GENETIC JOYCE STUDIES - Issue 12 (Spring 2012)
 

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Further Emendations to Finnegans Wake Notebook VI.B.16

 

Viviana Mirela Braslasu

 

VI.B.16.001

(b)        terrapin

Irish Times 24 March 1924-4/6: Mr. Richard Temple, who has been spending some weeks n the United States in connection with the Empire Exhibition at Wembley, and who is returning to-day on the Olympic, said that over a quarter of a million Americans would visit Wembley this summer.

          “My chief object,” Mr. Temple declared, “was to arouse the interest of American manufacturers and tourists in the prospect, and I believe I have succeeded. Business men throughout the country are now at last awakening to the fact that at Wembley this year they will have the greatest agglomeration of raw products the world has ever seen assembled together in one place.”

           Mr. Temple is taking back with him, in special ice-packed tanks, two hundred live terrapin and one hundred live Maine lobsters as delicacies for American visitors.

           The terrapin are to be used to start a terrapin farm in London.

Note: A name originally given to one or more species of North American turtles; thence extended to many allied species of the turtle and tortoise family, Testudineæ, widely distributed over North, Central, and South America, the East Indies, China, N. Africa, and other countries. (OED).

VI.C.6.142(m)

VI.B.16.003

(e)        rexposed for sale

Scandinavian Relations with Ireland 31-2: In Laxdaela Saga we hear of Melkorka, an Irish princess, who [31] was exposed for sale with eleven other women at a market in Norway.

MS 47482b-94, ScrLMA: as he lay with his buttend up ^+exposed+^ for sale after inspection | JJA 58:062 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2+/3B.*0+ | FW 498.35

(f)        rpennig >

                     MS 47482b-116, ScrTMA: ^+pennigsworths of the best of taste+^ | JJA 58:099 | Dec 1924 | III§3B.*2 |           FW 548.23

(i)         r1st I ships Norse

Scandinavian Relations with Ireland 35: The almost complete absence of any allusion to Irish ships1 during the eighth and ninth centuries shows that at this time the Irish had no warships to drive back the powerful naval forces of the Vikings. Meeting with no opposition on sea the invaders were able to anchor their fleets in the large harbours, and afterwards to occupy certain important positions along the coasts. In this connection it is interesting to note that the Irish word longphort (a ‘shipstead’; later, ‘a camp’) is used for the first time in the Annals of Ulster with reference to the Norse encampments at Dublin and Linn-Duachaill (840); hence it has been concluded that the early Norse long-phorts were not exactly fortified camps, but ‘ships drawn up and protected on the landside, probably by a stockaded earthwork.’

MS 47482b-67v, ScrLPA: You ^+^+[...] An orange boat+^ Norsker. She ^+Her+^ raven flag was flying [...]+^ | JJA 58:014 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*1+ | FW 480.01

(k)        rHy Kinsella / (Wexford)

                     Scandinavian Relations with Ireland 38: But the greatest triumph of all was in 1005, when Brian [Boru],                    then at the height of his power, “sent forth a naval expedition composed of the foreigners of Dublin and              Waterford and the Ui Ceinnselaigh (i.e., the men of Wexford) and almost all the men of Erin such of                           them as were fit to go to sea; and they levied royal tribute from the Saxons and the Britons and from the                   men of Lennox in Scotland and the inhabitants of Argyle.

Note: See also VI.B.3.158(j).

MS 47482b-115v, ScrLPA: ^+from the topaz lights ^+topazolites+^ of Mourne ^+South by+^ Arklow’s ^+sapphire+^ lure ^+and+^ ^+Waterford’s hook light & crooklight+^+^ to the polders of Hy Kinsella+^ | JJA 58:098 | Dec 1924 | III§3B.*2 | FW 549.18-19

VI.B.16.006

(e)        rDust [Duster]

MS 47482b-7, ScrILA: accept this instead of a handkerchief^+duster+^ | JJA 57:015 | Apr 1924 | III§1A.*0/1D.*0//2A.*0/2C.*0 | FW 000.00

(g)        rgo to last mass / Never lose / Never eat bad

MS 47482b-6v, ScrLPA: During my brief absence be true to the 10 commandments ^+Never lose last mass. Never eat good ^+bad+^ meat on a good Friday. Never let a hog of the hill trample on your lily of the valley. Never play ladies’ games on the Lord’s day+^ | JJA 57:014 | Apr 1924 | III§1A.*0/1D.*0//2A.*0/2C.*0 | FW 433.10-11

(h)        rtrampling / lily of the valley

MS 47482b-6v, ScrLPA: During my brief absence be true to the 10 commandments ^+Never lose last mass. Never eat good ^+bad+^ meat on a good Friday. Never let a hog of the hill trample on your lily of the valley. Never play ladies’ games on the Lord’s day+^ | JJA 57:014 | Apr 1924 | III§1A.*0/1D.*0//2A.*0/2C.*0 | FW 433.13

VI.B.16.009

(a)        rhog of the hill

Note: See 010(i).

MS 47482b-6v, ScrLPA: During my brief absence be true to the 10 commandments ^+Never lose last mass. Never eat good ^+bad+^ meat on a good Friday. Never let a hog of the hill trample on your lily of the valley. Never play ladies’ games on the Lord’s day+^ | JJA 57:014 | Apr 1924 | III§1A.*0/1D.*0//2A.*0/2C.*0 | FW 433.12

(f)        rnever play Lord’s day

MS 47482b-6v, ScrLPA: During my brief absence be true to the 10 commandments ^+Never lose last mass. Never eat good ^+bad+^ meat on a good Friday. Never let a hog of the hill trample on your lily of the valley. Never play ladies’ games on the Lord’s day+^ | JJA 57:014 | Apr 1924 | III§1A.*0/1D.*0//2A.*0/2C.*0 | FW 433.13-14

VI.B.16.011

(a)        Quistan / Reynolds / MacManus / MacKeever / Kittrick

Scandinavian Relations with Ireland 18-19: we may note the prevalence of such common Norse names as Ivarr, Guthröthr, Sumarlithi among the Irish, especially in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Several of these names still survive, as, for instance [...] Kitterick (? Ir. Mac+N. Sigtryggr); MacKeever (O.N. Ivarr); Manus and MacManus (O.N. Magnus); Quistan (Ir. Mac. + O.N. Eysteinn); Reynolds (O.N. Rögnvaldr);

VI.C.6.147(e)-148(a) 

VI.B.16.012

(a)        Dyflinarski

Scandinavian Relations with Ireland 22-3: During the ninth and tenth centuries the Kingdom of Dublin—known to the Scandinavians as Dyflinarski—became one of the most powerful in the west. Its sway extended north to its colonies4 at the Strangford and [22] Carlingford Loughs, west to           Leixlip, south to Wicklow, Wexford and even as far as Waterford. The Dublin kings intermarried     with royal families in Ireland, England and Scotland, and between the years 919 and 950 ruled,            though in somewhat broken succession, as Kings of York.

VI.C.6.148(g)

VI.B.16.013

(d)        You know[.] / I know —

                    Connacht Tribune 29 March 1924-2/6: Echo of Ballinasloe Raid / Asylum Attendant’s Early Morning        Ordeal Cross-examined by Mr. Conroy, she [Mrs Conroy, wife of applicant] said the dresser cost £4.—     Mr. Conroy: You would get a good dresser for £4, you know.—Witness: I know I would not—not in                                  Mr. Conroy’s anyway (laughter).

                    VI.C.1.001(c)

(e)        revery time he got the / chance

MS 47482b-27v, ScrLPA: ^+with him ^+fumbling you &+^ going on silly ^+doing his idiot+^ ^+every time you give him the chance+^ about your glad neck+^ | JJA 57:056 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 438.07

VI.B.16.014

(a)        rquiet little / city of the plain

Connacht Tribune 29 March 1924-4/7: Mountbellow Agricultural Show […] It is intended this year to bring visitors from all the other provinces to see what can be done, and to devise means by which much more may be done to help the poor man and to make his life brighter and happier, to encourage education, and to foster industry. The number of visitors to the show stood at 4,000 in 1923. It is hoped to double this number in 1924. It is a credit to the “quiet little city of the plain” that it is capable of achieving so much by initiative, energy, and enthusiasm.

MS 47485-10, ScrILA: Any pretty dears are to be caught inside, ^+but it is great ^+a bad+^ pities of the plain.+^ | JJA 60:287 | Mar-Apr 1926 | III§4.*2+ | FW 564.28

(g)        robot

Note: The term was coined by Karel Čapek in his 1920 play R.U.R. (‘Rossum’s Universal Robots’), and passed into English in 1923, when the play was first performed in English translation.

VI.B.16.015

(d)        truant

Freeman’s Journal 26 March 1924-5/6: President Coolidge’s Truant Cat Comes Home Again. Washington, Tuesday. Wireless, which has often been found useful in locating missing persons, to-day proved effective in finding a missing cat.

          Wireless stations last night, at the request of White House officials, broadcast a notice that a tiger cat belonging to President Coolidge was missing, and this morning when the President reached his office he found a guard from the Navy Building awaiting him with the truant tiger. – (Reuter.)

VI.C.1.002(b)

(e)        contempt of senate

Freeman’s Journal 26 March 1924-5/5: Impeachments Demanded Against Two Americans. Washington, Tuesday. In connection with the oil scandal Senator Walsh is asking the Senate to impeach Mr. Clarence F. Chase, Collector of Customs, and Mr. Elpho, son-in-law of Mr. Fall, who refused to answer questions by the Committee alleging conspiracy. Mr. Fall’s case is before the U.S. District Attorney for contempt of the Senate. Both cases will be placed before a grand jury. – Exchange.

VI.C.1.002(c)

VI.B.16.016

(d)        bskald

Scandinavian Relations with Ireland 70-1: Another poem of Mac Liag’s, in which he addresses the Scandinavians of Dublin as “the descendants of the warriors of Norway,” was also composed in Dublin, at the court of ‘Olaf of the golden shields,’ soon after the battle of Clontarf.4 [70] On the other hand Icelandic sources mention at least three skálds who made their way to Ireland during the tenth century.

(g)        rI was moved / to write

MS 47482b-23v, ScrLPA: 1 of those days I will ^+feel moved to+^ do it | JJA 57:048 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 425.27-8

VI.B.16.018

(g)        Kish college

Irish Times 1 April 1924-5/5: Library 4,000 Year’s Old. Professor’s Story of Divination. In despair, and grasping a chance of divination, I went alone to the top of the mound and chose a brick of the age of Nebuchadnezzar, which lay at my feet, and marked on it an arrow. Then, after blind-folding myself and turning round many times to lose my bearings, I threw backwards over my head. The next morning digging was recommenced at the place indicated by the arrow, and within two hours a large nest of valuable literary tablets was found.”

          Professor Langdon also stated that twenty library rooms, which obviously formed a part of Kish College four thousand years ago, had now been excavated, and, in his opinion, there were no limits to the possibilities of further great discoveries next year.

VI.C.1.004(i)

VI.B.16.019

(c)        rposte restanter / — haste

MS 47482b-26, ScrLMA: propped ^+restant+^ up against a slumbering warden of the peace | JJA 57:053 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 429.18

VI.C.1.004(m)

Not transferred.

(f)        sealing fleet

Irish Times 31 March 1924-6/7: NEWFOUNDLAND SEALING FLEET. St. John’s, Newfoundland. Sunday. Three of the Newfoundland sealing steamers have escaped from the ice floes, and have made small caches; but the outlook for the sealing fleet is still gloomy. (Reuter.)

VI.C.1.005(a)

VI.B.16.022

(g)        rb my bosom

MS 47482b-29, ScrILA: Times and oft shall I ^+we+^ think of you ^+in our bosom ^+shrine+^+^ | JJA 57:059 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 000.00

VI.B.16.023

(f)        rb especially if  ^+shd he prove to be+^ a man over 40 / with wife & offspring / man about town of about 40

MS 47482b-28v, ScrLMA: ^+^+I won’t be complete until I+^ 1/2 kill him especially shd he prove to be a family man about town of about 40 or so with a large family to support+^ | JJA 57:058 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 443.20-22

(g)        r1/2 kill him

MS 47482b-28v, ScrLMA: ^+^+I won’t be complete until I+^ 1/2 kill him especially shd he prove to be a family man about town of about 40 or so with a large family to support+^ | JJA 57:058 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 443.20-22

VI.B.16.024

(f)        rcorns

MS 47482b-31v, ScrLPA: come, my ^+our+^ good feet ^+corns & all+^ | JJA 57:064 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | [FW 469.12]

VI.B.16.025

(f)        rcatch it a 2nd time

MS 47482b-26v, ScrLPA: ^+[…] a runabout to catch it […]+^ | JJA 57:054 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 441.21

(g)        rinfallible slipper / (Adrian IV) a

MS 47474-128, TsBMA: She can’t remember half ^+of+^ the ^+cradle+^ names she put ^+smacked+^ on them ^+by the grace of ^+her boxing bishop’s infallible slipper.+^+^ | JJA 48:062 | Mar-Jul 1924 | I.8§1.3 | FW 201.33

VI.B.16.026

(g)        rb yawn

Note: See 021(a).

MS 47482b-20, ScrLMS: Shaun said ^+yawned+^ | JJA 57:041 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 407.08

VI.B.16.027

(k)        rb eyes open

MS 47482b-23v, ScrLPA: ^+that will open his ^+your+^ eyes for him ^+you+^, boor,+^ | JJA 57:048 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 425.30

VI.B.16.028

(e)        rdestination >

MS 47482b-29, ScrLMA: immediately following my ^+our+^ safe return ^+from my destination+^ to ignorance | JJA 57:059 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 000.00

(h)        now Demos

La poste et les moyens de communication 9-10: Nous adressons à M. von Stephan nos plus sincères remerciements de nous avoir ainsi facilité notre étude [9] sur l’institution de la Poste, qui mise d’abord à la seule disposition des monarques et des grands, pendant de longs siècles, devint ensuite par la force des choses un service public, égal pour tous, dont nous jouissons aujourd’hui, en ignorant insoucieusement son histoire si suggestive, si attrayante. [We give Mr. von Stephan our most sincere thanks for having facilitated our study of the institution of the Post, which at first and for a long time was available only to monarchs and grandees. Eventually, owing to the force of circumstances it became a public service, equal for all, which we all enjoy today while blithely ignoring its history which is so suggestive and so engaging.]

Note: Demos. The common people.

Dr. H. von Stephan. See the introduction to the present volume. At the time the source passage was written he was Prussian Secretary of State for the Imperial Post and founder of the Postal Museum in Berlin, which provided much of the basic material for Gallois’ study.

VI.C.1.009(m)

VI.B.16.029

(a)        postchaise

La poste et les moyens de communication 12: De tous temps, le mot poste a désigné les relais de chevaux établis de distance en distance sur les routes, pour le service des voyageurs et des dépêches: Chevaux de Poste, Chaise de Poste, La Poste aux chevaux, Maître de Poste. [The word post has always meant the relay of horses on routes established from place to place for the service of passengers and dispatches: Post Horses, Post Coaches, Horse-Post, Post Master.]

VI.C.1.010(e)

(d)        demotic / hieratic / hieroglyphic

La poste et les moyens de communication 13-14: On distingue chez les Egyptiens trois espèces d’écritures différentes:

         La première composée de caractères semblables à ceux employés dans l’écriture cursive et connue sous le nom de populaire ou démotique (fig. 1);

         La seconde, dont les caractères ressemblent un peu à ceux de la première et qu’on appelle hiératique ou sacerdotale (fig. 2);

         Enfin la troisième appelée hiéroglyphique et qui est composée de caractères représentant des objets naturels [13] ou artificiels (fig. 3); c’était l’écriture symbolique des anciens Égyptiens. [We can distinguish among the Egyptians three types of different writing.

         The first consists of characters similar to the ones used in cursive writing and is known as popular or demotic writing (fig. 1).

         The second has characters that are a little similar to the first and is called hieratic or sacerdotal (fig. 2).

         Finally, the third is called hieroglyphic and consists of characters that represent natural [13] or artificial objects (fig. 3); this was the symbolic writing of the Ancient Egyptians.]

VI.C.1.010(h)

(i)         arabesque

La poste et les moyens de communication 20: L’impossibilité pour les Musulmans de reproduire par le dessin les êtres animés a donné à leur ornementation ce caractère si curieux et si personnel qu’il en a gardé le nom: les arabesques, qui n’étaient à l’origine que la combinaison des lettres arabes. [The injunction for Muslims against the graphic representation of living beings gave their ornamentation a character so curious and so personal that it has retained the name: the arabesques, which in the beginning signified only the combining of Arabic letters.]

VI.C.1.010(l)

VI.B.16.030

(g)        shorthand

La poste et les moyens de communication 23: Pendant le moyen âge, la cryptographie a été surtout cultivée par les moines et les kabbalistes; mais, comme en ces temps d’ombrageuse ignorance il était parfois dangereux de correspondre dans un langage mystérieux ou indéchiffrable, on y a surtout appliqué la sténographie, modus sine secreti suspicione scribendi, comme disaient nos pères, c’est-à-dire l’art de donner le change sur le sens des communications transmises. [In the Middle Ages, cryptography was primarily cultivated by monks and kabbalists. But, in these times of touchy ignorance it was sometimes dangerous to communicate in a mysterious or indecipherable language. Most frequently used was stenography, modus sine secreti suspicione scribendi, as our fathers called it, that is to say the art of misleading as to the meaning of transmitted communications.]

VI.C.1.011(g)

(h)        angarius

La poste et les moyens de communication 24: On appelait, chez les Romains, angarius ou angarus un courrier public ou privé. [The Romans called a public or private courier an angarius or angarus.]

VI.C.1.011(h)

VI.B.16.031

(c)        stadion = 125 yds / 125000 [+] / 62500 [=] / 187

La poste et les moyens de communication 26: Suidas, lexicographe grec du ve siècle de notre ère, dit que les courriers parcouraient d’un trait quinze cents stades (mesure itinéraire de cent vingt-cinq pas). [Suidas, the Greek lexicographer of the 5th Century AD, said that the couriers covered at one go 1,500 stadia (units of measuring distance equivalent to 125 yards).]

VI.C.1.011(l)

(h)        waxen tablets

La poste et les moyens de communication 27: Dans la section romaine, nous remarquons trois styles (stylus, stylet) en os, sortes de petits poinçons avec lesquels les anciens écrivaient sur leurs tablettes. Les tablettes enduites de cire étaient d’un grand usage. [In the Roman section we find three styles (stylus, stylet) of bone, they are a sort of little needle with which the ancients wrote on their tablets. Tablets coated in wax were widely used.]

VI.C.1.012(a)

(j)         position / rvia

MS 47482b-25, ScrILS: rolled backwards ^+in twinkling+^ round ^+via+^ Sane’s corner | JJA 57:051 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 426.35

VI.B.16.033

 (d)       rjauntily

MS 47482b-20, ScrLMA: and ^+and jaunty with a schoolgirl complexion [...]+^ he was looking grand | JJA 57:041 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 407.06

MS 47482b-26, ScrLMS: Good ^+Jaunty+^ ^+hardworking+^ Shaun, | JJA 57:053 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 429.01

 VI.B.16.034

(f)        rby order

La poste et les moyens de communication 37: Une nouvelle servitude s’ajoutait aux misères et aux souffrances, à celles sous lesquelles ils succombaient déjà. Ils étaient, par les lois et par la volonté impériale, responsables de tous les impôts, de la capitation, des indictions, des superindictions, du « chrysargyre » ou impôt sur les matières d’or et d'argent, et même de l’or coronaire, ces dons volontaires, sous forme de couronne d’or, que chaque année, les provinces gauloises votaient « par ordre » à la plus grande gloire de l’empereur. [A new servitude was added to the misery and suffering of those under which they have already succumbed. They were, by law and by imperial will, responsible for all taxes, capitation, the indictions, the superindictions, the "chrysargyron" or the tax on objects of gold and silver, and even on the coronary gold; these voluntary donations in the form of golden crown that each year, the Gallic provinces voted by order” to the greater glory of the emperor.]

(h)        beast of burden

La poste et les moyens de communication 37: Les courriers du temps de l'empire avaient le droit de forcer les particuliers et les villes à leur fournir des chevaux ou des bêtes de somme, quelquefois des voitures, comme nous l'apprend le juriconsulte Paulus, au mot Angariæ. [In the time of the empire, the couriers had the right to force individuals and cities to give them horses or beasts of burden, sometimes even vehicles, as we know from the jurisconsult Paulus, under the term Angariæ.]

VI.C.1.014(a)

VI.B.16.035

(a)        waggonbed

?La poste et les moyens de communication 38: Dans la partie du Musée postal de Berlin réservée aux moyens de transport et de communication des peuples du nord de la Germanie, nous trouvons une reproduction exacte d'une voiture de cette contrée (Nordischer Wagen), datant du 1er siècle de notre ère. [In the part of the Postal Museum in Berlin that is reserved for the means of transport and of communication for the peoples of the north of Europe, we find an exact replica of a wagon of these lands (Nordischer Wagen), dating from the first century of our era.]

Note: Wagon-bed. The body of a wagon; also, the bottom of the body (OED). Here applied to the constellation Charles’ Wain. See 034(i), (j).

VI.C.1.014(c)

VI.B.16.036

(a)        bthe 1st Humphrey

?La poste et les moyens de communication 42: Chlodowig (Clovis Ier) réorganisa le service des courriers, pour transmettre ses ordres. [...] On trouve dans un Capitulaire Dagobert Ier, roi d’Austrasie (628-638), [Chlodowig (Clovis I) reorganized the courier service to convey his orders. [...] In a Capitulary we find Dagobert I, king of Austrasia (628-638),]

MS 47482b-7, ScrLMA: going to meet a King ^+^+Not a king only in name but+^ the king of Greater Dublin, too, the first Humphrey+^ | JJA 57:015 | Apr 1924 | III§1A.*0/1D.*0//2A.*0/2C.*0 | FW 226.06

(c)        gleagues

La poste et les moyens de communication 42: «On pourra établir des angaries avec voitures de transport jusqu’à 50 lieues, mais pas plus loin»; [It will be possible to establish angaries with transport vehicles up to 50 leagues away, but no further”;]

MS 47485-34, ScrILS: via the Wellington Memorial, 800 yards ^+1/2 a league wrongward,+^ | JJA 60:289 | Mar-Apr 1926 | III§4.*2+ | FW 567.03

(e)        rview

MS 47482b-31v, ScrLPA: clapping together the flats of their hands ^+as they viewed him away+^ | JJA 57:064 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 470.10

(f)        ras I — / as I —

Note: See 054(c).

MS 47482b-19, ScrLMA: And ^+as I was going along in a dream as dozing I was dawdling+^ methought broadmouth was heard | JJA 57:039 | May1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 404.03-4

(g)        not — glory

La poste et les moyens de communication 42: L’histoire raconte que l’infortunée reine Brunehaut, qui avait gouverné deux royaumes non sans gloire, distingua sa régence par la construction de nombreuses chaussées, qui sont encore désignées, de nos jours, sous le nom de Chaussées de Brunehaut. [History tells us that the unfortunate Queen Brunhilda, who had ruled, not without glory, over two kingdoms, distinguished her regency by the construction of numerous causeways that are still to this day called the Causeways of Brunehaut.]

VI.C.1.014(m)

(l)         corvee

La poste et les moyens de communication 44: Dans un de ses Capitulaires, Charlemagne ordonne: “Que les aldiones (sujets affranchis sous condition de travail manuel), que les libellarii (affranchis par Acte public), de nouvelle ou d’ancienne date, qui habitent une terre d’Eglise, ne puissent être forcés ni contraints par le comte ni par un autre ministre, à servir aucune angarie (Postes), ni aucune autre corvée publique ou privée.” [In one of his Capitulars, Charlemagne ordered “That the aldiones (subjects freed on condition of manual labour), that the libellarii (freed by Public Act), of new or old commission, who inhabit land belonging to the Church cannot be forced or compelled by the count or by another minister to serve any angary (Posts), or any other forced labour, whether public or private.]

Note: Fr. Corvée. In feudal times, a day’s work of unpaid labour exacted by a lord from his vassal.

VI.C.1.015(b)

VI.B.16.037

(a)        Humphrey the —

?La poste et les moyens de communication 45: Charles le Chauve (840, déposé en 875) essaya de rétablir l’unité dans le royaume [...] Le Prévôt de la Hanse parisienne devint, sous Louis VI le Gros, le gardien attitré des libertés municipales. [Charles the Bald (840, deposed in 875) attempted to re-establish unity in the kingdom [...] The Provost of the Parisian Hansa became, under Louis VI the Fat, the appointed guardian of municipal liberties.]

VI.C.1.015(c)

(b)        xFluctuat nec mergitur / (errer non flotter) / with pail / arms of watermen given / by Philip Augustus

La poste et les moyens de communication 46: Philippe-Auguste accorda de nouveaux privilèges aux Marchands de l’Eau, qui avaient le monopole des transports par eau entre Mantes et Paris; il leur donna le droit de vérifier les poids et mesures. On sait, du reste, que le sceau de la puissante corporation des Marchands de l’Eau est resté l’écusson de la ville de Paris, avec sa nef symbolique, et sa fière devise: Fluctuat, nec mergitur, que sa concision n’empêche pas d’être amphibologique, attendu que, pour tout bon latiniste, fluctuare ne veut pas dire flotter, mais errer (à la merci des flots agités), ce qui est peu flatteur pour la Ville-Lumière. Cependant, comme elle flotte et ne sombre pas, laissons-la errer tranquillement. [Philippe-Auguste granted new privileges to the Water Merchants who had a monopoly over river transportation between Mantes and Paris. He gave them the right to verify weights and measures. Moreover, the seal of the powerful corporation of the Water Merchants has remained the coat of arms for the city of Paris, with its symbolic ship and its proud motto, Fluctuat, nec mergitur, ambiguous in spite of its concision, for every good Latinist knows that fluctuare does not mean ‘to float’ but ‘to wander’ (at the mercy of a rough sea). This is not very flattering for the City of Light. However, as it floats and does not sink, let us leave it to wander in peace.]

Note: L. Fluctuat nec mergitur. It wanders and does not sink.

Fr. Errer non flotter. To wander and not to float.

MS 47484a-191v, PrLPA: ^+fluctuous neck m merchantur, bloodfather and milkmudder,+^ | JJA 58:344 | Dec 1928-Jan 1929 | III§3A.8/3B.8 | FW 496.26

VI.C.1.015(d)

(c)        shortcut / path / bridgetoll

La poste et les moyens de communication 46-7: Parmi les droits de la Couronne, le droit de tonlieu et de péage n’était point le moins fructueux. Partout où il y avait un pont, marchands et marchandises, bêtes et gens devaient [46] passer par ce pont, et il fallait acquitter le péage. Au besoin, des cordes barraient la route voisine, qui aurait été plus facile, les plaines, les marais et jusqu’aux bois. [Among the rights of the Crown, the right of tolls was not the least profitable. Wherever there was a bridge, merchants and merchandise, men and animals had [46] to pay the toll in order to cross the bridge. Where necessary, ropes blocked off neighbouring routes that would have been easier—plains, marshes and even woods.]

Note: Fr. Tonlieu. A toll exercised at bridges and on ferries.

VI.C.1.015(e)-(f)

(d)        vellum (veau) / parchment

La poste et les moyens de communication 48: Un peu avant l’ère chrétienne, le parchemin vint faire concurrence au papyrus. Le parchemin ayant été tout d’abord préparé à Pergame (Asie), on lui donna le nom générique de pergamenum; il était fait avec toutes sortes de peaux, mais le mouton a toujours été le plus commun; quant au veau, il reçut le nom spécial de vélin. [Shortly before the Christian Era, parchment began to compete with papyrus. Parchment having first been made in Pergamum (Asia) was given the generic name pergamenum. It was made from all sorts of skins but sheepskin was always the most common. As for calf-skin, it was given the special name vellum.]

VI.C.1.015(g)

 (f)       rubrics minium / — iature / illuminated

La poste et les moyens de communication 49: Le mot miniature signifia originairement peinture au minium, dérivé du mot latin vermillon (oxyde rouge de plomb). En effet, la miniature ne fut d’abord autre chose que le procédé usité par les enlumineurs, pour tracer sur les manuscrits, à l’aide du minium, les lettres rouges et les ornements des têtes de chapitres. [The word miniature originally signified painting with minium, deriving from the Latin word vermillon (red oxide of lead). Indeed, the miniature was originally nothing but the procedure employed by illuminators to trace on manuscripts, with the help of minium, red letters and ornaments used for chapter headings.]

Note: Minium, vermilion. Contrary to what seems to be implied here, although these words are linked semantically, they are not etymologically related. See Oxford Dictionary of Etymology, ‘minium’, ‘vermilion’, ‘vermeil’.

Joyce also alludes to the etymology of the word ‘rubric’, from Latin ruber (red), denoting chapter headings, as these were written in red ink.

VI.C.1.015(i)

(g)        gateways

Freeman’s Journal 11 April 1924-5/3: THE BLAME. “Does that tell the whole tale of the stories of impurity committed in this parish? Not at all.

          “Where do I place the blame? On the fathers and on the mothers who will not control their young people, who let them out at night to ramble on the roads, in the laneways, and in the gateways, who will not insist upon their being in at the proper time, who let them run wild.

VI.C.1.016(a)

VI.B.16.038

(c)        impurity

Irish Times 11 April 1924-5/3: Evil Tendency / Immorality in Galway Deplored by Bishop / Warning to Girls / Influence of Dancing and Bad Literature “If the evil goes on, a time must come when a campaign must be started to clean the rotten shops of Galway of this foul stuff,” said Most Rev. Dr. O’Doherty, Bishop of Galway, in a denunciation of bad literature at St. Patrick’s Church, where he administered Confirmation yesterday. [...] “Very Alarming” “It is alarming, indeed very alarming, that the Irish love of the virtue of chastity appears to be growing cold. [...] Where do I place the blame? First of all on the girls themselves. Let there be no mistake about it. People talk a lot of nonsense about innocent girls and about seduction and this and that and the other. The blame lies upon the girls themselves.” […] THE BLAME “Does that tell the whole tale of the stories of impurity committed in this parish? Not at all.

VI.C.1.016(c)

VI.B.16.039

(a)        rhardworking

?Freeman’s Journal 12 April 1924-5/4: The People’s Food. […] In cross-examination by Mr. Scott, for the defence, witness said he did not know that the defendant was going to have the meat removed. She was at the loss of the quantity destroyed.

          Mr. Scott said the defendant was a hard-working woman, and she did not intend the meat for sale.

MS 47482b-50, ScrILA: Divulge, suddenly jouted ^+out hardworking+^ Jaun, | JJA 57:101 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 441.24

(g)        fouler

Freeman’s Journal 11 April 1924-8/5: Cleansing 200 Years Ago. It is not merely to-day or yesterday that fault has been found with the manner in which the streets of Dublin have been kept. In the middle of the seventeenth century complaints were very frequent, for apparently the city scavenger—there was only one, and that a lady, Mrs. Kate Strong, was not attending to her duties as she should. Miss A. Peter in her book on Dublin tells us that Kate “took a solemn oath to do her duty in keeping the city nice and clean, but she evidently lacked the ability or the sense of responsibility that her position entailed, for it is recorded against her that she scarce kept the way from the Castle to the church clean, or that from the Mayor’s house to the church, and neglected the rest of the city, which she cleansed but sparingly and very seldom.” Kate was reprimanded by the City Fathers, but apparently without effect, for the City Records state “the more she was followed the worse she grew, and kept the streets the fouler.” After all we have progressed something.

VI.C.1.017(b)

(h)        new street

Connacht Tribune 12 April 1924-4/3: On THURSDAY, 1st of MAY, 1924, At the hour of one o’clock, All his Estate and Interest in the Licensed House and Premises, situated in the New Street, in the Town of Portumna, held from Viscount Lascelles at the nominal yearly rent of £1 18s. 9d.

VI.C.1.017(c)

VI.B.16.040

(c)        rbacksliding

MS 47482b-20, ScrLMA: (may all the ^+back+^sliding constellations continue to be his changeable timetable!) | JJA 57:041 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 405.10

VI.B.16.041

(i)         impudent Barney / bl

Connacht Tribune 12 April 1924-6/1: Tuam Sessions [...] “Impudent Attempt to Grab” Thos. Nolan, victualler, Tuam, sued Pat and John Mullen, egg dealers, and Ellen Madden, Galway-rd., Tuam, for £10 damages for breaking into and entering plaintiff’s land at Galway-rd., Tuam, and trespassing and erecting a gate thereon. [...] His honor could only say it was an impudent attempt on the part of a man to grab his neighbour’s land, and further an impudent attempt to try and maintain it.

Note: From a song by Samuel Lover, ‘Impudent Barney, None of your blarney’.

VI.C.1.018(h)

VI.B.16.042

(d)        rLsd made by poaching / invested in poteen

MS 47482b-29v, ScrLPA: What I’d ^+make ^+I’d be possessed of+^ by poaching I’d put ^+it at 1st cost+^ into the poteen [...]+^ | JJA 57:060 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 451.01

VI.B.16.043

 (f)       rso sure as I —

Not found in Connacht Tribune.

?MS 47482b-15v, ScrLPA: ^+and [as] sure as I come back+^ | JJA 57:032 | May 1924 | III§1A.*1/1D.*1//2A.*1/2C.*1 | FW 442.11

VI.B.16.044

(a)        adding to his / laurels

Connacht Tribune 12 April 1924-5/5: DISTINGUISHED GALWAY JOURNALIST. Mr. H. O’Donoghue, a native of Galway, and one of the most enterprising and intrepid of the correspondents of the London “Daily Chronicle,” has as such succeeded in adding to his laurels by interviewing the expelled Sultan of Turkey who, deposed by the Republicans, was huddled off to Switzerland like an ordinary tourist, subject to all the inconveniences and discomforts of an ordinary traveller.

VI.C.1.019(k)

(b)        the ‘nations’

La poste et les moyens de communication 52: Toutes les provinces envoyèrent l’élite de leur jeunesse à ce centre de l’enseignement et des études théologiques [l’Université de Paris], qui provoquèrent alors un mouvement littéraire et scientifique prodigieux pour l’époque; les étrangers même accoururent en foule: si bien qu’il fallut ranger par nations cette multitude d’étudiants, suivant leur origine. [All the provinces sent the best of their youth to this centre of instruction and theological study [University of Paris] that inspired both a literary movement and scientific advances that were prodigious for the time. Even foreigners flocked there in such crowds that it became necessary to organize by nation this multitude of students, according to their origin.]

VI.C.1.019(l)

(d)        carrier

La poste et les moyens de communication 53: On ne peut indiquer la date précise à laquelle l’Université résolut ces questions, mais il est prouvé qu’elle donna satisfaction aux besoins des écoliers par l’établissement d’une véritable organisation de courriers de poste et de messageries à son usage; [One cannot indicate the precise date when the University resolved these issues, but it is certain that it satisfied student needs by establishing a whole organisation of postal couriers and messengers for its use;]

VI.C.1.019(n)

(e)        factor

La poste et les moyens de communication 53: les petits messagers ou messagers volants, véritables facteurs ruraux et voituriers, qui, moyennant le payement d’une taxe fixée par le Recteur, se chargeaient du transport des lettres, des bagages et quelquefois des voyageurs. [the lesser messengers or flying messengers, real rural postmen and carriers who, on payment of a charge set by the Rector, attended to the transportation of letters, baggage and sometimes travellers.]

VI.C.1.019(o)

(k)        rtake off yr coat

MS 47482b-114, ScrLMS: & I must & do ^+can take off my coat ^+coats+^ to enter my caveat of protestant ^+protestant caveat +^+^ protest against future publication | JJA 58:095 | Dec 1924 | III§3B.*2 | FW 534.11-12

VI.B.16.045

(e)        rPoste Restante

La poste et les moyens de communication 55: Imaginez les impatiences et les émotions de notre Poste restante, et dites s’il n’est pas vrai qu’il n’y a de nouveau que ce qui n’a jamais vieilli. [Imagine the impatience and the emotions found at our Poste Restante and say whether it’s not true that there is nothing new except what has never grown old.]

Note: See 019(c).

MS 47482b-26, ScrLMA: propped ^+restant+^ up against a slumbering warden of the peace | JJA 57:053 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 429.18

VI.B.16.046

(g)        rwhen I have a better / look at him

MS 47482b-25v, ScrLPA: I ^+we+^ cd see ^+when we had a better look at him [...]+^ | JJA 57:052 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 429.10

VI.B.16.047

(b)        postillion

La poste et les moyens de communication 62: Le savant Budé, ami d’Erasme et contemporain de François Ier, de Charles-Quint et de Luther, nous parle de: “postillons allemands, qui, de son temps, couvraient (sic) les routes, portant sur leurs habits un petit écusson avec les armoiries et le nom de la ville à laquelle ils appartiennent.” [The scholar Budé, a friend of Erasmus and contemporary of François I, Charles V and Luther, speaks of “German postillions who, when he was young, covered the roads bearing on their clothing a little escutcheon with the arms and name of the city to which they belonged.”]

VI.C.1.020(o)

(k)        brochés en musique ‘ , ‘ ,

La poste et les moyens de communication 80: On dit brocher un clou pour désigner l’action de le faire pénétrer dans la corne. Tous les clous doivent sortir sur la paroi à la même hauteur. S’il arrive qu’il en soit autrement, on dit que les clous sont brochés en musique. [The expression brocher un clou designates the action of making the nail penetrate the horn of the hoof. All the nails must project an equal distance from the horny covering. If they do otherwise, the nails are said to be set like mosaic work.]

Note: Old Fr. Music (or musique). Inlaid work, mosaic.

VI.C.1.021(g)

VI.B.16.048

(b)        curse evils of war / & admire warlike / virtues

La poste et les moyens de communication 85: En effet, il est encore facile aujourd’hui d’y [dans un journal paru en 1536] lire un long récit de la troisième guerre entre Charles-Quint et François Ier, où il est dit comme conclusion: Tous les hommes maudissent les maux de la guerre et admirent les vertus guerrières. [Indeed it is still easy to read [in a journal that appeared in 1536] a long story of the third war between Charles V and Francis I which concludes: All men curse the evils of war and admire warlike virtues.]

VI.C.1.021(j)

(c)        doublet

La poste et les moyens de communication 86-7: Une reproduction d’un tableau d’Holbein, d’après l’original conservé au Musée d’Augsbourg, sa ville natale, nous fait voir un facteur bavarois, revêtu d’un court manteau bleu, d’un pourpoint jaune, et d’une [86] culotte bleue retenue aux genoux par un ruban jaune. [A reproduction of a painting by Holbein, after the original housed in the Museum of Augsburg, his place of birth, shows a Bavarian postman wearing a short blue coat, a yellow doublet, and [86] blue breeches held tightly at the knee by a yellow ribbon.]

VI.C.1.021(k)

(f)        embroidered

La poste et les moyens de communication 88: Une curieuse copie en plâtre d’une statue érigée en 1545, à Berne, représente un facteur suisse, de cette époque [...]. Il porte un court pourpoint avec de grandes manches tombantes aux coudes. Sa culotte porte des broderies disposées en croix, elle est retenue aux genoux par des rubans. [A curious plaster copy of a statue erected in 1545 in Berne depicts a Swiss postman of this era [...]. He is wearing a short doublet with large sleeves that fall down to the elbows. His breeches have embroideries laid out in a cruciform pattern, and are bound at the knees by ribbons.]

VI.C.1.021(n)

(h)        rharness

La poste et les moyens de communication 90: A côté, nous voyons les harnois des chevaux de cette époque [le commencement de la Renaissance]. [On the side are the harnesses of the horses of this time [the Early Renaissance].]

Note: See 059(b).

VI.C.1.021(p)

(i)         rdead letter

La poste et les moyens de communication 97: Un dessin des plus macabres représente la Poste des morts. C'est une allégorie fantastique figurant un squelette à cheval, chevauchant au galop, habillé en postillon fin xviie siècle, portant sous son bras décharné le colis postal final, qui contient la condamnation de tous les humains au trépas.

          L'original de ce curieux dessin, provenant de la famille de Hardenberg, appartient à la ville de Bâle; il est attribué à Holbein, le peintre célèbre de la fameuse Danse des morts, dont les derniers vestiges se trouvent également dans cette ville.

Cette reproduction porte l'inscription suivante, que nous traduisons littéralement:

De tous les temps je marche vite,
Portant pour tous un paquet.
O homme, prépare-toi au voyage,
Lorsque ma Poste marchera pour toi!

 Le texte allemand est naturellement rimé! C'est très suggestif!

[One of the most macabre illustrations represents the Post of the Dead. It is a fantastic allegory with a skeleton on horseback, galloping, dressed like a postillion of the end of the seventeenth century, carrying under his fleshless arms the final postal packet which contains the condemnation to death of all humans.

          The original of this strange drawing, which had been in the Hardenberg family, is attributed to Holbein, the painter of the famous Dance of the Dead, of which the last remnants are also to be found in this city.

The reproduction carries the following inscription that we translate literally:

                          Of all the times I walk quickly,

                          Carrying a gift for everyone.

                          O man, prepare yourself for the trip,

                          Because my Post will work for you!

Naturally the German text rhymes! It is full of meaning!]

VI.B.16.049

(a)        rTurn & Taxis

La poste et les moyens de communication 90-1: D’autres [gravures] encore nous apportent de bien curieux détails sur les services des relais et des messagers et [90] viennent préparer le visiteur à la transition de l’organisation postale allemande sous la direction des princes de la célèbre famille de Thurn und Taxis (de Tour et Taxis). [Others [engravings] show very curious details concerning the duties of relay stations and messengers and [90] help prepare the visitor for the transition of the German postal organisation under the control of the princes of the celebrated family of Thurn und Taxis (Thurn and Taxis).]

MS 47471a-4v, ScrLPA: apples ^+what with the [...] carhacks, stoneengens, kisstvanes, tramtrees, fargobawlers, autokinotons, ^+streetfleets, ^+tournintaxes,+^+^ [...]+^ | JJA 44:048 | Nov 1926 | I.1§1.*1 | FW 005.32

(d)        radhere to

La poste et les moyens de communication 97: En 1874, la loi qui enregistra l’adhésion de presque toutes les grandes puissances du monde à l’Union postale universelle vint enlever à la célèbre maison de Tour et Taxis les derniers vestiges de ses privilèges séculaires devenus inutiles. [In 1874 the law that recorded the adherence of almost all the great world powers to the Universal Postal Union came to be passed. This put an end to the last remnants of the now useless secular privileges of the famed house of Thurn and Taxis.]

MS 47482b-28, ScrTMS: be true ^+adhere+^ to as many of the 10 commandments as possible | JJA 57:057 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 432.26

(g)        fiacre (only 1)

La poste et les moyens de communication 101: De vieilles gravures nous font voir les carrosses de la cour et le premier fiacre à Paris, en 1657. [Old engravings show the court’s state-coaches and the first hackney-coach in Paris, in 1657.]

VI.C.1.022(c)

VI.B.16.050

(g)        ryou back me!

MS 47482b-29v, ScrLPA: I’m the ^+boy that’d make it pay like fun & you back me!+^ | JJA 57:060 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 000.00

VI.B.16.051

(e)        farmed out

La poste et les moyens de communication 103: Si l’histoire reste muette sur l’origine des facteurs français, il est à supposer que, sous le règne de Louis XIV, il devait y avoir des facteurs à Paris, au moment la Ferme des Postes fut instituée en 1672 et où Lazare Patin en devint propriétaire, moyennant une redevance annuelle d’un million de livres. [If history says nothing about the origin of French postmen, one must suppose that under the reign of Louis XIV there must have been postmen in Paris at the time when the Farm of the Posts was instituted in 1672, and Lazare Patin became its owner for a yearly tax of a million pounds.]

VI.C.1.023(f)

(f)        superscription / circum — / dispatch

La poste et les moyens de communication 104-5: Sur la proposition du nouveau directeur, une ordonnance royale, rendue à la date du 16 octobre 1627, enjoignit “à tout destinataire de lettres et paquets, de payer sans contestation ni réplique les sommes que les [104] agents d’intendance leur réclameraient pour les ports desdits envois”.

          En vertu d’une ordonnance en date du 18 mai 1630, diverses circonscriptions administratives de Paris et de quelques grandes villes, reçurent des bureaux de dépêches que devaient diriger des “maistres de courriers, relevant eux-mêmes de contrôleurs principaux”. [On the new Postmaster General’s proposal, a royal ordinance of 16 October 1627, directed “all recipients of letters and packages to pay without dispute or retort the sums that the [104] official agents requested of them for the delivery of the aforesaid mails”.

          In pursuance of an ordinance dated May 18, 1630, various administrative districts of Paris and a few other large cities received offices of dispatches that were to be controlled by “the masters of the couriers, themselves within the jurisdiction of the principal superintendents”.]

VI.C.1.023(g)

(i)         ryour very humble & yr

La poste et les moyens de communication 110: Une autre [lettre], du 30 août 1730, également en français, est adressée au directeur des postes de Leipzig. Nous notons ces mots qui la terminent:         Monsieur, votre très humble et très votre (sic) obéissant serviteur, de Brûhl. [Another [letter], of August 30, 1730, also in French, is addressed to the Postmaster General in Leipzig. We record its final words:

          Sir, your very humble and very your (sic) obedient servant, de Brûhl.]

MS 47482b-23v, ScrLPA:– Will you not ^+May we beg you+^ dear Shaun, we suggested, to describe ^+unravel in yr own words ^+to your very humble and yours most respectfully+^+^ | JJA 57:048 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 422.21-2

(m)       late

La poste et les moyens de communication 114: Une longue vitrine nous laisse examiner à loisir des Bulletins d’heures, sorte de feuilles de routes, des voitures de Poste, qui étaient annotées et visées à chaque relais; elles servaient à constater la régularité des passages, l’arrivée et le départ des courriers, ainsi que les causes des retard. [A long glass case allows us to examine at leisure Hourly Bulletins; these were a kind of way-bill for postal carriages that were annotated and countersigned at each stage; they helped to establish the regularity of trips, the arrival and departure of couriers, as well as record the causes of delay.]

Note: Way-bill. A list of passengers or goods to be transported by stagecoach; also a list of the stops on the journey.

VI.C.1.023(m)

VI.B.16.052

(g)        ounce

La poste et les moyens de communication 120: Une déclaration royale, en date du 17 juillet 1759, ordonnait qu’ “il serait établi dans la capitale, neuf bureaux de distribution pour porter d’un quartier à un autre, dans l’enceinte des barrières, des lettres et paquets sur le pied de deux sols marqués pour une lettre simple, un billet ou une carte au-dessous d’une once (31 grammes), et de trois sols l’once pour les paquets: et, à l’effet de prévenir les abus, le port en sera payé d’avance...” [A royal declaration, dated July 17, 1759, ordered that “nine delivery offices should be established in the capital to carry mail from one neighbourhood to another within the walls: letters and packages at the rate of two sous indicated for a single letter, a note or a card weighing less than one ounce (31 grams), and three sous per ounce for packages: and in order to prevent abuse, the fees would be paid in advance...”]

VI.C.1.024(a)

(h)        rmonopole

La poste et les moyens de communication 129: En 1809, sous l’Empire, se constitua la Cie des Messageries Impériales, appelées depuis Royales, puis Nationales, qui conserva le monopole des transports publics jusqu’en 1826, bien que de nouvelles compagnies eussent le droit de s’établir. [In 1809, under the Empire, the Company of Imperial Messenger service was established. Subsequently it was called Royal, then National, and it retained the monopoly over public transportation until 1826, although new companies were granted the right to establish themselves.]

MS 47482b-26, ScrLMS: in the embraces of a confiscated ^+monopolised+^ bottle | JJA 57:053 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 429.24

VI.B.16.053

(c)        solvitur ambulando

La poste et les moyens de communication 142: Les bureaux de poste ambulants1 ou wagons-poste sont une des inventions les plus utiles du milieu du xixe siècle. [Ambulatory post offices,1 or post wagons, are one of the most useful inventions of the mid-19th Century.]

142n1: Du mot latin ambulare, “qui n’a pas de résidence fixe”. [From the Latin word ambulare, ‘having no fixed abode’.]

Note: L. Solvitur ambulando. It is solved by walking.

VI.C.1.024(e)

(e)        bag thrown out

La poste et les moyens de communication 146: Mais le modèle qui attire le plus l’attention, c’est le wagon-poste ayant sur sa paroi latérale un appareil échangeur à filet, prenant et laissant, pendant la marche du train-poste, les sacs à dépêches [...]. [But the model that attracts most attention is the postwagon which has on its side-wall an exchanging appliance with a net that, while the post-train is in motion, takes and leaves the mailbags [...].]

VI.C.1.024(g)

(f)        Indian traintops white

La poste et les moyens de communication 146-7: Un très curieux modèle de bureau ambulant est celui qui est en usage sur les réseaux de l’Inde britannique, Indian Railway Co, et qui se distingue par un système de plafonds. Entre le plafond et la couverture extérieure, on a ménagé un espace. La couverture extérieure est peinte [146] en blanc pour renvoyer les rayons du soleil; [A very curious model for the ambulatory office is the one used on the British Indian rail network, the Indian Railway Co., which had a unique system of roofs. Space is arranged between the roof and the exterior covering which is painted [146] white to reflect the sun’s rays;]

VI.C.1.024(h)

(g)        ordinary person

?Irish Independent 14 April 1924-6/6: Too Much Salt. Doctors are joining more and more in the anti-salt campaign. In a disinterested zeal for health they want to bring people back to salt-free diet.

          During latter years the consumption of salt has, they say, increased enormously. And seemingly it leaves its victims open to every possible ill, particularly cold in the head and rheumatism.

          The ordinary person eats from ten to twenty times more salt than his system requires in twenty-four hours. To make him prematurely old is the least harm it does.

          Ireland is mentioned as one of the countries in which far too much salt is devoured. A strong appeal is made to have the salt cellar banished from the table.

VI.C.1.024(i)

(h)        average

La poste et les moyens de communication 149: Il est bien entendu que l’indication de ces vitesses est basée sur la moyenne; [Of course the information about these speeds is based on averages;]

VI.C.1.024(j)

(k)        rvery shortly

MS 47482b-31, ScrILS: ^+Some time+^ Soon ^+Very shortly+^ shall we be dead & happy | JJA 57:063 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 453.30

VI.B.16.054

(a)        speed up

La poste et les moyens de communication 150: Sur la ligne de Paris à Bordeaux (Orléans), les express marchent à raison de 66km4, et, lorsqu'ils sont en retard, les machinistes étant autorisés, pour rattraper le temps perdu, à accélérer leur marche, il peut arriver que, dans certains cas, la vitesse de ces trains atteigne près de 100 kilomètres à l'heure. C'est plus de 27 mètres par seconde, et plus d'un kilomètre et demi par minute. [On the line between Paris and Bordeaux (Orléans), the express reaches 66,4 km, and, when they have delays, the drivers are authorised, in order to catch up the time lost, to accelerate, and as result, at some points, the trains reach a speed of more than 100 kilometers an hour. That is more than 27 meters per second, and more than a kilometer per minute.]

VI.C.1.024(o)

(b)        teleautographic xx

La poste et les moyens de communication 153: Cest le seul moyen pratique de connaître la rapidité de votre train, puis, cest une distraction comme une autre, une occasion de remuer quelques chiffres, quand vous êtes bien assis dans votre coin; quand vous regardez, par le cadre des fenêtres, défiler les poteaux télégraphiques, dont les fils montent et descendent sous vos yeux avec une monotonie fatigante; quand  vous voyez en face de vous, un monsieur important et grave, qui déploie lentement son journal, et le lit avec la mine rogue dun président dassises; quand à votre gauche, un gentleman Anglais qui sallonge sur la banquette met ses deux pieds dans vos poches et ronfle, après la première station, comme la chaudière dun cuirassé de Her Gracious Majesty. [This is the only practical means of establishing the speed of your train, and it is a diversion like any other, an occasion to juggle numbers, while you sit nicely in your corner; when you look through the frame of the windows and see the telegraph poles pass by, and the lines go up and down in a tiresome monotony; when you see ahead of you, a serious and important person, who slowly opens his newspaper and reads it with the gravity of a federal judge; when at your right an English gentleman lies down on the bench with his two feet in your pockets and snores, after the first station, like the engines of one of Her Gracious Majesty’s ships.]

Note: Telautographic. Pertaining to the telautograph, a telegraphic device invented by Elisha Gray in the 1880s, enabling telegraphic transmission of writing or drawing. Joyce’s note seems to be referring to the transmission of kisses, signified by writing xat the end of letters.

VI.C.1.024(p)

(c)        rAs I was / [bis]

Note: See 036(f).

MS 47482b-19, ScrLMS & ScrLMA: Methought twas ^+as I going asleep somewhen ^+in nonland of wheres please+^ I heard as ‘twere+^ the peal of midnight’s chimes [...] And ^+as I was going along in a dream as dozing I was dawdling+^ methought | JJA 57:039 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 403.18, 404.03-4

(g)        reverse

La poste et les moyens de communication 162: Ce nest pas daujourdhui que cette question est à lordre du jour. La première voiture à vapeur qui ait marché fut construite par lingénieur français Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, en 1769. Lessai se fit à lArsenal, en présence du duc de Choiseul, ministre de Louis XV. Cette voiture avait une force dimpulsion si considérable, que, nétant pas convenablement guidée, elle renversa un pan de mur. Cette machine remarquable à beaucoup dégards, que son auteur désignait sous le nom de fardier à vapeur (fig. 60), existe encore actuellement au Conservatoire national des Arts et Métiers. Elle était exposée au Palais des Arts libéraux, à lExposition universelle de 1889. [This question has not been put on the agenda today. The first steam wagon that worked was constructed by the French engineer Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, in 1769. Its trial was done at the Arsenal, in the presence of the duke of Choiseul, minister of Louis XV. This wagon had such power of impulsion, that, when it was driven properly, it knocked over a wall. This machine, so remarkable in many ways, which its inventor called the steam chariot (fig. 60), still exists at the National Conservatory of the Arts and Professions. It was exhibited at the Palace of the liberal Arts at the Universal Exposition of 1889.]

Note: Of the French verbs reverser and renverser, the former means ‘to transfer’ and the latter ‘to reverse.’

VI.C.1.025(b)

VI.B.16.055

(a)        r, Shaun lad, >

MS 47482b-33, ScrILA: had you but been spared to us ^+, Jauny lad,+^ you will be long looked after | JJA 57:067 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 472.11

(f)        work dodger

La poste et les moyens de communication 165-6: [O]n peut [...] y [dans les Hôtels des Postes, construits pour l’administration du Reichs-Postamt] faire sa correspondance, seul, à [165] l’abri du regard indiscret d’un voisin, sans gêner personne, sous la seule surveillance des employés placés à découvert devant un large comptoir et non derrière un grillage métallique entrelacé d’étiquettes administratives, dont la plus connue indique que le guichet est fermé, pour que le guichetier ait le temps de se limer les ongles, tout en lisant les nouvelles du jour dans son journal favori. [In the Post Offices constructed for the administration of the Reichspostamt, one can write one’s letters, safe from the prying eyes of one’s neighbours and without interrupting anybody. All one encounters is the supervision of clerks, seated in full view in front of a large counter and not behind a wire netting tagged with notices, most notoriously the one that says that the booth is closed so that the desk clerk may have time to file his nails while reading the news in his favourite paper.]

VI.C.1.025(h)

VI.B.16.056

(b)        dogs of war / Feldpost

La poste et les moyens de communication 174: Depuis quelques années, on dresse et on utilise, en Allemagne, les chiens de guerre pour le service de sûreté et d’exploration; leur fonction doit être d’aller des postes avancés détachés d’un corps armée à la portion principale de ce corps, et vice versa. Dans ce but, chaque chien militaire porte au collier une petite poche en cuir dissimulée, où sont placés les renseignements à transmettre. [For some years war-dogs have been trained and used in Germany, in the service of safety and of reconnaissance; their function must be to go from advanced stations separated from the army corps to the main part of the corps, and vice versa. Towards this end, every military dog carries in its collar a small hidden leather pocket, in which is placed the information to be sent.]

Note: G. Feldpost. Military postal service.

VI.C.1.025(k)-(l)

(d)        rnational rd

La poste et les moyens de communication 179-80: Nous avons actuellement en France 8.855 kilomètres de voies fluviales, 4.975 kilomètres de canaux, 49.000 kilomètres de routes nationales, 47.950 kilo[179]mètres de routes départementales, [We now have in France 8,855 kilometres of water-ways, 4,975 kilometres of canals, 49,000 kilometres of national roads, 47,950 kilo- [179] metres of provincial roads,]

MS 47482b-59, MT: along the highroad of the nation | JJA 57:119 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 471.26-7

(e)        ra periodical

La poste et les moyens de communication 185-6: A côté, [185] l’immense salle du timbrage des périodiques, [At the side, [185] the immense room where periodicals are stamped,]

Not located in MS/FW.

(f)        P. O. box ‘thank you’

La poste et les moyens de communication 186: Dans une autre salle est installée la Poste restante, cette salle a été aménagée pour contenir les boîtes louées à l’année aux commerçants pour le dépôt de leur courrier quotidien. [The Poste Restante is in another room which has been arranged to hold the boxes rented out by the year to tradesmen and used for picking up their daily mail.]

VI.C.1.025(m)

(g)             3

?La poste et les moyens de communication 190: Ces tilburys filent comme le vent sur l’asphalte parisien. Ils sont au nombre de quarante-neuf, partant de lHôtel des Postes ou de diverses remises affectées spécialement au matériel servant au transport des dépêches dans Paris. Ils neffectuent pas moins de 882 voyages par jour. Ils desservent les 76 bureaux ou recettes des Postes de quartier, dits Satellites, où ils prennent les dépêches destinées aux autres bureaux de quartier, dits de passe.

          Dans ceux-ci, se fait le tri des correspondances provenant des Satellites. Là, on sépare les lettres, imprimés, etc., en trois catégories: celles qui sont pour Paris, pour la province et pour létranger. [These tilburys spin like the wind on the Parisian asphalt. There are forty-nine of these, leaving the General Post Office or the different relays that are responsible for transporting the telegrams through Paris. They make no less than 882 trips per day. They serve the 76 offices or Postal points in the city, which are called Satellites, where they receive the messages destined for the other local offices, which are called de passe.           In the latter, the correspondence from the Satellites is sorted. The letters, journals etc., are sorted into three categories: the ones that will go to Paris, to the provinces and abroad.]

(h)        stamp /  robliterate

La poste et les moyens de communication 192: Dès qu’un certain nombre de lettres ont été classées, un agent, qui sans cesse fait le tour de la table, les enlève et les apporte aux facteurs qui sont chargés de les oblitérer et de les timbrer. Oblitérer une lettre en langage postal, c’est frapper le timbre-poste d’un cachet noir, de telle façon que ce timbre ne puisse plus servir. Timbrer une lettre, c’est imprimer sur l’enveloppe un timbre à date fixe indiquant exactement le moment du passage de la lettre dans ces bureaux. [As soon as a certain number of letters have been sorted, an agent, who goes around the table non-stop, picks them up and brings them to the postmen in charge of obliterating and stamping them. In postal language, to obliterate a letter is to mark the postal stamp with a black seal in such a way that the stamp can no longer be of use. Stamping a letter is printing on the envelope a stamp with a fixed date that indicates exactly when that letter passed through these offices.]

MS 47482b-28v, ScrLPA: I’ll give you ^+one+^ puck ^+in the [...] cruppers you won’t obliterate for 9 months+^ | JJA 57:058 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 445.20

VI.C.1.025(n)

VI.B.16.057

(a)        rearn bread sweat feet

La poste et les moyens de communication 197: Donnons sur le facteur rural [...] quelques renseignements. L’Administration des Postes, en créant cet humble sous-agent, lui a dit sentencieusement: La Terre ne produira pour toi que de la boue et des bornes kilométriques, et tu gagneras ton pain quotidien à la sueur de tes pieds. [Let us give some information about the country postman [...]. The Postal Administration when creating this modest subordinate sententiously told him: Mother Earth will give thee naught but mire and milestones and thou shalt earn thy daily bread by the sweat of thy feet.]

MS 47482b-20, ScrILA: Shaun said ^+yawned+^ ^+addressing himself &+^ complaining ^+of the fact of earning his bread in sweat of feet+^ | JJA 57:041 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 408.01

(c)        rrural b

La poste et les moyens de communication 198: Si nous calculons le parcours quotidien d’un facteur rural sur la base de 30 kilomètres, étant donnée la base du pas de 80 centimètres, nous trouvons 1250 pas par kilomètre, soit 37.500 pas par jour, qui, multipliés par 365 jours, donnent un total de 13.687.500 pas, formant un trajet annuel de 10.950 kilomètres. [If we calculate the daily route of a rural postman as being 30 kilometres and assume that one step equals 80 centimetres, we find there are 1,250 steps in a kilometre and therefore he makes 37,500 steps per day, which, when multiplied by 365 days, makes for a total of 13,687,500 steps, comprising an annual journey of 10,950 kilometres.]

(d)        25 yrs / 7 times globetrot

La poste et les moyens de communication 198: Dans ses vingt-cinq années de service, son parcours à pied s’élève à 342.187.500 pas, soit 273.750 kilomètres, formant 68.437 lieues, environ sept fois le tour du globe! [In his twenty-five years of service, his rounds on foot make for 342,187,500 steps, or 273,750 kilometres, which comes to 68,437 leagues, about seven times the circumference of the globe!]

VI.C.1.026(d)

VI.B.16.058

(b)        if it please yr H— / may

Note: if / may it please your Honour.

VI.C.1.026(k)

VI.B.16.059

(d)        bdispersal sale

?MS 47472-211, MT: Dispersal women wondered. | JJA 46:085 | Mar-Apr 1927 | I.4§2.*4 | FW 101.01

(k)        bFlaggy Bridge >

Note: Flaggy Bridge. Bridge in Co. Galway, 5 km east of Derrybrien on the Gort-Portumna road.

MS 47472-239, TsILA: in connection with a girl ^+girls+^ ^+Myramy Hues ^+Myramu Huey+^ or ^+Iris Archer,+^+^ ^+under Flaggy Bridge+^ | JJA 45:234 | Mar-Apr 1927 | I.3§1.5/2.5/3.5 | FW 063.13

(l)         Lawlor’s † >>

Note: Lawlor’s Cross. Near Tralee, Co. Kerry.

VI.B.16.060

(b)        village of — >

Note: Derrybrien. Village near Loughrea, Co. Galway.

VI.C.1.028(b)

(e)        demesne

Connacht Tribune 19 April 1924-3/3-5: MAINTENANCE CONTRACTS / DISTRICT ROADS. […] To maintain for 43 years, 678 perches, 12 ft wide, of road from Rockfield to Athenry between Royhill cross roads, and Gloves cross roads. […] To maintain for 43 years, 654 perches, 12 ft wide, of road from Dalystown to Kilreeckle, between Leitrim 3 roads and Annghbridge 3 roads. […] To maintain for 43 years, 560 perches, 12 ft wide, from Grouse Hill, 3 roads and 3 roads at Ballyknock. […]  To maintain for 43 years, 226 perches, 12 ft wide, from Grealy’s House at Drumkeary. […] To maintain for 43 years, 1200 perches, 13 ft wide, of road from Loughrea to New Inn, between the College and Cross Roads, Cahernagarry. […] To maintain for 43 years, 400 perches of road, 12 ft wide, from Duniry Scaol House to Aille, between Lalor’s Cross and Aille School House. […] To maintain for 43 years, 400 perches, of road 16 ft wide, from Portumna to Gort, between Derrybrien Chapel and Flaggy Bridge. […] To maintain for 43 years, 480 perches or road, 12 ft wide, from Woodford to Rossmore, between Attipierce and Marble Hill Demesne […]  To maintain for 4¾ years, 384 perches road, 16 ft wide, from Loughrea to Galway, between township mearing at Tallagh and Glenatallon.

VI.C.1.028(e)

(f)        b against my principles

?Connacht Tribune 19 April 1924-5/2: [Anniversary Celebration in Tuam: LARGE PROCESSION TO GRAVESIDE] Mr. Sean Lemass, Dublin delivered an oration over the grave, and addressing the men of the 2nd Western Division, IRA, said they had come not in sorrow but in pride, for although they mourned the loss of their departed, yet they were proud of these men: proud of the fight they made and the cause they served. Those men whose memories they honoured that day were brave and unselfish, made of the same heroic stuff as Tone and Emmett, etc. At the moment of danger they left their homes and careers and sacrificed all the hopes of their young lives and gave their services in the cause of Irish freedom. They knew what they were doing and deliberately they did it. They saw the rifle muzzle in front, the prison ward, the firing squads; but such things did not daunt their efforts, and they went and did what was right because it was right. They did not ask for fee or reward: they did not need cheering crowds or pleasant hands to urge them to their duty. Silently they did the grandest thing a man can do: they gave their lives for principles, and they who stood about their earthly remains to-day can only hope that when the test comes they also will prove themselves true soldiers of Ireland.

VI.C.1.028(f)

(j)         procession

Connacht Tribune 19 April 1924-5/3: HOLY WEEK IN GALWAY. The ceremonies associated with holy week were carried out in the different Galway churches with a solemnity befitting such a great occasion. On Spy Wednesday in the Cathedral the Office of Tenebrae was sung at seven p.m., Rev. Fr. Roland, C.C. Lettermore, preaching on the “The Crowning with Thorns.” His lordship Most Rev Dr. O’Doherty celebrated 8 o’clock Mass on Holy Thursday, and the usual procession of the Blessed Sacrament took place. The sermon, “The Last Supper,” was preached by Father Sexton. […]  In the Dominican Church, Claddagh, the Office of Tenebrae was sung on Wednesday and Thursday. The ceremony will be repeated on this (Friday) evening at seven o’clock. On Holy Thursday, Father Powell, O.P., preached on the Eucharist. Solemn High Mass was offered on Holy Thursday morning, and the procession took place to the altar of repose.

VI.C.1.028(j)

VI.B.16.061

(h)        b walks back

Note: See VI.B.1.076(j)

VI.B.16.062

(f)        rroyal Post

La poste et les moyens de communication 200: Deux anciennes enseignes de bureau de poste: l’une, du temps de Napoléon Ier, porte les armoiries impériales et l’inscription: Empire Français—Bureau de Poste; l’autre, datant de 1820, porte les armes des Bourbons et l’inscription: Poste royale; [Two old post-office signs: one, from the time of Napoleon I, carries the imperial armorial bearings and the inscription: French Empire—Post Office; the other, from 1820, carries the armorial bearings of the Bourbons and the inscription: Royal Post;]

MS 47482b-24v, ScrLPA: Well we know you were both to leave ^+, winding your horn ^+right royal post,+^+^ | JJA 57:050 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 428.15

(h)        magnified dispatches / 1870 Paris Dagron / 110,000 = 1 gr

La poste et les moyens de communication 211: Quelques-uns [= pigeons], de vieux routiers, rentrèrent à Paris quatre, cinq et six fois porteurs de ces merveilleuses dépêches dues à M. Dagron, elles étaient photographiées sur des pellicules si légères, que le total des 115.000 dépêches reçues pendant l’investissement de la capitale ne pesait pas, réunies à elles toutes, le poids de 1 gramme! [Some of the most experienced [= pigeons] returned to Paris four, five, or six times, carrying those marvellous dispatches devised by Mr Dagron. These were photographed on film that was so light that the total of 115,000 dispatches received during the siege of the capital did not weigh, when all assembled, more than one gram!]

Note: On the same page an illustration shows the projector used to magnify the dispatches: the legend underneath says “Agrandissement des dépêches microscopiques éxpédiées par pigeon.”

VI.C.1.029(l)

VI.B.16.063

(e)        Faugaballa

La poste et les moyens de communication 239: Qui passe-là? Un palanquin fermé, avec un voyageur'. Les porteurs, l'épaule voûtée, trottent à la cadence monotone d'une chanson impertinente que le sirdar ou conducteur improvise sur le refrain de Putterum (gai, donc!) aux dépens de la pratique:

Place! Place!
   Putterum.
C'est un rajah qui passe ;
   Putterum.
Un tout petit rajah !
   Putterum.
Un rajah de six sous,

   Putterum...

Qu'est-ce encore? Il s'agit de quelque chose de plus imposant : un chariot à quatre chevaux, quatre arabes pimpants, aux harnais dorés, - un gros et solennel cocher tiré à quatre épingles, - deux hurkarus ou coureurs, supportant de chaque côté la caisse dans une pose étudiée, à peu près comme Siva et Wishnou supportant le trône de Brahma, - quatre grooms courant à la tête des chevaux avec leur chasse-mouches ait de la queue d'une vache du Thibet, - et enfin, sur le siège de devant, un panier de Champagne, et sur celui de derrière, un banian, le rusé et opulent banquier, le Baboo, Kalidas, Ramaya-Mullick.

          ―Eh ! drôle, avec ton parasol; toi, coquin, avec ton eau, place! place! le seigneur Baboo passe il n’a pas le temps de s'arrêter..., il est riche, il est honoré. Est-ce qu’un porc comme toi l’empêchera de passer; vite, sauve-toi. [Who goes there? A covered palanquin, with a traveller. The porters, shoulder hunched, trot to the monotonous rhythm of an impertinent song that the sirdar or driver improvises on the refrain of Putterum (gay, then!) at the expense of practice:
                   Room!Room!
                      Putterum.
                   Here goes a rajah;
                      Putterum.
                   A little rajah!
                      Putterum.
                   A Rajah of six pence,
                      Putterum ...
And what else? There is something more impressive: a chariot with four horses, four smart Arabs, with golden harness, - a big and solemn coachman all dressed up - two hurkarus or two runners supporting the case on each side, in a studied pose, much like Siva and Vishnu supporting the throne of Brahma, - four grooms currently at the horses’ heads with their fly-swatters like the tail of a Tibet cow - and finally, on the front seat, a basket of Champagne, and on the back, a banyan, the cunning and wealthy banker, Baboo, Kalidas, Ramaya-Mullick.

          ―Hey! Funny man, with your parasol; you, rogue, with your water, room! room! Sir Baboo passes he has no time to stop ... he is rich, he is honoured. Can a pig like you prevent him from passing; fast, save yourself.]

Note: Ir. Fàg a’ bealach. Clear the way. The phrase is anglicized in different ways. It is also the name of an Irish melody, collected by Moore, which appears in his collection as ‘To Ladies’ Eyes (air: FGague a Ballagh). See also FW 005.03, for example.

VI.C.1.030(d)

VI.B.16.064

(b)        Ch. carrier pigeons / whistle in tail / to scare other birds

La poste et les moyens de communication 255 (bis): Le pigeon, ce joli petit animal si propre, si coquet, si séduisant, est représenté par sept types de pigeons-voyageurs. Les Chinois ont apporté un soin particulier à l’élevage de ces beaux oiseaux et les précautions qu’ils prennent pour les protéger contre leurs ennemis sont très curieuses à connaître. Ils portent, sur les plumes de la queue, un ou plusieurs petits morceaux de bambou juxtaposés de façons différentes et terminés par un minuscule sifflet qui, pendant le vol de l’oiseau, fait entendre un son plus ou moins aigu. Ce sifflement suffit, paraît-il, à éloigner des pigeons les oiseaux de proie fort nombreux en Chine; [The pigeon, this pretty animal, so clean, so trim, so alluring, is represented by seven types of carrier pigeons. The Chinese took special care in the breeding of these beautiful birds and the precautions they took in protecting them from their enemies are quite curious. On their tail-feathers they carry one or more small pieces of bamboo aligned in different ways and ending with a tiny whistle that, during the bird’s flight, produces a more-or-less sharp sound. It seems that this whistle is enough to scare off the birds of prey so numerous in China;]

VI.C.1.030(h)

(d)        camel 22 miles [hour] / like wind

La poste et les moyens de communication 261: Quoique le chameau nous apparaisse, à nous, Européens, un moyen de locomotion assez peu commode, il n’en a pas moins le mérite d’être rapide. La course aux méharis de Touggourt à Biskra (Algérie), le 26 janvier 1890, donna les résultats suivants: 196 kilomètres en neuf heures et douze minutes. L’animal si injustement méprisé par nous franchissait donc 5m,93 à la seconde. Il allait aussi vite que le vent qui, d’après l’Observatoire de la Tour Eiffel, est ordinairement de 5 à 6 mètres à son sommet. [Although the camel seems to us Europeans to be a rather inconvenient means of transportation, it has the merit of being fast. The dromedary race at Touggourt in Biskra (Algeria), on January 26, 1890, had the following results: 196 kilometres in nine hours and twelve minutes. The animal so unjustly maligned by us therefore reached 5.93 metres a second. It went as fast as the wind which, according to the Eiffel Tower Observatory, is usually 5–6 metres a second at the top.]

VI.C.1.030(i)

VI.B.16.065

(a)        El Telegrama Mexico / 11 cent[imetres]

La poste et les moyens de communication 267: Ajoutons ici, que le plus grand journal de tout l’univers, mesure 8 pieds et demi de longueur et autant de largeur, il se nomme lIlluminated quadruple Constellation; le second comme taille, se publie à Boston (États-Unis), c’est The Evening Gazette (Gazette du soir).

           A côté de ce journal monstre et de ce géant, il faut placer le plus petit journal du globe, il est imprimé à Mexico, sous le titre El Telegrama, il ne mesure que 11 centimètres de hauteur. [Let us add that the largest paper in the universe measures eight and a half feet in length and height and is called the Illuminated Quadruple Constellation; the second for size is published in Boston (United States): The Evening Gazette.

          Next to this monstrous newspaper and to this giant we must place the smallest newspaper on the planet. It is printed in Mexico City and called El Telegrama. It is only 11 centimetres high.]

VI.C.1.031(d)

(b)        Cap Nord Hammerfast / night begin 11 Nov / ends 23 Jan 74d / day begins 16 May / postal uni 16 July 74 day

La poste et les moyens de communication 267: Le journal le plus septentrional de notre planète est le journal des Esquimaux, intitulé Asnagag dlintit; après lui, vient Le Cap Nord, qui paraît à Hammersfest. Les abonnés de ce journal n’ont qu’un seul jour et une seule nuit par année pour le lire. La nuit commence le 11 novembre et finit sans interruption, le 23 janvier, soit soixante-quatorze fois vingt-quatre heures! Il est vrai que les lecteurs du Cap Nord ont le temps de parcourir les faits divers et les annonces de leur journal, car ils ont une interminable journée, aussi longue que la nuit: le soleil se lève le 16 mai et ne se couche que le 26 juillet, soit un jour de soixante-douze fois vingt-quatre heures! [The most northern newspaper on our planet is the newspaper of the Eskimos, called the Asnagag dlintit; after that comes the Cap Nord, which appears in Hammersfest. The subscribers of this newspaper have only one day and only one night each year to read it. Night begins on November 11 and ends, without interruption, on January 23, that is to say it is 74 times 24 hours long! It is true that the readers of the Cap Nord have the time to dwell on the news items and advertisements of their paper because they have an interminable day, which is as long as their night: the sun rises on May 16 and does not set until July 26, making for a day of 72 times 24 hours!]

Note: See reproduction for layout. ’16 July’ is partly written over the preceding word ‘uni’ (an attempt to write ‘union’, abandoned here and rewritten as the next unit).

VI.C.1.031(e)

(c)        bpostal union

La poste et les moyens de communication 270: Ajoutons encore que le Brésil et une partie des petites républiques de l’Amérique du Sud n’ont pas encore fait adhésion à l’Union postale universelle. [And again, let us add that Brazil and a group of the smaller republics of South America have still not joined the International Postal Union.]

MS 47472-242, TsILS: the postman’s ^+postal unionist’s+^ (officially called carrier’s, Letters Scotch, Limited) | JJA 45:237 | Mar-Apr 1927 | I.3§1.5/2.5/3.5 | FW 066.10-11

(e)        Magellan

La poste et les moyens de communication 274: Lorsqu’on passe le détroit de Magellan, situé à l’extrémité sud de l’Amérique et de la Terre de Feu, et qu’on approche du Port-Famine, après avoir doublé la pointe Anna, on aperçoit, sur un immense rocher de 100 pieds de haut, un grand bâton. C’est un poteau qui a une barique au col. Cette barique, c’est la Boîte aux lettres de la Mer! C’est la Poste de l’Océan! Il a fallu que les Anglais écrivissent dessus: Post-Office. Cette boîte est commune; elle appartient à tous les pavillons du monde. Voici maintenant comment se fait le service de la boîte aux lettres de la mer. Tout bâtiment qui passe dans ces parages désolés expédie au poteau un canot avec ses dépêches. Le navire qui vient de l’Atlantique envoie ses lettres pour lEurope, et le navire qui vient du Pacifique envoie ses lettres pour l’Amérique. Comme on navigue en sens contraire, le continent d’où le navire vient est celui où l’autre va. C’est un simple échange de lettres. Le baril est fixé au poteau par une forte chaîne; il a un bon couvercle à charnières de bronze, mais pas de serrure, ni de cadenas: il est placé sous l’œil de Dieu, et il enseigne aux hommes: la Fraternité! Les lettres parviennent toujours!... [When one passes the Straits of Magellan, at the southern end of America and of Tierra del Fuego, and approaches Port Famine, after having rounded Point Anna, one sees a long stick on an immense rock a hundred feet high. This is a pole with a large cask around its neck. This large cask is the Sea’s Letter-Box! It is the Ocean’s Post! The English had to write: Post Office on it. This is a common box; it belongs to all. This is how the mailbox of the sea works. All the vessels that pass by these remote regions let down a small boat with the mail. The boat that comes from the Atlantic sends its letters to Europe, and the ship that comes from the Pacific sends its letters to America. Since both come from different continents, one is heading to where the other is coming from. It is thus a simple exchange of letters. The barrel is fixed to the pole with a strong chain; it has a cover in brass, but it is not locked: it is placed under the eye of God, and it teaches men: Brotherhood! The letters always reach their destination!...]

VI.C.1.031(f)

 VI.B.16.066

 (b)       PO [fare] by distance

La poste et les moyens de communication 280: Nous avons remarqué, dans la section des timbres-poste, une autre application curieuse de l’idée de François de Vélayer, par le gouvernement du roi de Sardaigne, en 1818; c’est une feuille de papier postale timbrée (carta postale bollata), avec des conditions auxquelles son usage était soumis. Ce papier mesurait 26 centimètres sur 40. Il était de trois valeurs calculées par zones postales: 15 centesimi pour la première zone de 15 milles; 25 centesimi pour la deuxième zone de 15 à 35 milles, et 50 centesimi au delà, pour tout le royaume. [We have seen in the section on postage stamps another curious implementation of François de Vélayer’s idea by the government of the King of Sardinia in 1818: a sheet of stamped postal paper (carta postale bollata), with conditions for its use. This paper measured 26 centimetres by 40. It had three values that were calculated by postal zone: 15 centesimi for the first zone of 15 miles, 25 centesimi for the second zone of 15 to 35 miles, and 50 centesimi for further distances, for all the kingdom.]

VI.C.1.032(c)

(c)        changing effigy of stamp

La poste et les moyens de communication 282-4: La nouvelle loi sur le port des lettres reçues des départements à Paris, portant la petite vignette carrée, signe de l’affranchissement. Cette vignette est à l’effigie de la République, se détachant en blanc sur fond noir. [...]

          Le second type de la République de 1848 conserva bien la même indication de la forme du Gouvernement, mais la Liberté fut remplacée dans le cadre du timbre par l’effigie du Prince-Président Louis-Napoléon, élu président le 10 décembre 1851. [...]

          En 1866, l’effigie des timbres fut laurée; puis vint la période des essais. [The new law for the carriage of letters arriving in Paris from the départements carried the small square vignette, the sign of stamping. This vignette has the effigy of the Republic picked out in white on a black background. [...]

          The Second Republic of 1848 did retain the same indication of the form of government but in the stamp the figure of Liberty was replaced with an effigy of Prince-President Louis Napoleon, who was elected President on December 10, 1851. [...]

          In 1866, the effigy on the stamps was adorned with laurels, then came the trial period.]

VI.C.1.032(d)

(e)        rIris Mercuryr Hermes

La poste et les moyens de communication 285: On se demande comment il se fait que les nombreux mythologistes du Comité du concours de 1875, n’ont point songé à Iris, la prompte messagère des dieux, dont parle le poète latin, [...]

         Tel était le sujet mythologique tout trouvé qui permettait une fois pour toutes de laisser de côté le dieu-messager Mercure à la Banque, où il est vraiment à sa place. [We wonder why none of the many mythologists at the Contest Committee in 1875 thought of Iris, the swift messenger of the gods who is spoken of by the Latin poet, [...]. This obvious mythological choice would have allowed us once and for all to relegate the god-messenger Mercury to the Bank, where he belongs by rights.]

Not located in MS/FW.

VI.C.1.032(e)

Not transferred.

(h)        1d

La poste et les moyens de communication 281: Ce fut le 10 janvier 1840, que le penny-postage (taxe à 10 centimes) était appliqué et que le Post-Office adoptait concurremment le timbre adhésif et lenveloppe, proposés par limprimeur Whiting et Mulready. [It was on 10 January 1840, that the penny-postage (worth 10 centimes) was put into practice and that the Post-Office adopted both the adhesive stamp and the envelope, designed by the printers Whiting and Mulready.]

Not transferred.

(i)         ropen letter

La poste et les moyens de communication 290: Quatre années plus tard [après la Conférence postale internationale de 1865], un journal de Vienne reprit cette proposition [d’une carte postale] en insistant sur l’avantage que présenterait une lettre ouverte, soumise à un poids déterminé, qui pourrait voyager à meilleur marché qu’une lettre ordinaire et en signalant l’économie qui en résulterait à la fois pour l’Etat et pour le public. [Four years later [after the International Postal Conference of 1865], a newspaper in Vienna picked up this proposal [for the postcard] while insisting on the advantages of an open letter, subject to a pre-determined weight, which could travel more cheaply than an ordinary letter and thus be more economical for both the State and the public.]

MS 47482b-21, ScrILA: you who will maybe bear those ^+open+^ letter? | JJA 57:043 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 410.22

MS 47482b-41, MT: the strangewritten Shem language of those open letter ^+letters patent+^ to His Em | JJA 57:083 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 000.00

VI.B.16.067

(a)        x alone excepted

La poste et les moyens de communication 292-4: les cartes destinées à circuler dans les pays de l’Union postale portent la mention écrite en français:

           CARTE POSTALE.—UNION POSTALE UNIVERSALE [...]

Cette mention se trouve inscrite en français sur toutes les cartes postales de tous les Etats de l’Union, y compris l’Allemagne, comme le montre la figure 101; seule, l’Administration des Postes de la République française, qui ne possède qu’un seul type de carte postale, à 10 centimes, pouvant circuler dans toute l’Union postale universelle, ne porte pas cette mention. [cards destined to circulate in Postal Union countries bear the endorsement, written in French:

          POSTCARD.—UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION [...]

This notice may be found written in French on every postcard in all Union States, including Germany, as figure 101 shows. The Postal Adminstration of the French Republic, which has only a single type of postcard, at 10 centimes, which can circulate through the whole Universal Postal Union, is unique in not carrying this inscription.]

VI.C.1.032(f)

(h)        r(ab)sender

?La poste et les moyens de communication 293, fig 101: [This reproduces a number of postcards from the Postal Union, including one from Germany (although the word ‘Absender’ is not inscribed on it).]

Note: G. Absender. The sender (of a letter).

MS 47482b-030v, ScrLPA: ^+^+, Shaun added[,]+^ Just a plain chair ^+shays by the fire+^ for absenter [Shaun].+^ | JJA 57:062 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 000.00

(j)         rlost of time

MS 47482b-31, ScrOS: as you all know in the land of lots ^+lost+^ of time | JJA 57:063 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 453.33

(l)         rtransit

La poste et les moyens de communication 298: Jetons maintenant un coup d’œil sur les services internationaux et de transit de l’Union postale, où nous ferons figurer cette fois le service général des colis postaux, dont nous n’avons pas encore parlé. [Let us now have a look at the international services and the transit of the Postal Union; we can now have a look this time at the general service of postal packages, which we haven’t discussed yet.]

Note: See reproduction. This has been written sideways in the right margin.

MS 47482b-16, ScrBMA: ^+[...] covered with slush occasioned by traffic in transit+^ | JJA 57:033 | May 1924 | III§1A.*1/1D.*1//2A.*1/2C.*1 | FW 448.09

VI.B.16.068

(d)        samples—value

La poste et les moyens de communication 298: Il a été matriculé et transporté en 1890, dans les services intérieurs de l’Union postale, 12.310.437.176 lettres ordinaires, cartes postales, imprimés, papiers d’affaires et échantillons de marchandises; 124.370.162 envois recommandés; 37.968.029 lettres avec déclaration de valeur s’élevant à la somme de 40.008.894.574 francs. [Registered and transported in 1890, through the internal services of the Postal Union were: 12,310,437,176 ordinary letters, postcards, printed matter, business papers and samples of goods; 124,370,162 pieces of registered mail; 37,968,029 letters with a declaration of value that cumulatively reached the sum of 40,008,894,547 Francs.]

VI.C.1.032(l)

(f)        rb’s cask

La poste et les moyens de communication 303-4: Jules César dit3 que les Gaulois, d’une province à l’autre, s’avertissaient de tous les mouvements de son armée, au moyen de feux allumés sur le sommet des montagnes.

          On trouve encore en France les ruines de tours d’observation bâties par les Romains, à Arles; Uzès, à Bellegarde, ainsi que la tour Magne à Nîmes; ce sont autant de vestiges de la télégraphie aérienne des Romains. Ces tours étaient commandées par des officiers spéciaux, que l’on voit représentés, le casque en tête et [303] l’épée en main, dans l’un des compartiments les plus élevés de la colonne Trajane, érigée à Rome en l’honneur de l’empereur Trajan en 112. [Julius Caesar said3 the Gauls, from one province to the other, warned each other of the movements of his army, by means of signal fires at the tops of the mountains.

          One still finds in France the ruins of observation towers built by the Romans, in Arles, Uzès, in Bellegarde, just as the Magne tower in Nîmes; these are all witnesses of the old Roman telegraph system. These towers were under the command of special officers, which are represented, with their helmets on their head and their sword in hand, in one of the compartments of Trajan’s column, erected in Rome in honour of the emperor Trajan in 112.]

MS 47482b-31, ScrTMA: We feel all serene, never you fret ^+as regards our cask+^ | JJA 57:063 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 452.24

(g)        hilltop semaphores

La poste et les moyens de communication 318: Les sémaphores sont des établissements distribués le long des côtes, au sommet des caps, des promontoires des dunes les plus avancées dans la mer, et dans les îles qui avoisinent notre littoral. [Semaphores are installations distributed along the coasts, atop hills, in the headlands of dunes jutting furthest out into the sea, and on islands bordering our sea-board.]

VI.C.1.032(n)

VI.B.16.069

(d)        b? whistled language / flag —

La poste et les moyens de communication 304: Tamerlan, le célèbre conquérant tartare (1336-1405), se servait de drapeaux pour dicter ses conditions aux villes assiégées. [...] le langage sifflé [Tamerlane, the famous Tartar conqueror (1336–1405) used flags to communicate his terms to besieged cities. [...] whistled language]

Note: See reproduction. Shaun’s sign and the interrogation mark may be later additions.

                     VI.C.1.033(g)-(h)

(e)        rpoachers

La poste et les moyens de communication 305-6: Dans nos sociétés civilisées et pourvues de tous les moyens de communications rapides, le langage sifflé est [305] encore employé par les bergers pour s’appeler, par les braconniers et les contrebandiers qui veulent s’envoyer des indications comprises d’eux seuls. [In our civilised societies equipped with all means of speedy communication, whistled language is [305] still used by shepherds to call one another and by poachers and smugglers who want to send instructions that only they can understand.]

47482b-029v, ScrLPA: and what I’d ^+make ^+I’d be possessed of+^ by poaching I’d put ^+it at 1st cost+^ into the poteen […]+^ | JJA 57:060 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 450.02

(f)        right of inventing 1791

La poste et les moyens de communication 307: Sans vouloir remonter bien loin, au siècle dernier, les inventeurs, en France, étaient moins bien accueillis qu’aujourd’hui, et leur histoire est un long martyrologe. Ce ne fut qu’à partir de 1791 (lois des 7 janvier et 25 mai), que le droit d’inventer a été institué et mis à l’abri des lois. [Without going back too far, in the last century French inventors were not so well recognized as today and their history is one long martyrology. Only since 1791 (with the laws of January 7 and May 25) has the right to invent been instituted and protected by law.]

VI.C.1.033(i)

VI.B.16.070

(b)        Laden jar / Leyden / gzigzagg / battery / flash

La poste et les moyens de communication 322: Quand on réunit plusieurs grandes bouteilles de Leyde, on forme ce qu’on appelle une batterie électrique; une semblable batterie peut produire en petit tous les effets de la foudre: étincelles très fortes et en zigzag; [By connecting several large Leyden jars one creates what is called an electric battery. A similar battery can produce in miniature all the effects of lightning: intense sparks in a zigzag;]

?MS 47482a-81v, ScrLPA: The movables ^+movibles+^ are ^+scrawling+^ in motion march ^+marching+^, all of them again ^+ago+^ in pitpat & zingzang to ^+for+^ every little ^+busy+^ earywig ^+eerie whig+^ tells ^+’s+^ a little bit of a torytale ^+to tell+^. | JJA 44:088 | Nov 1926 | I.1§2A.*1 | FW 020.22

VI.C.1.034(a)

(c)        dot & dash

La poste et les moyens de communication 334-5: La première machine [typographique] fut construite à Speedwell [...] dans l’État de New-Jersey. [...] Vail se dit qu’il fallait [la] compléter en combinant un système de traits plus ou moins allongés, de points et de blancs interposés pour représenter les lettres de l’alphabet et la séparation des mots. Il régla ainsi un code de signes [334] télégraphiques, qu’on appelle improprement l’Alphabet de Morse [...] et qui est devenu par la suite le langage télégraphique du monde entier. [The first [typographical] machine was built at Speedwell [...] in the State of New Jersey. [...] Vail thought it was necessary to complete it by devising a system with dashes of various lengths, dots, and interposed blanks representing letters of the alphabet and the separation of words. In this way he created a code for telegraphic [334] signs, which we improperly call the Morse Code [...] and which has since become the telegraphic language for the whole world.]

VI.C.1.034(b)

VI.B.16.071

(d)        rb thief of time

La poste et les moyens de communication 336 : Il se trouva justement quun train parti de Baltimore et se dirigeant sur la capitale apportait une très grosse nouvelle politique : M. Henry Clay venait dêtre choisi, par la convention du parti whig (libéraux), comme candidat à la présidence. Vail neut garde de manquer une telle occasion. Il expédia sans délai lannonce de lévénement à son associé de Washington, qui, à son tour, ne perdit point de temps pour la communiquer à la presse. Quand le train arriva, une heure et demie après, les voyageurs furent stupéfaits dentendre les vendeurs de journaux crier par les rues la nouvelle dont ils croyaient apporter la primeur. Devant cette preuve triomphante, les dernières incrédulités furent obligées de savouer vaincues, et le télégraphe électrique eut, en Amérique, enfin, sa cause gagnée. Ce qui prouve une fois de plus, que les grands événements découlent presque toujours des petites causes. [It so happened that a train leaving Baltimore in the direction of the capital was carrying very important political news: M. Henry Clay had been chosen, by the convention of the whig party (liberals), as candidate for the presidency. Vail could not let this go by. Without delay he sent the message to his associate in Washington, who, in his turn, did not lose time in communicating this to the press. When the train arrived, an hour and a half later, the travellers were astonished to hear the newspapers vendors crying out the news that they thought they were bringing. This triumphant proof obliged the last unbelievers to admit defeat, and the telegraph won it case at last, in America. This shows once more that great events have almost always very small causes.]

MS 47482b-48, ScrLMS: Raw spirits is the root of all evil ^+thief of time.+^ | JJA 57:097 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 436.21-2

(f)        par[a]tonerre

La poste et les moyens de communication 344: Des Pyroménytes (avertisseurs d’incendie) provoquant un appel aussitôt que la température des endroits ils sont placés, s’élève d’une manière anormale;

          Des paratonnerres avec leurs pointes en platine et divers objets mobiliers ou appareils télégraphiques ayant été atteints par la foudre dans le service. [Pyroments (fire alarms) producing a signal as soon as the temperature of their location rises in an abnormal manner;         

          Lightning rods, with their platinum points and various movable parts, or telegraphic devices have been struck by lightning while in service.]

(h)        Rohrpost / wrapper / band

La poste et les moyens de communication 346: Pour les lettres ordinaires expédiées, il existe des bandes timbrées; en outre, des cartes spéciales en carton rose sont vendues sans augmentation dans tous les bureaux de postes et télégraphes, etc., de Berlin. Les lettres et cartes postales affranchies doivent porter simplement la mention Rohrpost sur le côté gauche de l’adresse [For ordinary dispatched letters, there are stamped bands; moreover special cards in pink cardboard are sold without surcharge at all post offices, telegraph offices and so on in Berlin. Stamped letters and postcards only need to bear the word Rohrpost to the left of the address]

VI.B.16.072

(a)        rGreat Eastern

La poste et les moyens de communication 357: [Les Cables Sous-Marins] La seconde expérience fut faite à Folkestone, en fèvrier 1849, sous la direction de M. Walker Breit, surintendant du Télégraphe électrique du chemin de fer et de Douvres à Londres (South-Eastern-Railway Co) [[Submarine Cables] The second experiment took place at Folkestone, in February 1849, under the supervision of M. Walker Breit, Superintendent of the Dover and Railway Electric Telegraph in London. (South-Eastern-Railway Co.)]

(b)        ’phone submar[ine]

La poste et les moyens de communication 349-50: En 1893, le réseau total des lignes télégraphiques en France et Algérie, comprend: 106.955 kilomètres de [349] lignes aériennes; 287.113 kilomètres de lignes souterraines ordinaires et à grandes distances; 7604 kilomètres de câbles sous-marins; dans ce chiffre est compris le nouveau câble (1600 kilomètres), qui relie la Nouvelle-Calédonie à la côte Queensland (Australie); plus: 3293 kilomètres de lignes dintérêt privé, et 12.588 kilomètres de lignes sur les réseaux de chemins de fer. Ce qui donne, pour 1893, un développement total de 417.553 kilomètres. [In 1893 the total network of telegraph lines in France and Algeria was: 106.955 kilometers of air lines; 287.113 kilometers of underground lines, ordinary and long-distance; 7604 kilometers of submarine lines; included in this number is the new cable (1600 kilometers) that links the New Caledonia to the coast of Queensland (Australia); plus 3293 kilometers of private lines, and 12.588 kilometers of railway lines. This makes, for 1893, a total of 417.553 kilometers.]

Note: See reproduction, ‘phone’ appears to be a later addition.

(f)        rbring the blush of / shame to his — >

MS 47482b-28v, ScrLPS: ^+I’ll give you ^+one+^ puck ^+in the ^+& bring the blush of shame to your+^ cruppers [...]+^ | JJA 57:058 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 445.16

VI.B.16.074

(b)        b entangled in wires

La poste et les moyens de communication 362: Le nombre total des fils employés dans ce premier câble transatlantique est de 161 fils, formant les uns au bout des autres un fil de 610 millions 252 mille 600 mètres de longueur! Le câble transatlantique de 1865 présente certaines modifications (fig. 126 et 127).

          Une ligne fait le tour du globe avec une longueur de 6673 milles géographiques, soit 12.358 kilomètres.

          Elle se divise en trois sections: 1o de San-Francisco à Honolulu, capitale d’Hawaï, la plus grande des îles Sandwich, dans l’Océan Austral; 2o de Honololu à Midway-Island, 1200 milles; 3o de Midway-Island à Yokohama, port du Japon dans l’île de Niphon, 2380 milles.

[The total number of lines employed in this first transatlantic cable is 161, which placed one after the other, make a line of 610 million 252 thousand meters 600 meters long! The transatlantic cable of 1865 has been modified in certain ways (chart 126 and 127).

          One line goes all around the world with a length of 6673 geographic miles, or 12.358 kilometers.

          It is divided in three sections: 1. from San Francisco to Honolulu, capital of Hawai, the largest of the Sandwich Islands in the Pacific, 2. from Honolulu to Midway, 1200 miles; 3. from Midway to Yokohama, the Japanese harbour on the island of Niphon, 2380 miles.]

(e)        inventors

?La poste et les moyens de communication 367: Linvention du téléphone est toute moderne, elle est à peine entrée dans sa trente-deuxième année, elle a déjà son histoire, assez triste dailleurs, qui ressemble à presque toutes celles des inventions.

          Cette merveilleuse invention est due à un citoyen français, M. Bourseul, un modeste télégraphiste. [The invention of the telephone is modern, it is hardly in its thirty-second year, it has already a history, sad sometimes, which resembles those of all inventions.

          This marvellous invention is due to a French citizen, M. Bourseul, a modest telegraph operator.]

VI.B.16.075

(g)        rmakes absent present

MS 47482b-54v, ScrLPA: ^+and I'll make a^+an+^ ^+Easter+^ present of myself to you the moment that you name the day.+^ | JJA 57:110 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 453.22-23

VI.B.16.076

(f)        ratrament

Histoire de la poste 18-9: Nous voudrions savoir avec plus de précision à quelle époque de lhistoire des Perses appartient un fait bien curieux, attesté par le savant polygraphe Juste Lipse. [18] Que lon employât au transport des messages le cheval, le chameau, le mulet, lâne dOrient, renommé pour sa vitesse, lhomme lui-même, dressé à la course, rien de plus ordinaire; mais voilà quon transportait des hirondelles loin, bien loin du nid où elles étaient nées, du nid où elles avaient couvé; là, on peignait sur leurs plumes certains signes, au moyen docre, datrament, ou dautres teintures, puis on les rendait à la liberté. [We would like to know with more precision at what time of Persian history something happened that is attested by the polymath Justus Lipsius. [18] That we use horses, camels, mules, oriental donkeys renowned for their speed to carry messages, even man himself, that is normal; but how is that they transported swallows from the nest where they were born; there messages were painted on their wings with ochre or ink, or other paints, and then one let them go.]

MS 47482b-29v, ScrLPA: I’d be anxious about the terrible cold in the air ^+amstophere+^ that ^+wd perish the Danes ^+to be atramental to my half health.+^+^ | JJA 57:060 | May 1924 | III§1A.*2/1D.*2//2A.*2/2C.*2 | FW 452.03

VI.B.16.077

(c)        rAh, what are b

MS 47482b-056, ScrLMA: ^+Ah,+^ What ^+on earth+^ is our miserable here today compared beside the pleasures of the morrow ^+afterpiece+^ when life begins properly speaking. | JJA 57:113 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 455.23-28

(g)        catabulenses postilion

Histoire de la poste 41: Le service du Cursus publicus, outre les courriers, comprenait tout un personnel: les postillons (catabulenses), qui accompagnaient les courriers; les stratores (de sternere, étendre), chargés sans doute de la litière, des couvertures, du harnachement; les cochers ou muletiers (muliones); les palefreniers (hippocomi); les vétérinaires (mulomedici); les charrons (opifices, carpentarii). [The service of the Cursus publicus, other than couriers, included a whole staff: the postilions (catabulenses) who accompanied the couriers; stratores (from sternere, to stretch out) who dealt no doubt with the stable litter, coverings, and harnesses; coachmen or muleteers (muliones); grooms (hippocomi); veterinary surgeons (mulomedici); and wheelwrights (opifices, carpentarii).]

VI.B.16.079

(c)        new world

Histoire de la poste 81-2: le monde ro- [81] main est conquis, saccagé, démembré. Mais de ses débris renaîtront bien des souvenirs bien des traditions plus fécondes que jamais. [...] Les temps anciens sont finis: un monde nouveau commence. [the Roman world is conquered, ransacked, and dismembered. But from its remains will be reborn many memories and many traditions more fertile than ever. [...] The ancient times are over, a new world begins.]

(g)        decamp

Freeman’s Journal 23 April 1924-5/6: ARMED ROBBERS FOILED. Promptly raising an alarm, two vanmen employed by Messrs. O’Brien’s Model Bakery, Ltd., Waterford, yesterday foiled an attempt by three armed men to rob them of their day’s collections.

          The robbers, who carried revolvers, ordered the bakery employees to hand over the money in their possession, but the vanmen refused and called for help. A clerk in an adjoining office, hearing the disturbance, rushed out into the street, whereupon one of the armed men struck on the head the van driver, James Murphy. All three of the robbers then decamped.

          Murphy subsequently was treated at Waterford Infirmary.

VI.B.16.080

(f)        rb potent (patent)

MS 47482b-41, ScrILS & ScrLMS: the strangewritten Shem language of those open letter ^+letters patent+^ to His Em? / – Read! Shaun replied. I could ^+am ^+most+^ potent to+^ play it backwards | JJA 57:083 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 |

MS 47483-38, TsILS: those letters ^+Shemletters+^ potent ^+patent+^ to His Em. [...] I am most potent ^+letterpotent+^ to play | JJA 57:172 | Mar 1926 | III§1A.*5/1D.*5//2A.*5/2C.*5 | FW 419.23

VI.B.16.081

(d)        rb foot asleep

MS 47482b-45, ScrLPA: perspiring but happy ^+notwithstanding his foot was asleep on him [...]+^ | JJA 57:091 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 429.15

(e)        rdesirable residence

Connaught Tribune 26 Apr 1924-1/2: PRELIMINARY NOTICE […]  The undersigned have received instructions from Mrs Cloran to Sell her Interest in the desirable Residence known as FORT LORENZO, situate a mile and half from the City of Galway, and about a quarter mile from Salthill, and commands a magnificent view of Galway Bay and the Clare mountains. [J. M. Lavelle, M.I.A.A., Auctioneer, Galway; or PATRICK M. HOSTY, Solicitor, TUAM]

MS 47482b-56, ScrLMA: doorsteps ^+of his desirable residence+^ | JJA 57:113 | May 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 457.01

VI.B.16.084

(d)        stand to gain

Connacht Tribune 26 Apr 1924-5/4: EASTER, 1916. Remarkable Letter From Rev James Kelly, P.P. […] I am thankful for kind invitation to the Liam Mellows commemoration from your hon. Committee, but, of course, parochial duties prevent my joining you except in spirit. It were well, indeed, even at this hour that the people of Galway—especially his one-time unworthy constituents—should learn to know a share about the meek humality of Liam Mellows’ character in life and death, as so eloquently revealed to our far off exiles by his devoted admirer, Father Dominc; and thus purge their minds of the very malignant calumnies broadcasted by our renegade pro-British press—self-styled “Nationalist” and “Catholic,” morayah!—while in effect it is more suggestively vile than any vile imported stuff, because of their deception credentials, so pragmatically plumed, after the fashion of the Gentiles in the call to the true faith: and it seems it is only through their economic horse sense their mentality can be reached. All this is not without strong analogy to that higher spiritual ordinance enjoined by our Divine Redeemer to a kindred class on the sacred mount, as the very fundamental principle and vital substance of all Christian morality: Seek y first the Kingdom of God and his justice, and these other things shall be added unto you.’ But this was no gombeen bargain that Christ was promising the double-dealing Jews—it was simply telling them they would lose nothing but stood to gain everything by following the straight path of this very fundamental principle—in other words, that honesty was the best policy. Even to that treble dealing schemer and political outcast, Lloyd George, this principle has made lip service appeal of late. For he now realises on the shaughrawn the lasting truth ‘that no man can serve two masters’ with opposing interests with any profit either to himself or his masters.

(e)        not a thing

Connaught Tribune 26 Apr 1924-5/2: BUSH MEDICAL SERVICE. Doctors’ Indignant Protest Against Suggested Scheme. NOT CONSULTED. Representative Co. Meeting and Board of Health. Position of the Poor.  […] THE DISCUSSION […] The chairman: I see they are doing away with my district altogether.—Dr. Mills. What are they going to do with you?—Chairman: I suppose pension me off? (laughter). They have Dunmore and part of my district joined up, and the only part that is near Dunmore is the only part that they are not taking away.—Surgeon O’Malley: They do not know a thing about it.—Chairman: The Dunmore doctor would be attending near Tuam also.

(f)        only profiteers — / in sodawater biz

Connaught Tribune 26 Apr 1924-6/3: BUTCHER SUED. Mr. Kennedy, Loughrea, sought an instalment order against Mr. McQuaid, Loughrea, against whom he had a decree for rent. […] Mr. McQuaid swore that he had to leave the house he was in, belonging to Mrs. Kennedy, and go to a smaller house in a backward place. His present contract with the County Home was to supply two sheep per week at 10d. per lb., and he was losing £1 per week on it, but another butcher was going halves with him.—Mr. Shiels: What was your army contract?—I supplied about 25s. or 30s. worth every week.—So you had an assured income of 25s. or 30s. each week?—I had only about 2s. or 3s. profit.—His honor: As far as I can see, the only people who make profit nowadays are those in the soda water business. Dr Comyn: Or the people in the S.P. racing business.

VI.B.16.086

(d)        Les Entretiens / de Nang Tantrai / (Bossard)

Note: Les Entretiens de Nang Tantrai, traduits du Siamois, par Édouard Lorgeou. Bois dessinés et gravés par A.F. Cosyns (Paris: Bossard, 1924). [Conversations with Nang Tantrai, translated from the Siamese by Edouard Lorgeou. Woodcuts by A.F. Cosyns.]

(h)        rfor ([u u])

MS 47482b-43, ScrLMA: Because I am altogether a chap too fly and hairy ^+for+^ to do the like of that. | JJA 57:087 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 425.34-35

(i)         ?xSachem (boss / Tammany)

?MS 47482b-50, ScrLMS: I don’t care a twopenny ^+tamanny ^+tammany+^+^ hang who the mucky is | JJA 57:101 | late 1924 | III§2A.*3 | FW 442.03

VI.B.16.087

(c)        landless men

Irish Independent 26 April 1924-5/5: IRISH LAW REPORTS; HABEAS CORPUS CASES. “LANDLESS MAN” QUESTION. “It is a shocking story; such things would simply ruin the country,” said Mr. Justice Pim in the Bankruptcy Court in the case of Ed. Cosgrae, shopkeeper and farmer, and temporary inspector, C.D.B. Laughrea; and an order was made for a complete account, balance, to be remitted to the assignee within a week. Bankrupt, examined by Mr. Blood, K.C. (Mr. S. G. Rutherford), for the assignee said he held a farm at Ballintubber, near Loughrea, consisting of 500 acres, the rent being £423 and the landlord paying all taxes. In April, 1920, there was an interference with him, and cattle were driven off, and a committee acting for landless men and stock was put on. Witness did not know when the landless men “came in.”

(d)        varicose stocking

Irish Independent 26 April 1924-8/7: [Advertisement] VARICOSE VEINS AND PILES. Until recently, the perpetual bandage, elastic stocking, or operation were the only available means for Varicose Veins. Now, it is known, that the body can cure itself if you give it the ingredient to make elastic fibre—the food of the veins. Elastic Tablets supply this ingredient of the blood which enables the process of circulation to be again carried out correctly.

(e)        rWd likely give

                       MS 47482b-53v, ScrLPA: ^+for I never could tell a lie ^+the least falsehood+^ that would likely give     satisfaction+^ | JJA 57:108 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 452.05-06

(g)        tainted source

Irish Independent 26 April 1924-8/7: [Letter to the Editor] Sir—You have recently reported the latest of Miss Mary McSwiney’s many lectures to the Irish Bishops, in which she states that they are dragging sacred things to the dust through materialistic motives.

As this is the age for summer courses for the “backward” in all branches of learning, I hereby propose that Miss McSwiney should give a summer course of lectures to the Bishops on Theology—the Queen of Sciences. Let no one cast ridicule on this proposal, hinting that she is not qualified, and that she would not consent to it; and as to her qualifications, is she not by profession a teacher of infant school children?

          The picture of our venerable Cardinal and the other venerable Bishops, sitting at her feet, and drinking in wisdom from her lips, would cheer her soul, and would be some little reward for all the trouble that she has already taken in trying to keep them straight.

          But you will ask, would the Bishops attend, and who would pay for the course of lectures. As to the attendance of the Bishops, I answer with the Yankees, it is a “sure thing” they would attend. They are humble people whose favourite virtue is humility. The payment for the lectures, I think, could be arranged. The National Government would likely give a grant for such an important work, but I fear Miss McSwiney would not take money from such a tainted source. […] SACERDOS

VI.B.16.088

(d)       higher less danger

Irish Statesman 26 April 1924-217/1: Flying in Ireland / Illusions That Hinder Progress [...] There is the idea that flying is an experience of dashing, thrilling speed. The fact is that in flight at an ordinary flying height of, say, 5,000 feet, the sense of great speed is practically nil. [...] Movement through the air at, say, 60 m.p.h. seems very much slower than the same speed over ground. [...] It is an immense surprise on a first flight to find that there is practically no sense of danger. [...] The writer believes it to be due to the failure of the imagination to suggest danger once a certain height has been reached.

VI.B.16.089

(b)        Bologna — dottore / Bergamo Brighella / Venice Pant Captain / Milano Beltramo Scapino / Naples Pulcin / Scaram / Tartaglia / Rome Marco-Pepe / Cassandrino / Turin Gianduja

Note: The Italian Comedy 18-19: Bologna [...] contributed the Doctor [...]. The two Bergamos [...] produced [...] Harlequin, and the knave Brighella. [...] Venice [...] evolved Pantaloon and the Captain. [...] Milan produced Beltrame and Scapin [...]. Naples brought forth first Pulcinella and then Scaramouche and Tartaglia [...]. [T]o Rome are due [...] Marco-Pepe, and later Cassandrino [...]. [T]o Turin [is due] Gianduja [...]. 

The original French version of Duchartre’s book was published in 1924.

Not transferred.

(c)        b Hanswurst

Note: The Italian Comedy 119: Hanswurst (a variant of Pulcinella) [several other possible citations.]

Not transferred.

VI.B.16.092

(e)        rLiam O’Flaherty / Thy Neighbour’s Wife

MS 47472-33, ScrBMA: ^+[...] taking that fine sum ^+covertly by meddlement+^ from ^+the drawers of+^ his neighbour’s safe.+^ | JJA 44:119 | Nov-Dec 1926 | I.1§1.*2+/2.*2+ | FW 014.27

(f)        Sweetish nightingale

Note: The Swedish Nightingale. The Swedish soprano Jenny Lind (1820-87).

Not transferred.

VI.B.16.094

(d)        xw I know

MS 47482b-57-8, ScrLMA: of course ^+I know+^ you know who sent it [...] never will I give you away to anyone. You may trust me ^+I know. [...]+^ [...] listen, Jaun ^+, I know,+^, warn me when to wed. | JJA 57:115,117 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 458.15

(f)        rn consumption / on premises b

MS 47482b-41v, ScrLPA: ^+for it is well celebrated that he has consumption on the premises+^ | JJA 57:084 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 422.07-8

VI.B.16.095

(b)        rprobe

MS 47482b-63, ScrLMA: The claymen ^+the quatyouare of stenogers,+^ four ^+in their broadawain ^+broadawake+^ hats, the probers.+^ | JJA 58:005 | Nov-Dec 1924 | III§3A.*1 | FW 476.12

VI.B.16.097

(a)        bthe 5th day of November >

Note: Addition of “[...] the fifth of November” at FW 087.04 predates this notebook (47471b-18v, ScrLPA | JJA 46:008 | Nov 1923 | I.4§1A.*0). Because Joyce used this notebook on his revision of I.4§1A.3 and deleted the used units in blue, he may have noticed he had used this phrase in the draft and blue-deleted this unit at that time.

VI.B.16.110

(a)        rbright cabbager / (Lsd)

47482b-98v & 99, ScrLPA: ^+[...] How ^+very+^ much bright cabbage do you get [...]+^ | JJA 58:068 | Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2+/3B.*0+ | FW 520.36

VI.C.1.050(a)

VI.B.16.112

(f)        cottamore >

Note: AI. Cothamore. Overcoat (from Ir cóta mór).

VI.C.1.051(h)

VI.B.16.115

(j)         bconvened

MS 47472-160, TsTMA: ^+The gathering, convened to swab help this Irish muck to look his ^+brother+^ Danish ^+Dane+^ in the face+^ | JJA 46:037 | 1924-7 | I.4§1A.3 | FW 086.20

VI.B.16.118

(g)        buttermilk bishop / rboxing —

MS 47474-128, TsBMA: She can’t remember half ^+of+^ the ^+cradle+^ names she put ^+smacked+^ on them ^+by the grace of ^+her boxing bishop’s infallible slipper.+^+^ | JJA 48:062 | Mar-Jul 1924 | I.8§1.3 | FW 201.33

VI.C.1.055(d)

VI.B.16.130

(a)        Bri Chulann ^+Chualann+^

Note: Brí Chualann. The Irish name for Bray (Co. Wicklow).

VI.C.1.062(k)

(f)        rsomething of an / amusing nature

John McCormack: His Own Life Story 301: McCormack, at this juncture, allowed himself a smile. It preluded something of an amusing nature which he presently related.

MS 47482b-57, ScrTMS: Console yourself the best manner you can ^+with something of an amusing nature+^ | JJA 57:115 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 000.00

MS 47482b-54v, ScrLPA: ^+Something of an amusing nature must have occurred to ^+westminstrel+^ Shauhauhaun ^+Jaunahaun+^ for+^ A grand big hearty laugh hopped out | JJA 57:110 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 454.08

VI.B.16.138

(d)        rb cap

MS 47482b-37, ScrLMA: his supper ^+& nightcap+^ | JJA 57:075 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 406.14

VI.B.16.139

(j)         rI call that

MS 47482b-98v, ScrLPA: ^+[...]  Very nothing I get ^+call it+^ [...]+^ | JJA 58:068 | Dec 1924 | III§3A.*2+/3B.*0+ | FW 521.04

VI.B.16.141

(c)        gbesom

MS 47485-40, ScrILA: she, ^+to her besom friend+^ Kate Strong | JJA 60:275 | Mar-Apr 1926 | III§4.*2 | FW 586.08

VI.B.16.143

(c)        rI don’t drink or anything >

MS 47482b-39, ScrLMA: I am awful good at the bottom of me. ^+I don’t drink or anything+^ | JJA 57:079 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW 000.00

VI.B.16.145

(a)        rthe thing

MS 47482b-48, ScrLMA: in halldoorways between night and morning. ^+It’s not the thing+^ Raw spirits is the root of all evil ^+thief of time.+^ | JJA 57:097 | late 1924 | III§1A.*3/1D.*3//2A.*3/2C.*3 | FW [000.00]


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