chill day in February the tumult of lashing water sends warmth [16] into the blood.

Note: AI. Cot. A small boat, or dug-out, used on Irish lakes and rivers.

VI.C.12.180(a)

(b)        The Turks >

VI.C.12.180(b)

(c)        (Dungarvan)

Gwynn, Munster 16: Baltimore is one of the great fishing stations of Ireland, and to it the population of Cape Clear comes for most necessaries of life. Along that coast many craft are familiar, but an odd name, hangs about one set; the fishermen from near Dungarvan are always known as “the Turks”.  In 1631 Algerine pirates made a descent on the town of Baltimore, sacked it and carried a hundred of its folk into slavery; and it was a fisherman from Dungarvan who (under threat of death) piloted the corsairs.

Note: Dungarvan. A seaside town in Co Waterford.

VI.C.12.180(b)

(d)        openest

?Gwynn, Munster 36:  The train will take you to Kenmare, where the railway company has a really comfortable hotel, in whose garden you will see the characteristic subtropical vegetation which can be produced in this climate palms, yuccas, New Zealand flax with its Sword-shaped fronds, bamboos, and the rest, “all standing naked in the open air” like the heathen goddesses in the Groves of Blarney.

VI.C.12.180(c)

(f)        oOld Hunting Cap / (O’Connell) >

?MS 47482a-38v, LMA: At that do you leer? I leer because I must see a buntingcap of so a pinky on the point. | JJA 60:151 | III§4F.*0/4H.*0 | Oct-Nov 1925 | FW 567.07

(g)        gfoster n & b

Gwynn, Munster 38: The builder of Darrynane—that is of the original habitation—was a Daniel or Donal who married a daughter of the O’Donoghues—another great Kerry clan. This lady— Máire Dubh—was a fruitful mother of children —she bore twenty-two of them and brought twelve to full age; but she was also notable as a poetess in the Irish tongue, Her second son, Maurice, inherited Darrynane, and was known all over the country as Hunting Cap O'Connell, for a tax was put on beaver hats, and from that day he wore nothing but the velvet cap in which he was used to hunt hare and fox on the mountains of Iveragh, Daniel O’Connell, his nephew, was a great votary of that sport, and I have talked, with a man who had hunted in his company. And still in autumn you may see the harriers out on these hills and a namesake and descendant of his hallooing them on.

           Old Hunting Cap as head of the family played a great part in his nephew’s youth, providing, it would seem, for the later stages of his education. The early one was cheap enough, for he was fostered on the mountains in the cabin of his father's herd (that tie of fosterage bound Catholic Ireland together, gentle and simple, with a strange intimacy), and he got his fint lessons in one of the hedge schools which flourished in defiance of penal laws.

MS 47478-264, MT: he who, suckled at the breast of a peasant fosterer, | JJA 52:171 | 1932 | II.2§4.*3 | FW 000.00

(h)        ob has peasant mother / suckles her breast >

MS 47478-249, BMA: This while he ^+who suckled at the breast of a peasant mother+^ | JJA 52:161 | 1932 | II.2§4.2 | FW 000.00

(i)         Irish

Gwynn, Munster 40: However, this is no place to talk of the great orator’s