GENETIC JOYCE STUDIES - Issue 2 (Spring 2002)



Joyce's "Oxen of the Sun" Notesheets: A Transcription and Sourcing of the Stylistic Entries

A Compilation of the Existing Transcriptions and Sourcings, Supplemented by New Sourcing Work


Gregory M. Downing



N O T E S H E E T  1


N O T E S H E E T  2

This new, updated transcription of the Ulysses, "Oxen of the Sun" Notesheets is reproduced with the permission of the Estate of James Joyce.

Copyright Estate of James Joyce



The preponderance of Joycean genetic work to date has been on the notes and drafts of Work in Progress as they gradually feel their way toward Finnegans Wake. This is only natural in light of how much more difficult Wakean exegesis is, and how much stronger the impulse therefore becomes among exegetes to seek guidance from the evidence concerning composition and intention that is furnished by the notes and drafts of the Wake in progress. And the mountain of available material documenting that book's genesis and development offers a great many opportunities for potentially interesting scholarly work.

But the notesheets for Ulysses are also of interest. Even though sheets are not currently known to be extant for the early episodes, from the twelfth episode ("Cyclops") onward some notesheets exist for every episode: a minority of the episodes, to be sure, but episodes which in fact constitute the preponderance of the book. [NOTE: The week that this first installment was being finalized, at the end of May 2002, it was announced in Dublin that the National Library of Ireland had acquired from Paul Léon's son, Alexis, hundreds of pages of previously unknown compositional and revisional materials relating to Ulysses. It is already clear that these documents include newly discovered notes that are certain to modify the state of information concerning Joyce's note-taking and note-using practices in the book. However, it is equally clear that it is far too soon to discern exactly what information and ideas will need to be modified. Subsequent installments of this project will incorporate any necessary and relevant updatings.] These notesheets have been archived in the British Museum ever since Harriet Shaw Weaver, Joyce's financial supporter, deposited them there; Paul Léon had sent them to her on Joyce's behalf in 1938 as work on the Wake was coming to a close (see p. 3 of the 1972 Herring volume discussed just below; for the terminological record, Joyce himself calls them "sheets" on the envelope in which they were delivered). Scholarly attention was first drawn to Joyce's notes and drafts by A. Walton Litz's treatment of prepublication materials in his seminal The Art of James Joyce (London: Oxford University Press, 1961; based on his 1954 Oxford dissertation); almost at the outset (pp. 11 ff.) he discusses the "Oxen" notesheets and the colored markings Joyce employs in canceling entries. Litz had made a set of color slides of the sheets when Harriet Weaver still had them in her possession, prior to their deposition in the British Museum. By the mid 1960s a few other scholars also had access to reproductions of the sheets: the Museum had loaned Phillip F. Herring a microfilm, and Litz had lent Norman Silverstein his set of slides (see the Herring(-Silverstein) essay "Some Corrections and Additions to Norman Silverstein's 'Magic on the Notesheets of the Circe Episode'," James Joyce Quarterly 2, no. 3 (Spring 1965), pp. 217-26, esp. pp. 221-22). Robert Janusko, working by 1966 on a dissertation analyzing the "Oxen of the Sun" episode, obtained from the Museum his own reproduction of the "Oxen" sheets.

The Ulyssean notesheets only became more widely accessible when Herring published his final transcription, with a great deal of useful commentary, in the volume that remains a starting point and, with regard to many details, an ending point for study of the sheets: Joyce's "Ulysses" Notesheets in the British Museum, ed. Phillip F. Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1972). Herring's nearly 550-page volume made widely available what is, given Joyce's often sloppy script and the pencilled cancellation in various colors of items incorporated into Ulysses or Finnegans Wake, a remarkably accurate transcription of the notes together with information about which entries were canceled and in what color, where in Joyce's published work the used entries show up, and insights into how the notes seem to have been compiled and employed. Anyone doing work on any of the Ulysses notesheets can only be grateful for how solid a foundation Herring constructed for subsequent scholars.


Herring transcribes the twenty sheets worth of notes for the "Oxen of the Sun" episode at pp. 162-264 of his 1972 volume while providing an introductory overview of the "Oxen" notes at pp. 30-37. An especially interesting feature of the "Oxen" sheets is that of the nearly 3000 entries, something around 2000 appear to be bits of historical-period or otherwise unusual English, many of which ended up being used in the composition and revision of "Oxen" with its sequence of period styles. This means that already to such early Ulyssean geneticists as Herring and Janusko the "Oxen" sheets must have had a somewhat special appearance among the rest of the Ulysses notesheets. After all, the huge lists of unusual diction that dominate the "Oxen" sheets offered several unique possibilities.

If, as seemed likely, they were drawn from published work then they offered the opportunity to track down Joyce's clearly attested sources on a fairly large scale, documenting the exact publications on which Joyce drew for a good deal of the period diction incorporated in "Oxen" and hence shedding light on at least some of the sources for Joyce's knowledge of the historical styles that constitute the episode. And because the stylistic entries add up to two-thirds of the total number of "Oxen" entries, they also offered, through a process of gradually less incomplete sourcing, the opportunity to explore Joyce's working methods through the preponderance of an entire episode's extant array of entries: a possibility that was not available in the extant sheets for other episodes, where the vast majority of entries in the sheets usually appear to be narrative or thematic in thrust and, where sourced, most likely drawn from a highly miscellaneous collection of sources, some no doubt written but many oral, and not easy to trace even where there might be written sources, given the independence of many entries from those around them.


In the "Oxen" notes, however, there seemed to be clusters of entries that were either predominantly or significantly period-style in thrust and drawn from published sources. Having now done some "Oxen" sourcing myself, I am keenly aware of the labor it entails: for example, all the time-consuming dry holes one drills until, in most but not all cases, an entry is solidly sourced. But once one locates the true thread to a particular area of the notesheets and tugs a bit, all or nearly all the nearby entries that are drawn from the same source tend to unravel quite readily, in contrast to the far more laborious one-at-a-time process usually involved in digging up and grasping the possible sources and significances of notesheet entries for other episodes. Already in the first edition of James Joyce (1959, p. 489 and p. 793 n24; cf. the 1982 ed., p. 475 and p. 785 n24), Richard Ellmann had recorded in his account of Joyce's composition of "Oxen" the assertion made by Stanislaus Joyce in a 1954 interview that as part of his work on that episode Joyce had "studied Saintsbury's A History of English Prose Rhythm," presumably with an eye toward generating some of "Oxen"'s period language. From the mid 1960s through 1972, a triad of Joyce scholars, coming from three complementary angles and operating in different ways, began to identify the published literary sources from which some clusters of "Oxen" notesheet entries were drawn.

It was Robert Janusko who first focused on sourcing entries in the notesheets, in his 1967 Kent State University dissertation The Sources and Structure of the "Oxen of the Sun" Episode of James Joyce's "Ulysses." (For Bob's own account of how he was drawn into sourcing work, click here.) Appendix C in Janusko's dissertation (pp. 179-228) identifies nearly 400 entries spread across twelve of the sheets, bestowing the list-opening place of honor on a set of more than 75 entries drawn from the Saintsbury volume that Ellmann had indicated. How much Janusko already accomplished in 1966-67 is indicated by the fact that this appendix remains the largest single chunk of "Oxen" notesheet sourcing work, given the total of 1000-plus entries that have been sourced, in the aggregate, as of 2002. The entire history of post-1967 sourcing work has added only one more "Oxen" sheet, ns 4, to the dozen sheets where Appendix C had already demonstrated the presence of period-style material drawn from published sources. (Seven of the twenty sheets -- 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 17, and 18 -- are either entirely devoted to narrative, thematic, and other non-stylistic matters, or else contain potentially stylistic material that has not yet been sourced at all, though it may seem likely, given some groups of entries, that one or more of the so-far entirely unsourced sheets may yet prove to contain some stylistic entries.)

So even before Herring's notesheet transcription was published in 1972, something close to a fifth of the approximately 2000 stylistic entries on the "Oxen" sheets had already been sourced. And actually, after Janusko's dissertation, the next big impetus in notesheet sourcing arose not from notesheet study but came instead, still in the period before Herring's transcription was widely available, from a scholar who was working independently of students of the actual notesheets. James S. Atherton, whose concern with Joyce's sources in prior literary work and other published material is clear from his most important work, The Books at the Wake (1959), noticed the way in which "Oxen" passages with which he was closely familiar contained bits of wording that appeared to echo -- i.e., seemed to have been drawn from -- an early-twentieth century anthology, edited by William Peacock, of various prose styles from English literary history. Atherton's examination of the "Oxen" drafts at Buffalo told him that Joyce had added these bits of Peacock-derived wording to "Oxen" during revisions. He then made all this information public through a short article, "The Peacock in the Oxen," in A Wake Newslitter 7, no. 5 (October 1970), pp. 77-78, to which he added a short follow-up note, "Still More Peacock in the Oxen," in AWN 8, no. 4 (August 1971), p. 53. In these publications Atherton, though not working with the notesheets, identifies wording from Peacock that revealed to those who were working with the sheets the fact that around twenty entries on sheets 1, 7, and 13 were Peacock-derived: between its source in Joyce's presumed copy of Peacock and its ultimate destination in "Oxen," Peacock wording had made an intermediate stop in the notesheets, and Atherton had unwittingly given the hint to look for other more Peacock-sourced entries.

When Atherton's first article appeared, Herring's transcription-annotation of the notesheets was already working its way through the press. Herring immediately realized that with such obvious smoke there must be fire. As he wrote in his response to Atherton's first article ("More Peacock in the Oxen," AWN 8, no. 4 [August 1970], pp. 51-53), Atherton had indicated "the tip of an enormous iceberg the circumference of which I, somewhat unwillingly, have been obliged to explore" (p. 51). Since the 1972 transcription was within months of being published, Herring's AWN article restricts itself to outlining the overall issues and proposing some general ideas, each illustrated with a few examples, concerning Joyce's apparent methods in compiling the Peacock entries: e.g., altering, in his entries or in the final text, the wording actually found in the source; or generating unusual patterns of culling from the source within a particular area of a particular sheet. But Herring does indicate that, working with Atherton's basic discovery, he has located in the "Oxen" sheets some 300 Peacock-derived entries, sourcings he has added at a very late stage to the endnotes for the relevant "Oxen" sheets in his forthcoming publication. And in the endnotes to eight "Oxen" sheets (1-4, 7, 13, 15, 19) Herring's 1972 Notesheets volume lists the 300 entries sourced to Peacock, identifications that can be quibbled with in only the smallest number of cases, and a compilation to which all subsequent Peacock sourcing has so far added only a few dozen more entries, and on no other sheets beyond those already indicated by Herring.


So by 1972 around 700 of the approximately 2000 seemingly stylistic "Oxen" notesheet entries had been identified within about five years: twice as many as the total number of new sourcings that would come in the subsequent three decades. Perhaps in part this was a function of the fact that, like people generally, scholars find their interests and energies drawn in evolving directions as time passes. After 1972, Herring passed on to other Joycean and Modernist work; still today, he is editing Djuna Barnes. He produced several other publications on Ulyssean genetics in the 1970s but did no further "Oxen" notesheet sourcing after 1972. Meanwhile, in an essay completed by the beginning of 1972 but not published till 1974 Atherton redeployed his AWN findings in the well-known Hart-Hayman volume: Clive Hart and David Hayman, eds., James Joyce's "Ulysses": Critical Essays (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974); Atherton's treatment of "The Oxen of the Sun" appears at pp. 313-39. In the course of working through the "Oxen" episode almost paragraph by paragraph while keeping several different thematic threads in hand, Atherton mentions again nearly all the Peacock sourcings announced in his 1970 AWN essay, adding general comments about Peacock as a source as well as some sourcings from Peacock that Herring had come up with, plus some sourcings from Saintsbury along lines similar to those seen in Janusko's dissertation, though Atherton may well have done his own independent Saintsbury research based simply on Ellmann's 1959 mention of Saintsbury. (On Peacock in general as a source, see pp. 315-16; Atherton also discusses "Oxen"'s reliance on Peacock's extracts from his first anthologized author, Mandeville, 318-19; from Pepys, 324; from Defoe, 324-25; from Cowper, 326; from Stanhope/Chesterfield, 327-28; from Lamb, 329; and from Peacock's last anthologized author, Ruskin, 333. He mentions Saintsbury as an "Oxen" dictional source at, for example, pp. 316-17, 325, 329, and 331.) So Atherton's 1974 (but actually, pre-1972) essay recapitulates and redeploys existing sourcing work as part of a larger overlook on "Oxen": no new sourcing there either. Meanwhile Janusko, who had done more sourcing than anyone and at an earlier date, was busy with other work and obligations and did not immediately publish his 1967 dissertation.

But other developments were laying the groundwork that would make subsequent "Oxen" notesheet sourcing easier. The most important of these was the emergence into the scholarly spotlight of the contents of the personal library that Joyce had left behind with his brother Stanislaus when he moved from Trieste to Paris in the middle of 1920, just weeks after finishing his most intensive period of work on "Oxen." Atherton's 1974 essay is aware (p. 330, n30) of the post-FW Paris library that had ended up at Buffalo, though that material offers relatively little assistance to "Oxen" notesheet sourcing. But the essay also mentions (pp. 315-16 and n8) Joyce's brief inventory of the contents of "Shelf 3" in his Trieste library, an inventory Ellmann had printed in 1959 (pp. 793-95, n43). Though in among all the literature and other books in several languages the inventory lists no stylistic anthologies, it represents the first indication of an area of background that would prove extremely significant for those interested in the publications from which "Oxen" notesheet entries were culled. Specifically, the close interaction with Joyce's family that had permitted Ellmann to produce such a powerfully unique biography also led in turn to his detailed access to the contents of Joyce's accumulated personal library from the "Oxen" period. (See the account given on p. 12 of Gillespie's 1986 volume cited just below.) By working with Joyce's relatives in Trieste, Ellmann was able to reconstruct what seems to amount to approximately half of the 1920 library through a process of sorting it from the late Stanislaus Joyce's books (Richard Brown's estimate was 45%; "Addenda and Corrigenda...," James Joyce Quarterly 17, no. 3 [Spring 1980], pp. 315-16). In The Consciousness of Joyce (Toronto and New York: Oxford University Press, 1977), Ellmann lists the 1920 Trieste collection's over 600 volumes in an appendix (pp. 97-134), while also arguing for its importance to Joyce's literary methods during the Ulysses years (pp. 6-9). Among the few aspects of Joyce's work that Ellmann is able to mention from page 6 to 9, he notes the collection's array of anthologies of historical English prose styles, presumably employed as sources for "Oxen" diction (p. 8).

The same year the collection arrived in Austin, Texas, after its purchase from the Joyce family, Ellmann's bare list was expanded in Michael Patrick Gillespie's 1980 Herring-guided dissertation Joyce's Trieste Library and His Intellectual Backgrounds, 1904-1920 . Some material in the dissertation was disseminated as articles (e.g., "A Critique of Ellmann's List of Joyce's Trieste Library," James Joyce Quarterly 19, no. 1 [Fall 1981]), pp. 27-36), but the whole dissertation was subsequently revised and published under the title Inverted Volumes Improperly Arranged: James Joyce and His Trieste Library (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1983) as No. 10 in the series Studies in Modern Literature, for which Litz functioned as general series editor as well as consulting editor for publications on Joyce. But the final and most fully annotated and analyzed examination of the collection is James Joyce's Trieste Library: A Catalogue of Materials at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin, by Michael Patrick Gillespie with the assistance of Erik Bradford Stocker (Austin: The Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, 1986). Once the Trieste library was known, the huge problem of guessing which anthologies and editions of individual authors' works Joyce may have employed became far less difficult, and new physical support existed in the collection for established ideas concerning Joyce's culling from such published sources as Peacock's anthology or Defoe's work.

And at this same period Robert Janusko began to be more active again in "Oxen" notesheet sourcing, starting with an updated version of his 1967 dissertation under a slightly updated revised title, The Sources and Structures of James Joyce's "Oxen" (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1983), as No. 15 in the same Litz-edited series of Modernist dissertations where Gillespie's Trieste library work was being published the same year. By incorporating into the nearly 400 sourcings of his 1967 dissertation the 300 Peacock sourcings that Atherton and especially Herring had identified early in the 1970s, while adding close to 100 of his own post-1967 sourcings, Janusko produces an Appendix C ("A List of Joyce's Borrowings from His Sources," pp. 93-155) that systematically presents almost 800 sourcings. This is still far and away the best single resource for those seeking Joyce's literary sources in the "Oxen" sheets; it brings together what still, two decades later, amount to more than three-quarters of the identifications that have been made.

With S&S more widely available, Janusko continued working with the "Oxen" sheets. At first this work consisted of papers and talks: for example, a presentation on the sheets at the first workshop week held at the Zurich James Joyce Foundation in 1985, and a discussion of DeQuincey sources at the Copenhagen Joyce conference in 1986. More formally, Janusko went on to publish subsequent sourcing discoveries in a series of articles early in the next decade. Both "Another Anthology for 'Oxen': Barnett and Dale," James Joyce Quarterly 27, no. 2 (Winter 1990), pp. 257-81, and "Yet Another Anthology for the 'Oxen': Murison's Selections," Joyce Studies Annual 1 (1990), pp. 117-31, excavate the notesheet entries that come two anthologies of historical English prose styles found in the Trieste library. The Barnett and Dale article locates about 170 entries on sheets 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 15 (but mainly on 3, 4, and 7). The Murison essay pins down about 70 entries on sheets 11 and 20. In the same period, Janusko also publishes his sourcing of ten entries on ns 20 to several sermons by Joyce's favorite prose stylist, Newman: "Grave Beauty: Newman in 'Oxen'," JJQ 28, no. 2 (Winter 1991), pp. 617-21. This trio of articles brought "Oxen" notesheet sourcing past its halfway mark; a little over 1000 of the 2000 or so seemingly stylistic entries had now been sourced. And still today Janusko continues to uncover more identifications; several of the newly sourced entries in this first installment of consolidated and extended "Oxen" notesheet sourcing are the result of his own previously unpublished work (to whose subsumption in the present project he has kindly consented), supplemented by his highly generous correspondence with me over the past few years.


When I began closely examining the "Oxen" episode in 1995, initially I resolved not to get involved in prepublication materials. From one angle this resolve may well have constituted a convenient self-exemption from additional work as I pondered an already demanding text, but my thinking in 1995 was that for some time some areas of Joyce studies had been riven by controversy concerning alternative readings and rival editions, existent and nonexistent. What thoughtful exegete would foolishly rush in where editorial specialists, treading carefully, had already gotten their toes well trodden despite years of effort? My motto was, "Give me a solid text, if I don't in fact already have one in Gabler, and I'll try to explicate it; I needn't insert myself where others have already toiled for many years." In 1997, however, I had something of a change of heart. I had begun exploring Joyce's possible dictional and conceptual sources in "Oxen," as a way of contextualizing the episode's techniques and themes and therefore grounding potential explications. Among other things, this meant going back to late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century ideas about language recuperable from various authors and texts. I realized that I needed to take into account whatever the notesheets might have to say about such potential source texts for some of the diction that appears in "Oxen." As I ended up writing in the resultant essay: "Genetic study of Ulysses is crucial, given the existence of the ["Oxen"] notesheets. One makes assertions about the final text at one's peril without an awareness of what those sheets support or prove, militate against, or even rule out" ("Richard Chenevix Trench and Joyce's Historical Study of Words," Joyce Studies Annual 9 [1998], p. 64).

So in 1997 I compiled a sheet-by-sheet and entry-by-entry consolidation and analysis of existing sourcing work. This in itself was a good deal of work, for despite everything that had been done by Atherton, Herring, and Janusko, this information was only available from a variety of publications strewn across several decades in multiple formats. They had not been brought together systematically in connection with Herring's complete 1972 set of "Oxen" notesheet transcriptions. But only such a consolidation could reveal the parameters of what had been accomplished and what rermained undone but was possibly of interest in light of my purposes at that point. The 1997 consolidation made it apparent that, little by little since the late 1960s, sourcing had progressed to a point where more stylistic entries had already been solidly sourced than not. In the published record, a little over 1000 of the approximately 2000 period-style entries among the nearly 3000 entries on the "Oxen" notesheets had been sourced, primarily in Janusko's monograph and articles (Janusko's 1983 monograph had systematically subsumed all the sourcing work done by others in 1970-72). If more stylistic entries had already been sourced than not, a concerted effort appeared likely to clarify the sourcing for something not too far from all of the sources of the stylistic notesheet entries. From a standpoint atop the accumulated accomplishments of Janusko and others, an at least close to complete sourcing seemed to have come tantalizingly within reach. However, because I was committed to other work on Joyce's backgrounds and sources in late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century ideas about language, in 1997 I simply sent color copies of my color-coded consolidation to Janusko, with whom I had already been corresponding about the "Oxen" notesheets since 1995.


That is where things sat until early 2001, when Geert Lernout invited me to attend the upcoming Joycean genetic studies conference being held under the auspices of his Antwerp James Joyce Center. Much Wake-related work was already scheduled for the conference and it seemed like a nice idea to present some Ulysses-related genetic work as well. So I agreed to make a presentation on the sourcing work that had been done on the "Oxen" notesheets. As it happened, I was also able to take a couple of weeks just before the conference and look into filling the gaps that remained in the late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth century stylistic entries (mainly Defoe, but also Swift, Pepys, and others) that dominated the first notesheet and the first column on the second notesheet, the entries that Herring numbers as 1.1 through 2.52 -- which seemed like a decent sample of the "Oxen" stylistic notes in toto. In the case of some previously unsourced entries I was able to use e-texts or other tools to pin down sources. In other cases I was able to think about and comment on the issues involved in entries that remain unsourced and perhaps, in some cases, are ultimately unsourceable, despite being scattered among entries Joyce garnered from the published literary work of past periods.

At Antwerp I offered a general overview of the "Oxen" notesheets and a brief summary of the stylistic entries and their sourcing so far. With regard to the entries running from 1.1 through 2.52 I mentioned some points of interest raised by the consolidation of published sourcing work supplemented by my own additions and explorations. After returning home from Antwerp, I took several days with the next column on the second notesheet and found that it too was capable of being brought closer to complete sourcing, in this case mainly from Malory. I had been curious as to whether in focusing initially on 1.1-2.52 I had just happened upon an unusually manageable segment of the notesheets. But the quick results I got with the Malory entries only strengthened the hypothesis that a fairly full sourcing of the 2000 stylistic entries was attainable by consolidating existing published work and plugging as many gaps as possible.

Also at the Antwerp conference Dirk Van Hulle of the Antwerp Center announced the initiation of the e-journal Genetic Joyce Studies. Soon after, he invited me to submit a consolidated and supplemented sourcing of the stylistic entries in the "Oxen" notesheets along the lines I had discussed at the Antwerp conference. You are reading the first installment of that project. After completing this first installment and seeing how it looks a few months from now and what kind of feedback we get from others, Dirk and I will finalize the format for the remaining entries and will then move ahead with a second installment by the end of 2002. If we finish two installments a year, after five years or so we will have completed a solid sourcing for the vast preponderance -- and at least some commentary and analysis for all -- of the approximately 2000 seemingly stylistic entries on the twenty "Oxen" notesheets.


This project will naturally be of use to those interested in the "Oxen of the Sun" episode and its dictional details. It also contains much material of use to scholars who are more generally concerned with Joyce's distinctive interest in language and, more specifically, in the history of the English language and prose style, largely but not exclusively as manifested in the published work of its most esteemed authors. It may well also be of use to some of the genetic scholars who contribute to and read Genetic Joyce Studies, given that this project, when complete, will constitute the largest single analysis of Joyce's note-taking and note-using habits in the years prior to -- and, as it happens, not long prior to -- the point at which he began to work on Finnegans Wake . Of course, in coming years the largest project in Joycean genetic studies will be the recently initiated publication of the entries in the dozens of Work in Progress notebooks, together with sourcings and commentary. "Oxen" notesheet sourcings constitute the best available evidence concerning Joyce's collection and redeployment of notes in the years just prior to undertaking Work in Progress, and therefore furnish a valuable point of comparison for this major Wakean project.

Already this first installment of sourcings offers significant insights into Joyce's working methods:

Of course, some patterns or tendencies in the "Oxen" sheets that seem to be suggested by this first installment may not hold up after the remaining 90+% of the stylistic entries are treated. Therefore, for now I have deferred exposition of any large-scale hypotheses or generalizations concerning Joyce's methods in creating and using the "Oxen" sheets. Still, some possibilities do show up in comments on some notesheet entries, and the evidence furnished by further installments of notesheet sourcing will inevitably strengthen, weaken, or dismiss those possibilities.


This installment treats "Oxen" notesheets 1.1 through 2.52, in Herring's numbering: all of the first notesheet plus the whole of the far-left column on the second sheet, after which point the second sheet begins to focus on an earlier stylistic period in a separate column. With the occasional stray exception (e.g., 2.28), all the entries that have, so far, been solidly sourced between 1.1 and 2.52 are from several Restoration and early-eighteenth century authors.

The first sheet is dominated by Joyce's large embryological diagram, whose contents do not fall under the stylistic-sourcing aims of the present project. The more than seventy period-style entries on the sheet are squeezed into the upper-left, upper-right, lower-right, and bottom margins. The upper-left, upper-right, and bottom margins of the sheet contain entries drawn mainly from, first, the Defoe selections in two stylistic anthologies Joyce owned and, then, Defoe's Colonel Jack -- though the occasional unsourced and perhaps unsourceable but seemingly non-Defoe entry appears among these Defoe cullings. The lower-right area of the page contains several cullings from Swift, mainly but not entirely from Tale of a Tub. In the right half of the bottom margin the Colonel Jack and Swift entries clash rather unclearly; several entries in this area of the sheet are not solidly sourced and may in the long run prove unsourceable.

Meanwhile, when Joyce began running out of room for entries from Colonel Jack in the bottom margin of the first sheet, he moved over to the next sheet and started a column of further Colonel Jack cullings to the left of a column of Malory cullings that, given the way in which the far-left column is placed, appears already to have occupied the center of the sheet before Joyce began using the open space on the left side of the page for additional Defoe gleanings. Close to halfway down this column, Joyce stops drawing on Colonel Jack and enters two items, both referring to cattle, that are not from the same sources that dominate notesheet one and the left column of notesheet two. He then begins to cull items from Restoration authors in the Peacock-edited stylistic anthology from whose Defoe section he had drawn in the upper-left area of the first sheet. Most of the Restoration entries from Peacock come from Peacock's Pepys extract, but one or several entries also appear from other Peacock-anthologized Restoration authors (Cowley, Halifax, etc.).

In the area of the notesheets covered by this first installment, for the most part Joyce lists entries vertically, working from above to below: nothing remarkable. However, in some places when he has left some unused space to the immediate right of a short entry, he will skip back up and fill that space with another short entry, sometimes separating distinct entries with a colon (e.g., between 1.8a and 1.8b) or a comma (e.g., between 1.9a and 1.9b). Also, given the way in which the embryological diagram swells to the margin of the first sheet at several points, and the fact that some entries he wished to make were long and some quite short, Joyce -- if, as seems likely most of the time in his Colonel Jack gleanings, he was reading forward through the book -- sometimes skips forward or backward from one area to another in making his notes. For example, the short entry at the bottom of the upper-left column on ns 1 (1.22) is from a few pages later in Colonel Jack than the long entry (1.23) that Joyce seems to have skipped up to the top of the upper-right area of the page to enter. That is, the order in which Joyce entered notes in this area seems likely to be: 1.21 (the short entry immediately above the bottom-most entry in the upper left-hand area of the sheet), 1.23 (the long entry at the top of the upper right-hand area, which would less easily have fit near the bottom of the upper-left area), 1.22 (a short entry that fit at the very bottom of the upper left-hand area), and then continuing immediately below 1.23, in what was at that point the nearly empty upper right-hand area of the sheet, proceeding downward and creating the upper right-hand area's series of Colonel Jack entries.

Here is another example of this process of skipping around on the sheet to squeeze in entries wherever they fit: In the upper-right column, Joyce seems to have skipped back up to jot the entry 1.30c ("what in the earth") in a blank space that, prior to the entering of 1.30c, would have existed immediately to the right of entries 1.30a, 1.30b, and 1.31 (all of which come from within a few pages of each other in Colonel Jack, but quite a few pages before the source for 1.30c). Had Joyce entered 1.30c in strictly vertical order while reading forward through Colonel Jack it would instead appear below 1.34 and above 1.35. And the same types of back-and-forthing are apparent between the bottom of the upper-right area and the left side of the bottom margin, and again between the bottom margin of the first sheet and the beginning of the far-left column on the second sheet, where Colonel Jack culling continues. However, it should be also noted that there is some evidence in the long set of Colonel Jack entries of Joyce also skipping around in the book at a few points rather than always working strictly forward, page by page.

Finally, Joyce may sometimes skip down a distance from where he has been making entries, creating a column of empty space that he then fills in by making entries in an upward-moving order: see the discussion, just prior to 2.32, of what may have happened when Joyce made entries from Peacock's Pepys near the bottom of the far-left column on the second notesheet.

Out of the over seventy entries on ns 1, a bit under fifty have already been sourced in the published record: the four first-to-be-noticed of the Peacock cullings by Atherton, almost all of remaining Peacock cullings by Herring, and almost all of the rest of the Defoe cullings (i.e., the bulk of the page) by Janusko. For this project, I have consolidated all this work while trying to bring the sourcing figure to as near 100% as possible. I found several new source passages, and Robert Janusko (who has been closely involved from the outset in helping this project move forward) generously made available the contents of an unpublished essay in which he identifies most of the entries in the lower-right area of the sheet as coming from Swift, mainly from Tale of a Tub . But even where an entry here and there remains either somewhat or profoundly unclear, I have tried to provide some discussion so that I -- or anyone else -- has some basis upon which to look and think further.

In the left-hand column of ns 2, over thirty out of more than fifty entries have previously been sourced in the published record: the Defoe cullings by Janusko, and the Peacock cullings by Herring. With Janusko's help and advice I have tried to bring that figure to as near 100% as possible, while laying out the "state of information" (or, "non-information") where no solid source has not yet been identified.

Here is how the credit works out for this first installment (1.1-2.52), according to the credit lines included for each solidly sourced notesheet entry:

Janusko S&S, in both the 1967 and 1983 versions -- 46 entries

Janusko 1983 S&S, but not in 1967 S&S -- 1 entry

Janusko B&D article in JJQ 1990 -- 5 entries

Janusko "Oxcavations" GJS 2 (Spring 2002) -- 6 entries

Janusko personal correspondence -- 1 entry

[Janusko total, 59 so far]

Herring Notesheets volume, 1972 -- 25 entries, all Peacock

Atherton article in AWN 1970 -- 4 entries, all Peacock

Downing -- 13 scattered entries, filling in gaps where possible

Harald Beck -- 1 entry

The remaining entries, where the sourcing does not seem solid enough yet for a flat-out credit but where at least some discussion of possibilities has been provided in every case -- 26 entries

Total number of entries in first installment: 128, of which 102 seem solidly sourced, while a fair number of the remaining 26 have had at least some light shed on them, if not (yet) to the point of a solid sourcing -- though some of course are probably not drawn by Joyce from a specific printed text and hence perhaps are already as sourced as they will ever be


Joyce's Published Sources
For Period-Style Language
In the "Oxen" Notesheets

Most of the books so far identified as sources for the period-style entries in the "Oxen" notesheets are books we know that Joyce owned when he lived in Trieste, because he left copies of them behind there when, in the middle of 1920, soon after he'd finished drafting "Oxen," he moved to Paris, temporarily it was thought at the time. This "Trieste library" was held by Joyce's brother Stanislaus, who stayed on in Trieste. Decades later the collection was sold to the Harry Ransom Center in Austin, Texas. The fullest source of information about this collection is James Joyce's Trieste Library: A Catalogue of Materials at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin , by Michael Patrick Gillespie with the assistance of Erik Bradford Stocker (Austin: The Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, 1986). Within this volume each item is listed in alphabetical order, numbered for reference, and described in detail, including comments about possible date of acquisition, markings made in the book, etc. In the following listing of items from which Joyce culled wording somewhere between ns 1.1 and ns 2.52, item number and page number for each book are given, together with any of Gillespie's comments that might be useful with a view to the notesheets and their sourcing. Each book is also accompanied by an abbreviation, in quotation marks, employed for that volume in discussing the sources for notesheet entries.


Annie Barnett and Lucy Dale, eds. An Anthology of English Prose (1332 to 1740). With a preface by Andrew Lang. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1912. Gillespie item 11 (p. 33). The flyleaf is marked with Joyce's bookstamp. Part II (1741 to 1892) is not in Joyce's Trieste library. There are no markings in the text of the book. Robert Janusko sourced around 170 "Oxen" notesheet entries to B&D in "Another Anthology for 'Oxen': Barnett and Dale," James Joyce Quarterly 27, no. 2 (Winter 1990), pp. 257-81.


English Prose from Mandeville to Ruskin. Chosen and Arranged by W. Peacock. Fourth Impression. The World's Classics, 45. London: Henry Frowde, Oxford University Press, 1912. (Originally published 1903, with many subsequent editions: 1905, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1917, etc.) Gillespie item 153 (pp. 90-91). Gillespie lists in detail pencil marks (underlinings, markings in the margin, etc.) ranging, in this 379-page book, from the table of contents and page 1 through page 375 and the recto of the back free endpaper. However, no markings are noted between pages 30 and 191, and hence no pencil marks are attested in the selections from which Peacock-sourced entries were made on the first and second notesheets. Atherton discovered Peacock as a source for "Oxen" without access to the notesheets, Herring uncovered three hundred Peacock-sourced entries in the notesheets, and Janusko and I have found some further Peacock sourcings.


Daniel Defoe. Life, Adventures, and Piracies of Captain Singleton and Life of Colonel Jack. With prefaces and notes, including those attributed to Sir Walter Scott. Part of Bohn's Standard Library, specifically Volume I of "The Novels and Miscellaneous Works of Daniel De Foe." London: George Bell and Sons, 1908. Gillespie item 130 (p. 82). Joyce's Trieste library also has copies of Volumes II and IV of the seven-volume Bohn's edition of Defoe. Volume I contains a few stray pencil marks, but nothing suggestive of any literary use. Gillespie suggests (p. 83) that Joyce may have owned all of this edition of Defoe's work from at least as early as the period when he gave his 1912 Trieste lecture on Defoe. Janusko uncovered Joyce's cullings from Colonel Jack without access to this edition, which was not yet known to be relevant at the time Janusko was initially working on the entries sourced in CJ.

A note on quotation and citation from Colonel Jack:

In this first installment of "Oxen" sourcing I have quoted from Colonel Jack in the 1996 CDROM edition produced by Chadwyck-Healey as part of their Eighteenth-Century Fiction Full-Text Database. Except for the occasional scanning slip (e.g., long s's sometimes turned into f's), this CDROM reproduces the text of the 1723 edition of Defoe's novel. After I have obtained via interlibrary loan a copy of the 1908 Bohn edition of Colonel Jack I will conform the citations and page numbers to the version Joyce owned, but for now I have given the page numbers and citations from Chadwyck-Healey's 1996 version of the 1723 edition, together with the wording from the beginning of the paragraph in which the source wording appears, as an assistance in locating source passages for those using other editions of Colonel Jack. Readers who have the still widely accessible edition of Colonel Jack edited by Samuel Holt Monk (London: Oxford University Press, 1965) will find that page references for source passages are given using the Monk edition in Robert Janusko's work; Monk's was the new scholarly edition of Colonel Jack when Janusko was completing his dissertation. In Janusko's 1967 dissertation the CJ cullings, with page references to the 1965 edition, are found at pp. 206-10; in his 1983 monograph basically the same information is given at pp. 136-39.

"ToaT" (ns 1.47 ff.)
"The History of Martin" (ns 1.60)

Jonathan Swift. A Tale of a Tub, The Battle of the Books and other Satires. Everyman's Library, 347. London: J M Dent & Sons Ltd, 1916. Gillespie item 483 (p. 227). 325 pages. Joyce's bookstamp is in the front; no markings suggestive of literary use are found in the volume. "Tale of a Tub" runs from pp. 1-132 in this edition, followed by "History of Martin" at pp. 133-39. Joyce's Trieste library also contains an edition of Swift's Gulliver's Travels (Gillespie item 484, p. 227) as well as a 608-page selected edition of Swift's Works (Gillespie item 485, pp. 228-31) that is heavily marked by Joyce. Janusko has sourced several entries on the first notesheet to the Everyman Swift volume with a pattern suggesting that Joyce employed this volume in making his entries.

Transcription conventions

Each entry consists of these six elements in this order:

(A) in orange, the entry's location using Herring's 1972 numbering (i.e., "1.8" would mean line/entry number 8 on notesheet one, in Herring's transcription; in places where more than one separately sourced entry is on the same line these are listed as "1.8a," "1.8b," etc.)

(B) in boldface , the exact wording of the entry on the notesheet, with occasional Herring mistranscriptions silently corrected, and in square brackets an indication as to whether the entry is canceled (crossed through) by Joyce or not, and if so in what color -- either red or blue or green; cancellation usually means an entry has been incorporated into Joyce's work

(C) the exact wording in the source from which Joyce culled the entry

(D) where the notesheet entry's wording comes from; for example, "B&D 208" for entry 1.1 means that the wording that follows that reference -- the wording from which Joyce drew the notesheet entry in question -- appears on page 208 of the Barnett & Dale stylistic anthology

(E) where, if anywhere, Joyce seems to have used the entry in his published work, plus a clip of the relevant passage (in the "Oxen of the Sun" episode, or wherever else), as well as a bit of its context, with the wording that actually derives from the notesheet entry in boldface to emphasize it; even when a given notesheet entry is not definitively linkable to a passage in Joyce's published work, there may be some speculative discussion of Joyce's possible use of the entry

for example, with regard to the first entry on the first notesheet, where Joyce's redeployment of the entry's wording is clear, this element reads:

U 14.76 [i.e., a Gabler-edition episode-and-line reference, followed by the wording of that passage in "Oxen"]: a bargeman coming in by water a fifty mile or thereabout with turf

however, with regard to the second entry on notesheet one, which is uncanceled and therefore might be assumed to be have gone unused by Joyce in his literary composition, this element reads:

[despite being uncanceled, one wonders about a possible echo in "all in applepie order" at U 14.403]

(F) a credit line showing who first identified Joyce's published source for the entry; in cases where Joyce's published source remains uncertain or else where there may not be a published source at all, no credit line appears, and a discussion at the end of the entry tries to present what the state of information seems to be at present about the entry and its possible sourcing; where a sourcing is here being published for the first time, the name of the sourcer is given and the month and year when the sourcing was identified; however, in this first installment of consolidated and extended "Oxen" notesheet sourcing, quite a few sources had already been identified in the published record (and in one unpublished essay), and in such cases the wording presented in quotation marks in the following list identifies the source:

"Janusko JJQ 27.2 (1990)" = Robert Janusko, "Another Anthology for 'Oxen': Barnett and Dale," James Joyce Quarterly 27, no. 2 (Winter 1990), pp. 257-81

"Janusko S&S (1983)" = Robert Janusko, The Sources and Structures of James Joyce's "Oxen" (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1983)

"Janusko S&S (1967)" = Robert Janusko, The Sources and Structure of the "Oxen of the Sun" Episode of James Joyce's "Ulysses" (Kent State University dissertation, 1967)

"Janusko Oxcavations " = Robert Janusko, "Further Oxcavations: Joyce's Notes from Swift, Steele, Goldsmith, Landor and De Quincey" Genetic Joyce Studies 2 (Spring 2002) (unpublished ts., used with permission)

"Herring Notesheets (1972)" = Joyce's "Ulysses" Notesheets in the British Museum , ed. Phillip F. Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1972)

"Atherton AWN 7 (1970)" = James S. Atherton, "The Peacock in the Oxen," A Wake Newslitter 7, no. 5 (October 1970), pp. 77-78; note however that Atherton is working with the Peacock anthology and Joyce's text, and did not work on the then-unpublished notesheets themselves

for many entries, Janusko's 1983 monograph is simply a more widely available version of his 1967 sourcing work; however, where an entry is traced in both the 1983 and 1967 works I furnish a reference to both, in order to indicate the original date of the identification




Defoe passage, pp. 208-14:

(a) "Robinson Crusoe's Animals," an editorially-titled extract consisting of much of Chap. X and the beginning of Chap. XI from Robinson Crusoe

(b) "The Education of Women," an editorially-titled extract from An Essay on Projects

3 mile or thereabout [canceled in red ]

"In about three mile, or thereabout, coasting the shore"

B&D 208 (Defoe Crusoe): the opening wording of B&D's Crusoe extract

U 14.76: a bargeman coming in by water a fifty mile or thereabout with turf

Janusko JJQ 27.2 (1990), p. 269

I kept it in good order, being [uncanceled]

"for I always kept it in good order, being, as I said before, my country house"

B&D 208 (Defoe Crusoe): the end of the 2nd para. on the first page of the Crusoe extract

[despite being uncanceled, one wonders about a possible echo in "all in applepie order" at U 14.403]

Janusko JJQ 27.2 (1990), p. 269

my -- growing low [uncanceled]

"But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I have said, my ammunition growing low"

B&D 209 (Defoe Crusoe): beginning of the last para. on the second page of the Crusoe extract (i.e., all three Crusoe extracts at 1.1-1.3 come from the same pair of facing pages)

[neither "growing" nor "low" appears in "Oxen"]

Janusko JJQ 27.2 (1990), p. 276

he made nothing needless (=-) [uncanceled]

"If knowledge and understanding had been useless additions to the sex, God Almighty would never have given them capacities; for he made nothing need-less"

B&D 213 (Defoe "Education of Women"): near the top of the first complete page of the "Education of Women" extract

[despite the entry's uncanceled status, one wonders about the climactic Huxley para.: "Nature, we may rest assured, has her own good and cogent reasons for whatever she does"; also, still speculatively and hazily, there are several examples of "need"s being supplied in "Oxen"]

Janusko JJQ 27.2 (1990), p. 276

Possibly Joyce's marking "(=-)" indicates that he wished to remind himself that, perhaps in accordance with his own preferred system of orthography and punctuation, he had deleted the hyphen from Defoe's word.

all the world are [canceled in red ]

"all the world are mistaken in their practice about women"

B&D 213 (Defoe "Education of Women"): just below the middle of the page

U 14.481: All the world saying, for aught they knew

Janusko JJQ 27.2 (1990), p. 276

Perhaps Joyce was drawn to make a note of this wording because a singular noun phrase is accompanied by a plural verb when, in the formal English of the 19-20C, that noun phrase requires a singular: "all the world are" as against "all the world is": hence Joyce's "All the world... they" (cf. ns 1.8a "everyone their").


Defoe passage, pp. 129-36:

(a) "The Plague: Predictions and Visions," pp. 129-32, an editorially-titled extract consisting of about three pages from quite early in A Journal of the Plague Year

> entries 6, 7, 8a, 9a, 10 [i.e., in descending vertical order along the left-hand side of the sheet]
(b) "A Quack Doctor," pp. 132-36, an editorially-titled extract from Works
> entries 8b, 9b(?), and 11a through 16b inclusive

poring at the clouds [canceled in red ]

"And no wonder, if they who were poring continually at the clouds saw shapes and figures"

Peacock 130 (Defoe Plague): just below the middle of the page

U 14.485: biggish swollen clouds to be seen as the night increased and the weatherwise poring up at them

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 165

coffins carrying to be buried [canceled in red]

"they told us they saw a flaming sword held in a hand coming out of a cloud, with a point hanging directly over the city; there they saw hearses and coffins in the air carrying to be buried"

Peacock 130 (Defoe Plague): the sixth line below the line where 1.6 comes from

[there are various examples in U of "carrying," "bury" and derivatives, and "coffin(s)," but in "Oxen" the closest match (not especially close) appears to be "parturient in vehicle thereward carrying" (U 14.54)]

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 165

everyone their [uncanceled]

"every one was so positive of their having seen what they pretended to see, that there was no contradicting them without breach of friendship"

Peacock 130 (Defoe Plague): the tenth line below the line where 1.7 comes from

[neither "everyone" nor "every one" appears in "Oxen," but note the following example of singular "every [mother's son]" with plural "their," presumably a major idea behind Joyce's note here; cf. 1.5 not far above: U 14.543-44, in the Defoe para. that is so dense with other entries from ns 1: every mother's son of them would burst their sides]

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 165

:skip [canceled in red]

"I was surprised to see a skip transformed so speedily into a trumpeter"
[note that Peacock footnotes "skip" to a one-word gloss at the bottom of the page: "Lackey."]

Peacock 132 (Defoe "Quack"): just below the middle of the page

[the only example of "skip" in "Oxen" is "womenfolk skipping off with kirtles catched up soon as the pour came" (U 14.489), which is rather distant from the meaning of "skip" here]

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 165

The ":" prior to "skip" is most likely a separator that Joyce sometimes places between separate entries on the same horizontal line.

to the life [uncanceled]

"She described every part of the figure to the life, showed them the motion and the form"

Peacock 131 (Defoe Plague): about a third of the way down the page

[there are many examples of "life" and "to the" in "Oxen," but there's no example of "to the life" in "Oxen" or U]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 116; not in Janusko S&S (1967)

Welsh [uncanceled]

["welsh-" shows up in "Oxen" only in "a sutler or a welsher" ( U 14.559) and then "welsher" (U 14.1392), both presumably in application to Costello]

This sourcing "gap" seems strange, coming right in the middle of the cullings from Peacock that occupy the upper-left-hand corner of ns 1. An e-text search of Defoe's Journal of the Plague Year, which is where Peacock's pp. 129-32 come from, shows no occurrence of -welsh-, but the entries immediately above and below "Welsh" are not from Peacock's Plague Year extract. Instead, like all of entries 1.10 to 1.16b, they are from the "Quack Doctor" extract that follows the Plague Year extract. Searchable e-text is not yet available for "Quack," but visually neither Janusko nor Herring nor I have discerned "welsh" anywhere in it.

So what could be the source for the "Welsh" entry? We might bear in mind that the entry is at the edge of a cluster of Defoe entries, and therefore may be from some other source than Peacock's two short Defoe selections. And there is also the possibility of mistranscription, but in fact "Welsh" (complete with initial cap) looks fairly clear at JJA 14.23.

Aside from those very open-ended possibilities, it is possible that something in "Quack" may have prompted Joyce to think of "Welsh" and jot it down, even though the word itself does not occur in the "Quack"  passage.

To think about the semantic range of an English word, it often helps to read the OED entry on the word. The entire entry for "Welsh" is interesting, but perhaps the one sense that might dovetail with Peacock's "Quack" extract is the fact that language that doesn't make sense is "Welsh"; see OED2 on Welsh (subsection on the noun):

meaning 2b. transf. A strange language; speech that one does not understand.
1648 Winyard Midsummer-Moon 5 Hebrew to them is Welch.
a 1661 Fuller Worthies, Wales (1662) 33 Amel-corne. This English Word (which I find in the English Cambden) is Welsh to me.
1888 Sheffield Gloss. Suppl. s.v. Welsh, 'He's talking Welsh!' 'That's Welsh!' means 'I don't understand you'.

So perhaps what happened is that, while reading the paragraph about the Quack's amazing speech soliciting customers for his "medicine," Joyce suddenly thought of "Welsh" in the sense of "fancy gibberish." Among other things, Defoe writes, near the bottom of Peacock p. 133:

"He was, indeed, very sparing of his Latin and Greek, as (God knows) having a very slender stock of those commodities; but then, for hard words and terms, which neither he, nor you, nor I, nor anybody else understand, he poured them out in such abundance that you'd have sworn he had been rehearsing some of the occult philosophy of Agrippa or Rosicrusius, or reading a lecture out of Cabala."

Certainly "Welsh" is a well-known way of expressing in one word Defoe's idea here. So perhaps in entry 1.9b Joyce is not trying to record a bit of 18C diction for use in "Oxen," but instead is jotting down a reminder for himself of a common attitude among such early 18C prosists as Swift and Defoe: the belief that a lot of what people say and write and believe is gibberish and nonsense that parades itself as difficult and impressive lore.

It would be nice if we could then trace "Welsh" into the text in just this sense. However, except for a reference to "Welsh Fusiliers" in "Circe," "Welsh/welsh" doesn't appear in U after "Oxen," and no pre-"Oxen" passages seem especially relevant either. So perhaps Herring is right in saying that this canceled entry actually ends up as "welsher" in "Oxen," describing Costello in a passage where other Defoe-sourced notesheet entries also end up.

If (a big "if"...) Joyce jotted down "Welsh" in the sense of "gibberish" but later used it to mean "welsh" in the sense of failing to pay debts, what does that mean?

One could say that the two senses are actually related: the basic idea underlying both is failure to use language in a trustworthy fashion, whether snowing someone with fancy verbiage or failing to make good on a bet agreed to and lost. But if they are really two distinct senses, it is worth bearing in mind that Joyce sometimes appears to have had one thing in mind in jotting down a note and then something else in mind when incorporating that note into a text. Nothing so strange there: the literary point is to employ noted-down wording in ways that are useful to the passage in which they are ultimately incorporated, and the details of the latter are not 100% foreseeable when notes are taken before the final revision or perhaps even the initial composition of the passage in which it ends up being used. So noted-down wording may quite naturally end up sometimes being used in ways different from what was anticipated while making the note.

A related possibility: In reading the quoted paragraph from the "Quack" passage, Joyce may have written down "Welsh" because that paragraph had made him think of it, but his intention, or one of his intentions, may not so much have been to use the word in that exact sense ("fustian") but instead to employ it because of some other thematic idea that it would bring into play, regardless of the exact sense in which he actually ended up employing it. In "Oxen" Joyce seems to be trying to subsume certain classes of words and things for thematic reasons that are sometimes fairly obvious, sometimes less so (cf. the later FW technique of, for example, incorporating river-names in I.8); for example, among other things and themes, and for reasons one might speculate about, "Oxen" is noticeably spiced with islands. As for the notesheet entry "Welsh" and its subsequent employment as "welsher" in "Oxen", it may be part of Joyce's apparent attempt to subsume, in "Oxen," the elements of a sort of Celtic encyclopedia -- aside from Ireland (obviously), there are references to Scotland and to Wales (including "Mona island," which is along the route via which Joyce and Irish people generally got to Wales by ship from Holyhead near Dublin), etc.

By writing "Welsh" at ns 1.9b Joyce may have intended to remind himself to use the name of that Celtic culture and nation somewhere. The fact that it could be used in the sense of "fancy nonsense" may have seemed a good possibility to Joyce as he took notes and planned. After all, a certain amount of fancy but sometimes hard to comprehend verbiage may well be apparent throughout the episode's National Maternity Hospital conference-room discussions, or even in the literary modes of "Oxen" itself. But when Joyce came to draft the passage about Costello, a passage that would naturally employ the early-18C cullings on ns 1, it may have occurred to him that there was another useful way in which he could incorporate "welsh" into the 18C passage, given the lowlife theme of Costello's thumbnail biography in this passage.

wander thro' the world &c. [canceled in red]

"she turned to me, called me profane fellow, and a scoffer, told me that it was a time of God's anger, and dreadful judgments were approaching, and that despisers, such as I should wander and perish"

Peacock 131 (Defoe Plague): at the end of the long para. that fills most of page 131

U 14.1544-45 Thrust syphilis down to hell and with him those other licensed spirits. Time, gents! Who wander through the world

Joyce here enters on the notesheet not a bit of 18C wording taken from the anthologized Defoe passage in Peacock but instead a bit of wording that a passage in Peacock's Defoe seems to have provoked him to recall. Leo XIII, the Pope from 1878-1903, had ordered in the 1880s that several prayers be added at the end of the ordinary day-to-day "Low Mass" version of the Latin (a/k/a Tridentine) Mass that was standard in the Catholic Church throughout Joyce's lifetime. (The shift to vernacular Mass rites took place in the 1960s.) The very last of the Leo's additional prayers at the end of the Mass is this, given first in Latin and then in an English translation. It is a Prayer to the Archangel, St. Michael, recited by all, i.e., both the celebrant of the Mass and the congregation in attendance:

Sante Michael Archangele, defende nos in proelio; contra nequitiam et insidias diaboli esto praesidium. Imperet illi Deus, supplices deprecamur: tuque, Princeps militiae caelestis, Satanam aliosque spiritus malignos, qui ad perditionem animarum pervagantur in mundo, divina virtute in infernum detrude.

"St. Michael, the archangel, defend us in battle. Be our protection against the wickedness and snares of the devil. May God rebuke him, we humbly pray. And do thou, prince of the heavenly host, by the power of God, cast into hell Satan and the other evil spirits who wander in the world seeking the ruin of souls."

Except for a concluding "Amen," this was the end of the Low Mass until Pope Pius X (1903-14) appended a two-line Invocation of the Sacred Heart. So this prayer to Michael was the actual closing of the Catholic Mass ritual in its of the most commonly encountered version during the period when Joyce was growing up. It is a prayer for protection from the forces of evil that is recited just as the congregation is about to go out into the world after Mass ends.

This status as a well-known prayer explains the form of the entry -- "wander thro' the world &c." is simply Joyce's reminder to himself of the wording of the prayer plus an indication ("&c.") that more wording follows that he does not need to write down because he already has it in his head.

Note that Bloom heard this prayer being recited in a vernacular/English version for the benefit of the congregation at the very end of the Low Mass he witnesses part of on the morning of 16 June 1904, late in the book's fifth episode:

     The priest prayed:
     Blessed Michael, archangel, defend us in the hour of conflict. Be our safeguard against the wickedness and snares of the devil (may God restrain him, we humbly pray!): and do thou, O prince of the heavenly host, by the power of God thrust Satan down to hell and with him those other wicked spirits who wander through the world for the ruin of souls.
     The priest and the massboy stood up and walked off. All over. The women remained behind: thanksgiving. (U 5.442-49)

It is also worth noting that in addition to U 14.1544-45 other bits from the prayers at the close of the Low Mass of Joyce's era also appear earlier in the "Oxen" coda. Someone (Stephen, perhaps) constructs a parodic prayer that is simultaneously devoted to lust and (at U 14.1537 and 1544-45) begs for protection from the venereal dangers inherent in the whoring in which Stephen and Lynch are about to engage:

(A) U 14.1520, 1523-24, 1527: O lust our refuge and our strength.... Of John Thomas, her spouse.... Through yerd our lord, Amen.

The post-Mass prayers Leo XIII had added as a coda to the ritual begin with prayers to Mary. Then, the prayer immediately prior to the prayer to Michael
discussed just above is "O God, Our Refuge and Our Strength," which the priest recites. Here is the Latin and an English version:

Oremus. [pause for a moment] Deus, refugium nostrum et virtus, populum ad te clamantem propitius respice; et intercedente gloriosa et immaculata Virgine Dei Genitrice Maria, cum beato Joseph, ejus Sponso, ac beatis Apostolis tuis Petro et Paulo, et omnibus Sanctis, quas pro conversione peccatorum, pro libertate et exaltatione sanctae Matris Ecclesiae, preces effundimus, misericors et benignus exaudi. Per eumdem Christum Dominum nostrum.

"Let us pray. [pause for a moment] O God, our refuge and our strength, look down in mercy on Thy people who cry to Thee; and by the intercession of the glorious and Immaculate Virgin Mary, Mother of God, of St. Joseph, her spouse, of Thy blessed apostles Peter and Paul, and of all the Saints, graciously hear our prayers for the conversion of sinners, and for the freedom and exaltation of Holy Mother Church. Through the same Christ our Lord."

"O lust our refuge and our strength" at U 14.1520 parodies a bit of wording from closing prayers in the Low Mass prayers, wording that appears in unparodic form at U 5.417-22:

The priest came down from the altar, holding the thing out from him, and he and the massboy answered each other in Latin. Then the priest knelt down and began to read off a card:
--O God, our refuge and our strength .....
Mr Bloom put his face forward to catch the words. English. Throw them the bone.

(B) U 14.1537 And snares of the poxfiend

Cp. "and snares of the devil" in the prayer to Michael, where the wording "who wander through the world" also occurs.

merryandrew [canceled in red]

"slipping off his great coat, in an instant rose up a complete merry-andrew"

Peacock 132 (Defoe "Quack"): later in the same sentence from which entry 1.8b derives

U 14.534: He was a kind of sport gentleman that went for a merryandrew or honest pickle

Atherton AWN 7 (1970), p. 78

:tester [canceled in red]

"offering health and immortality to sale for the price of a tester"

Peacock 133 (Defoe "Quack"): at the end of the first complete para., in mid-page

U 14.542: if he had but gotten into him a mess of broken victuals or a platter of tripes with a bare tester in his purse

Atherton AWN 7 (1970), p. 78

The ":" prior to "tester" is most likely a separator that Joyce sometimes places between separate entries on the same horizontal line.

honest pickle [canceled in red ]

"though honest pickle with a world of grimace and gesticulation endeavoured to move my gaiety, I began to be very fearful of where the metamorphosis might end"

Peacock 132 (Defoe "Quack"): the line immediately below the line from which entry 1.11a is taken

U 14.534: He was a kind of sport gentleman that went for a merryandrew or honest pickle

Atherton AWN 7 (1970), p. 78

open the design of his embassy [canceled in red]

"After a short preamble, he began to open the design of his embassy"

Peacock 133 (Defoe "Quack"): middle of the first complete para.

U 14.551: which [i.e., eating some sardines] was indeed the chief design of his embassy as he was sharpset

Atherton AWN 7 (1970), p. 78

Burst his sides [canceled in red ]

"You'd have burst your sides had you but heard the foolish allusions"

Peacock 133 (Defoe "Quack"): the line immediately below the line from which entry 1.11b is drawn

U 14.544: every mother's son of them would burst their sides [cf. "everyone their" at 1.8a]

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 165

every mother's son [canceled in red ]

"assured us with a prophetic air that without his physic every mother's son of us would be in our graves by that day twelve-month"

Peacock 134 (Defoe "Quack"): about a third of the way down the page

U 14.544: every mother's son of them would burst their sides

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 165

itinerant [canceled in red]

"it will be easy to form an estimate of the havoc which this itinerant man-slayer made in the space of two hours"

Peacock 135 (Defoe "Quack"): seven lines from the top of the page

U 14.896: an itinerant vendor of articles needed in every household

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 165

:viz [canceled in red]

"what I have heretofore asserted, viz. that the quacks contribute more towards keeping us poor than all our national debts"

Peacock 135 (Defoe "Quack"): almost halfway down the page

[not used in "Oxen," but "viz." appears once in "Eumaeus" and then five times in "Ithaca"]

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 165

The ":" prior to "viz" is most likely a separator that Joyce sometimes places between separate entries on the same horizontal line.

foodstuff [uncanceled]

[not in CJ]

["foodstuff" does not appear anywhere in U, but does appear in FW, just once, at 170.23, in a prominent passage early in the Shem episode ("first via foodstuffs")]

"Foodstuff" is a mid-19C word and not a Defoe or 18C vocabulary item, so unless this is a mistranscription it requires some careful accounting. Given that entries 1.6 through 1.16b are from the Peacock anthology and entry 1.18 is neither from Peacock nor, like entries 1.19 ff., from Colonel Jack, perhaps there is little in the surroundings to suggest a source. If the entry really is "foodstuff," at the most it might have been suggested by Defoe, who wrote well over a century before "foodstuff" appears to have been coined.

A search for all occurrences of "food(-)stuff(s)" in OED2 strongly suggests that this term did not come into use until the second half of the nineteenth century. When Joyce was writing, it was still a relatively new word, about as old to him as a Depression-era or World-War-II coinage is to us today. If this OED2 information is accurate and there are not missing antedatings out there to be located by lexicographers, Joyce definitely did not copy "foodstuff" out of any 18C text, either Defoe's or Swift's or anyone else's. I have searched several full-length Defoe texts electronically and although he uses "stuff(s)" his usual meanings for the word are (1) cloth (the word's original sense) and (2) possessions generally (a common meaning still today; cp. the semantic shift in Italian from roba/cloth(es) to roba/stuff/thing). In the texts I searched, Defoe never uses "foodstuff," though at one point he does say "some of it [i.e., some of our land] we were oblig'd to plant with Garden Stuff for Food; such as Potatoes, Carrots, Cabbages, Peas, Beans, &c.," on p. 196 of CJ (1723 ed.), at the end of a paragraph that begins "These two Acres I got...." However, it seems that Joyce began culling at the beginning of CJ in entry 1.19 and worked forward from there, so the idea that he is a creating
an entry earlier on the sheet that is loosely based on wording from p. 196 of CJ seems fairly unlikely: Joyce did not get to p. 196 of CJ until he was some twenty entries into the second notesheet.

Another possibility is that the entry may have been somehow suggested by the "Quack Doctor" anthology segment that Joyce had been culling from down to this point on the notesheet. It is possible that "Welsh" (1.9b) was suggested by a passage in the segment without that word actually having been used by Defoe, and lacking any solid sourcing for this entry it is worth considering this possibility. The last page of the "Quack Doctor" describes the quack's medicines, and uses words such as "medicament" and "recipe" that might associatively suggest "foodstuff"; the passage also mentions feeding the medicines to rats and dogs as poisons, which again suggests the idea of food. But all of this taken together still fails to provide a solid indication of sourcing, even if it hints at a vague possibility.

So, what are the options here? The most immediately obvious possibilities are:
(1) Mistranscription: Would a look at the original of ns 1, or at least a better copy than I have access to, show that the word is definitely "foodstuff"? In my copy of JJA 14, the writing is not at all clear, even though the entry is uncanceled. Perhaps it wasn't clear to Herring, either.
(2) Perhaps it's a word Joyce thought of as a result of something he read in Defoe and therefore happened to jot down in the middle of the Defoe entries. (Cf. the discussion of "Welsh" at 1.9b.) I.e., it could have been suggested by some Defoe passage he was reading, even though the word itself doesn't appear in Defoe's work.
(3) Perhaps it's something completely unrelated to Defoe that Joyce squeezed in here because he just happened to think of it after he was done culling items from the Defoe section of the Peacock anthology but before he had gone on to other Defoe culling from other books on his shelves. This would make it rather difficult to source, perhaps especially in light of the different time periods involved. But then again, the late-19C wording found between the end of the CJ cullings and the beginning of the Restoration cullings on ns 2 has been successfully traced -- though in the case of the Nietzsche tag there is consecutive wording, in contrast to the single word "foodstuff" that could have been found in a huge number of sources: the consecutive Nietzschean wording Joyce noted down was unique enough in its collocation to permit a definite source identification.

pleaded her belly [canceled in red ]

[on possible Defoe sourcing, see discussion below]

U 14.511: Mistress Purefoy there, that got in through pleading her belly

The most likely theory at this point seems to be that this phrase is drawn from Defoe's Moll Flanders (hereafter, in this entry, MF), though given the entry's seeming isolation from the entries above and below it this remains speculative. If it is from MF, perhaps "pleaded her belly" is not something Joyce searched more or less systematically through MF to find, as he does with the Defoe anthology passages above or the Colonel Jack volume below. After all, he culls nothing else from MF among all his Defoe cullings. But Joyce must have read MF, at least as far back as the early 1910s when he prepared his Trieste lecture on Defoe. The phrase entered at 1.18 is a prominent and reiterated concept from MF as well as being narratively and thematically relevant to "Oxen," the episode where this sheet was intended to be used. So maybe Joyce happened to remember this phrase from MF and therefore entered it on the sheet, with or without opening his own copy of MF , after finishing his two quick anthology culls (entries 1.1-1.16b) but prior to beginning a careful reading of Colonel Jack (1.19 ff.).

Perhaps Joyce did not choose to look systematically through MF culling dozens of entries because he had already decided he was going to do this with Colonel Jack. Possibly he thought that relying more heavily on CJ, a less well known Defoe text than MF or Crusoe, would help him attain a more distinctive collection of 18C diction for "Oxen."

In any case, in CJ there's no "belly," one irrelevant "pleaded" (on p. 263, in the para. beginning "This gave me some Surprize"), and no "pled." The phrase or idea inherent in 1.18 may well appear other places in Defoe's vast body of work than in MF; a more thorough search would involve all texts in the whole multi-volume edition of Defoe that Joyce owned in Trieste. But it certainly was a favorite phrase and favorite idea of Defoe's in Moll Flanders, which we may figure Joyce had read years before beginning work on U, and whose eponymous heroine he certainly alludes to in U.

If Joyce did in fact get "pleaded her belly" from MF, here is the passage he either looked at or else recalled from his earlier reading of MF without opening the book. In this sixth paragraph in the body of the book (excluding the preface) Moll is explaining how her mother was pregnant with her while in prison on a charge of theft, and took advantage of the exemption from punishment that pregnant women enjoyed for the sake of the unborn fetus. This paragraph will appear probably on the second page of the text in almost any edition of MF:

"However it was, this they all agree in, that my mother pleaded her belly, and being found quick with child, she was respited for about seven months; in which time having brought me into the world, and being about again, she was called down, as they term it, to her former judgment, but obtained the favour of being transported to the plantations, and left me about half a year old; and in bad hands, you may be sure."

That this idea shows up repeatedly in MF may well have caused Joyce to tend to remember it when, some years after working intensively on Defoe, he decided to gather words and phrases from Defoe for possible use in "Oxen." Here are the three other passages in MF in which the same idea shows up, but note that none of them have the exact wording Joyce placed on notesheet 1:

"...I began in an intimate kind of way to ask her to tell me something of her own story, which she did with the utmost plainness and sincerity; how she had fallen into very ill company in London in her young days, occasioned by her mother sending her frequently to carry victuals and other relief to a kinswoman of hers who was a prisoner in Newgate, and who lay in a miserable starving condition, was afterwards condemned to be hanged, but having got respite by pleading her belly, dies afterwards in the prison."

"Then I told her my own story, and my name, and assured her, by such other tokens as she could not deny, that I was no other, nor more or less, than her own child, her daughter, born of her body in Newgate; the same that had saved her from the gallows by being in her belly, and the same that she left in such-and-such hands when she was transported."

"I asked one of this crew how long she had been there.  She said four months. '...I am under sentence, only I pleaded my belly , but I am no more
with child than the judge that tried me, and I expect to be called down next sessions.'  This 'calling down' is calling down to their former judgment, when a woman has been respited for her belly, but proves not to be with child, or if she has been with child, and has been brought to bed.  'Well,' says I, 'are you thus easy?'  'Ay,' says she, 'I can't help myself; what signifies being sad?  If I am hanged, there's an end of me,' says she; and away she turns dancing, and sings as she goes the following piece of Newgate wit ---- "

son of shame [canceled in red ]

"Son of shame/Son of Shame"

Defoe Colonel Jack 3 [two occurrences]: in the paragraphs that begin "My Nurse" and "It happen'd"

U 14.1065 [describing the prostitute Bridie Kelly, Bloom's first sexual partner]: she is a poor waif, a child of shame

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 136; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 206

1.20a and b
can't, won't [both entries on this line are canceled in red, separately]

[on possible sources, see discussion below]

[there's only one "can't" in "Oxen" (U 14.512 "the midwives sore put to it and can't deliver") but half a dozen "cannot," of which only the first one is in what may be the CJ sense (i.e., meaning "won't" and in the first person), i.e., "I cannot away with them" (U 14.828-29); "won't" perhaps in the sense of "can't" rather than "won't" occurs as U 14.476 ("the seed won't sprout")]

Are these two words one entry or two? Herring transcribes them as one entry, but they are crossed off with two different scorings in two different planes, whereas the other crossed-off entries on ns 1 seem to be scored out with a single horizontal line, never two separate lines crossing off one entry.

The first example of "can't" in CJ is on page 44 of the 1723 ed.; the first example of "won't" in CJ is on page 27 (1723). However, if "won't" is 1.20b rather than 1.20a, it could be a case of Joyce skipping back up to an unfilled spaced to the right of the end of an earlier entry in order to fit a short entry in without wasting a whole line on it, a strategy already seen earlier on this notesheet.

"Can't" occurs nine times in CJ, five of which are on pp. 44-48 (in the 1723 ed.) and four of which (two apiece) are on pp. 47-48. (Besides these five examples, "can't" also appears on pp. 135, 148, 180, 248.) Meanwhile, "won't" occurs 27 times in CJ (pp. 36, 37, 37, 40, 41, 47, 63, 76, 76, 81, 91, 92, 92, 95, 96, 108, 115, 115, 115, 115, 116, 128, 157, 159, 160, 180, 180). Also, there are seven examples of "wont" with no apostrophe in CJ, none occurring earlier than p. 90; there are no examples of "cant" in CJ without the apostrophe.

Of note is a passage of (mainly) one-line-per-utterance dialogue on pp. 47-48 of CJ where young Jack keeps saying "I can't tell" (three times) and his interlocutor says "won't you buy." It is tempting to source the entry to this passage.

However, another possibility to be considered is that the words "can't" and "won't" were not culled from a CJ passage where they appear together. Instead, one might note that in this passage on pp. 47-48 where young Jack repeatedly uses "can't," what he really means by it is "won't" ("I can't tell" = "I won't tell"). Possibly the entry "can't, won't" is actually a word followed by a gloss, though Joyce does not have a pattern of glossing words in the "Oxen" notesheets by connecting word and gloss with a comma; he puts a gloss in parenthesis at 2.38, "to night (stanotte)."

Is there any possibility of mistranscription here? Given that Joyce had made only one entry from CJ at the point when he wrote down "can't, won't," could it be that this entry is not drawn from CJ at all? After all, 1.24 is not from CJ either, and 1.17 is not from Defoe: so Joyce was willing to incorporate non-Defoe entries into his long list of Defoe entries. Possibly some non-CJ or non-Defoe bit of wording came to Joyce's attention just as he was starting to read through CJ and it got entered here without having anything to do with all the CJ wording around it. If the wording did actually come from CJ , the pattern inherent in the rest of the CJ entries suggests that "can't, won't" would be based on something in the first five pages of the book, not anything from later on in CJ (pp.  47-48 or elsewhere).

If the entry is not from CJ, a lot of sourcing possibilities need to be explored, but it may be hard to pin down a definite source when the wording is so undistinctive and meanwhile it is also not clear exactly how, in crossing off the entry (entries), Joyce thought he had employed the wording in his work.

ignorant from a child [canceled in red ]

"ignorant and unteachable from Child"

Defoe Colonel Jack 5: in the para. that begins "Capt. Jack"

U 14.554  From a child this Frank had been a donought

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 136; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 206

nealing [uncanceled]


Defoe Colonel Jack 10 [two occurrences]: in the paragraphs that begin "The Major was a merry" and "I remember that one cold Winter Night"

[no relevant "-neal-" seems to appear in U]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 136; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 206

brought himself off with his tongue [ canceled in red]

"I many times brought myself off with my Tongue"

Defoe Colonel Jack 7: in the para. that begins "I pass'd among my Comrades"

U 14.542-43: he could always bring himself off with his tongue

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 136; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 206

buglehorn [canceled in green]

[not in CJ; neither "bugle" nor "horn" is in CJ, either]

[not in U (though there is one example each of "buglers" and "bugles"); FW 589.29: three boy buglehorners]

OED2 has around two dozen examples of "buglehorn/bugle-horn/bugle horn," which Joyce may have entered into the "Oxen" notesheets because the word
originally referred, when it first appeared (perhaps around 1300) to the "bugle" or wild-ox (from Latin buculus, bullock or young ox [see Skeat's Etymological Dictionary of the English Language], diminutive of Latin bos, bull). More generally, the now obsolete English word "bugle" was used of any kind of wild ox or buffalo (in the European sense of the latter word). A bugle's horn ("bugle horn" or "bugle-horn"; shortened during the fourteenth century to "bugle") was employed as a drinking vessel ( OED2 has citations ranging from late-14C Chaucer through early in the 17C) and also as a musical instrument (OED2 has citations of literal and contemporary applications dating from the 14C and 15C, followed by archaic heraldic and literary examples from the 17C and then the 19C). Bulls were known for their loud bellow (cf. Germanic bullen, cited in the OED etymology of "bull"; French beugler = to bellow, cited in Skeat EDEL under "bugle") and apparently the use of a bull's horn as a musical instrument happily coincided with that -- Of course, this small and therefore relatively high-pitched horn was eventually redesigned in metal, creating the bugle we still know today.

A fair number of OED's citations of "bugle(-)horn" are Scottish or north-country; perhaps Joyce felt there was not only an "Oxen" link but also a Celtic connection to the word; OED2 has (at a minimum) these citations: Chaucer's "Franklin's Tale" (late 14th cent.); Trevisa (1387, in a citation where "in bugle horn" is glossed "in cornu babuli"); Mandeville (c. 1400, xxvi. 269 "Hornes of grete Oxen or of Bugles"); Bellenden Cron. Scot. (1536 "Hornis... thikkar than ony horne of ane bewgill"); E. Grimstone Hist. World (1615, "Cups... made of bugles hornes"); Risdon (c. 1630, heraldic context); three cites from Walter Scott, who revived so many archaic words (perhaps in this case from Chaucer?) and who of course has a Celtic connection (Wild Huntsman, 1796; Last Minstr. , 1805; Marm., 1808); Tennyson (1842, "Locksley Hall" 2 and "Palace of Art" 63); Jones (1871, from Northumbria, "Tom Buglehorn"); and Papworth (1874, heraldic context). Skeat's EDEL (final edition.) lists even more etymological information on "bugle" that was current in Joyce's day, plus some other early usage references.

Some sourcing possibilities: The most famous early use of "bugle(-)horn" in English is Chaucer, whose work we know Joyce admired (see some of the evidence gathered in Gillespie, James Joyce's Trieste Library, where Skeat's student edition of Chaucer appears, an edition also discussed in my article on "Skeat and Joyce: A Garner of Words," in Dictionaries 18 [1997], p. 59 fn33); Scott and Tennyson re-disseminated the word in literary use in the 19th cent., so this may be another avenue for Joyce's knowledge; and/or Joyce may have remembered, in 1920, the "bugle"/"bullock" connection that he may well have come across while reading "Skeat by the hour" as an undergraduate; or, there may be some other harder-to-guess-at source.

tale or tidings [canceled in blue ]

"a good while before we ever heard Tale or Tidings of him"

Defoe Colonel Jack 12: in the para. that begins "Capt. Jack, in this time fell into bad Company"

U 14.545: The other, Costello that is, hearing this talk asked was it poetry or a tale

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 136; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 206

:hanker about [canceled in red ]

"we hanker'd about in Castle-Alley"

Defoe Colonel Jack 52: in the para. that begins "We went no more to the Custom house"

U 14.536: for the most part hankered about the coffeehouses and low taverns

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 208

The ":" prior to "hanker about" is most likely a separator that Joyce sometimes places between separate entries on the same horizontal line.

kidnap [canceled in blue]


Defoe Colonel Jack 12: in the para. that begins "Capt. Jack, in this time fell into bad Company"

U 14.562: kidnapping a squire's heir by favour of moonlight

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 136; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 206

Although there are several occurrences of "kidnap" and derivatives in CJ, Janusko's S&S is probably right in believing that the likeliest source is the very same paragraph in CJ from which Joyce definitely derived 1.25a, i.e., the entry immediately above this one on ns 1. Other CJ occurrences of "kidnap" and related words occur much later in the book, for example at pp. 147, 149, 246, 314, 348 (1723 edition).

was earnest to know [canceled in red ]

"I was very earnest then to know"

Defoe Colonel Jack 17: in the para. that begins "I was very earnest then to know"

U 14.566 What, says Mr Leopold with his hands across, that was earnest to know the drift of it, will they slaughter all?

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 136; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 206

mess [canceled in red]

"a good mess of charming Beef Broth"

Defoe Colonel Jack 18: in the para. that begins "N.B. We had each of us a good mess of charming Beef Broth"

U 14.541: if he had but gotten into him a mess of broken victuals or a platter of tripes with a bare tester in his purse

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 208

Janusko S&S sees the source for this entry in a later passage, p.51 in the 1723 ed. (where the narrator openly points out, "as I said once before"). However, given the surrounding notesheet entries, p. 18 seems likelier. In any case, pp. 18 and 51 are the only two occurrences of "mess" in CJ. But note also that "boyling house" (used in "Oxen") does occur in the second passage; see CJ, p. 51, in the paragraph beginning "I went now, up and down." So perhaps in some sense both passages led to the entry, or at least to a mental note Joyce made as to how to use this entry, i.e., in what context and with what other non-notesheeted wording. (Note that 1.25b just above is from page 52, right nearby.) Perhaps after making an entry for "mess" while reading CJ p. 18, Joyce noticed the recurrence on p. 51 and absorbed that second context, which ended up operating in his composition of the Defoe passage in "Oxen."

victuals [canceled in red]

"What if we should go somewhere and get some Victuals"

Defoe Colonel Jack 18: in the para. that begins "We put them on immediately"

U 14.541: if he had but gotten into him a mess of broken victuals or a platter of tripes with a bare tester in his purse

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 136; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 206

There are 11 examples of "victuals" in CJ: in the 1723 ed., these appear on pp. 8, 9, 9, 9, 18, 46, 49, 69, 88, 139, and 178. Janusko S&S sources this entry to p. 18, where the term occurs just prior to a trip to "a boiling Cook's," cf. 1.29 below (note how the Defoe passage in "Oxen" employs all these words in close proximity). So most likely S&S is quite right about exactly what page Joyce was looking at when this entry was made, though it might also be borne in mind that Joyce may well have noted an accumulation of occurrences of "victuals" before jotting it down, which makes the examples of "victuals" prior to p. 18 also relevant, if more vaguely, to this entry.

boiling cook's [canceled in red ]

"so we went to a boiling Cook's in Rosemary-Lane"

Defoe Colonel Jack 18: in the para. that begins "So, we will then says the Major, I am hungry too"

U 14.540: He took his ordinary at a boilingcook's

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 136; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 207

Cf. also "went to a boyling House, as I said once before," at CJ p. 51 of the 1723 edition.

bitter end [canceled in red]

[there is no example of "bitter" in CJ; there are over 50 examples of "end"]

Just as he also did with many of the surrounding entries that can be traced clearly in the published text of "Oxen," Joyce crossed this entry off, indicating that he felt he had somehow employed this entry in the episode. Clarifying that employment might clarify the entry and perhaps shed light on its source.

There are several examples of "bitter" and several examples of "end" in "Oxen," but no "bitter end" anywhere in U; perhaps the closest verbal match in "Oxen," pending some better insight, is "last end" (in reference to death) early in the episode, though there are also other examples in the episode of "end" meaning death. Throughout "Oxen," "bitter" understandably appears in connection with Stephen and his current alienation from life as a result of the untimely and seemingly 'undeserved' death (i.e., end) of his mother, a concern which has loomed large in his thinking since early in the book's first episode. In "Oxen," "bitter" is used only in connection with Stephen: "But thou hast suckled me with a bitter milk: my moon and my sun thou hast quenched for ever. And thou hast left me alone for ever in the dark ways of my bitterness: and with a kiss of ashes hast thou kissed my mouth" (U 14.377-80); "But was young Boasthard's fear vanquished by Calmer's words? No, for he had in his bosom a spike named Bitterness which could not by words be done away" (U 14.429-31); and "The stranger still regarded on the face before him a low recession of that false calm there, imposed, as it seemed, by habit or some studied trick, upon words so embittered as to accuse in their speaker an unhealthiness, a flair , for the cruder things of life" (U 14.1356-59; this sentence conveys Bloom's feeling about Stephen's cynical "staggering bob" comment postulating divine predation toward human beings). "Bitter" also appears in connection with Stephen throughout U, starting as early as "Stephen  aid with bitterness: It is a symbol of Irish art" (U 1.145-46). Apparently the word was significant to Joyce in expressing Stephen's situation as of 16 June 1904. And the full phrase "bitter end" was apparently significant as well; he uses a variant of it on the last page of FW when yet another late-middle-aged female is leaving life and family behind: "O bitter ending!" (FW 627.34-35).

In any case, Joyce's crossing out of the entry seems to indicate that he felt he had included the idea of "bitter end" in "Oxen," even if that exact phrase does not  appear there. Perhaps he somehow felt that the way he talks about Stephen's bitterness over death and life sufficed for the entry to be crossed out.

But is this entry drawn from CJ? It is hard to see how. First, "bitter end" appears nowhere in CJ. Secondly, the four entries preceding this one (1.27a, 1,27b, 1.28, and 1,29a) and the two entries following it (1.30a and 1.30b) all come from the same couple of pages in CJ , and unlike the possible relationship of "Welsh" at 1.9b above to a passage in the Peacock anthology there is no wording or situation anywhere in the several pages of CJ on either side of this 1.27-1.30 cluster that even seems to suggest "bitter end." Thirdly, like "foodstuff" (1.17) the phrase "bitter end," still current at the beginning of the 21st century, does not seem to have  existed prior to the middle of the nineteenth century, so it is hardly likely to turn up in CJ, Defoe's work in general, or the work of any other author of the period. Here is part of the relevant entry from OED's treatment of the adjective "bitter":

[meaning] 2b. to the bitter end: to the last and direst extremity; to death itself. So commonly used: but the history is doubtful.... Cf. Bible Prov. v. 4.
1849 Congress. Globe 12 Dec. 23, I am unfortunately among those who voted for the gentleman from Indiana, even 'to the bitter end'.
1850 Ibid. 9 Apr., App. 434 Our defence is a just one, and will be maintained by us to the 'bitter end'.
1921 L. Strachey Q. Victoria vi. 210 He would go on, working to the utmost and striving for the highest, to the bitter end.

Note that the earliest citations are American, which may suggest that Joyce as a member of an Anglo-Irish speech community might have found the phrase a bit exotic and perhaps of interest in part for that reason.

Given all this, it seems likely that Joyce happened to think of the phrase "bitter end" while culling material from the several pages in CJ that generate the entries immediately above and below, but if "bitter end" is somehow a function of Joyce's reading of this passage of CJ, it is not easy to tell how. The situation is perhaps roughly similar to that of "foodstuff" at 1.17.

N.B [uncanceled]


Defoe Colonel Jack 18: in the para. that begins "N.B. We had each of us a good mess of charming Beef Broth" [cf. 1.27b]

[there's no "n.b." (or any variant) in "Oxen"; the sole example in the rest of U is an "N.B." in the "Ithaca" episode]

Downing, March 2001

Defoe uses "N.B." three times in CJ, on pp. 15, 16, and 18; given the pages from which Joyce culled the surrounding entries, Joyce seems to have made the entry while reading p. 18. One possible inference is that Joyce had already passed "N.B." on pp. 15 and 16, so perhaps by the time he saw it on p. 18 it might have begun to look to Joyce like a Defoe mannerism.

Note also that "N.B" is a separate entry on the notesheet, not part of the "gotten" entry that follows. Joyce knew they were separate: when he crossed off "gotten" he left "N.B :" uncanceled, though in the event he never did come back and use it anywhere.

: gotten [canceled in red]

"having gotten a Society Lodging"

Defoe Colonel Jack 19: in the para. that begins "The Major fail'd not to let me see"

U 14.541 if he had but gotten into him a mess of broken victuals or a platter of tripes with a bare tester in his purse

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 136; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 207

The ":" prior to "gotten" is most likely a separator that Joyce sometimes places between separate entries on the same horizontal line.

U 14.541: is the only example of "gotten" not only in "Oxen" but anywhere in U. It is interesting to note that there are twenty examples of "gotten" in CJ, of which the one on p. 19 is the first (pp. 19, 23, 31, 47, 57, 89, 90, 124, 136, 140, 172, 200, 202, 254, 271, 286, 286, 352, 373, 386). Janusko S&S sources the word to p. 19, the first occurrence. Given that the entries that seem to be immediately prior to this one, i.e., 1.27b, 1.28, and 1.29a, all come from the immediately preceding p. 18, S&S is unimpeachable.

Apparently this participle was not a form Joyce used himself, and when he first saw it in CJ it leapt out at him as distinctive. In an entry located in a fascicle published in 1900, OED labels this form of the participle "rare" and gives only two usage citations after 1720. Of course, there is no need to assume that college-age Joyce is reading OED fascicles as they appear, but the OED entry for "gotten" explains why Joyce only uses "got" except for this sole example he had gotten from Defoe and redeployed in the Defoe passage in "Oxen." "Gotten" may not sound especially odd to American readers, because U.S. English retains "gotten" as an option in addition to "got." But it certainly leapt out to Joyce as archaic, therefore successfully making the complete transition from source to notesheet to U as published.

what in the earth [canceled in red ]

"I was so frighted with having so much Money, that knew [sic: there's no "I" here] not what in the Earth to do with my self"

Defoe Colonel Jack 47: in the para. that begins "They ask'd me a great many Questions"

U 14.500 [when Mulligan and Bannon meet by chance]: asks what in the earth he does there

Downing, March 2001

big of my age [canceled in red ]

"tho' I was now near 15 Year old, I was not big of my Age"

Defoe Colonel Jack 22: in the para. that begins "Upon these perswasions"

U 14.502: but would tell him of a skittish heifer, big of her age and beef to the heel

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 136; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 207

Joyce not infrequently changes first- and second-person locutions found in his sources into third-person for use in his narrative (cp. 1.40). Here, however, he doesn't. Possibly he forgets to, and simply copies what he sees in the source. Of course, ultimately he had to change it to third-person anyway when he used it in the text.

Note also that "I was now about 18, and pretty Tall of my Age" occurs on p. 78 of CJ (1723), in the para. beginning "However the Word took with me."

savourly [uncanceled]

"then I fell a crying as savourly as I did before"

Defoe Colonel Jack 31: in the para. that begins "While I was in the first Transport"

[there is no example of "savourly" in "Oxen" or in U]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 207

"Savourly" means "with savour"; used of weeping, it means "with great intensity" (see OED)

wishly [canceled in red]

"you look wishly, do you see anything you like"

Defoe Colonel Jack 32: in the para. that begins "Well, young Gentleman, says a man that stood at the Door, you look wishly"

U 14.550: and very friendly he offered to take of some salty sprats that stood by which he had eyed wishly in the meantime

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 207

upon the persuasions of [canceled in red]

"Well, upon the perswasions of this lad"

Defoe Colonel Jack 22: in the para. that begins "Well, upon the perswasions of this lad"

U 14.531-32: on Stephen's persuasion he gave over the search

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 207

Defoe uses the word in the plural four times in CJ, always spelling it with a w instead of a u. Throughout "Oxen," Joyce tends to assimilate period spelling to the general spelling conventions of U as a whole, expressing a "period" feel with period diction and phrasing and attitudes rather than through period orthography. (Note for example the non-Old English spelling of the Old English paragraph and the non-Middle English spelling of the Middle English paragraphs.)

Defoe also uses "Upon those perswasions" on p. 21, just prior to the source passage for this entry, which may have contributed to some idea on Joyce's part that this was a turn of phrase typical of Defoe and hence to Joyce's decision to jot a similar phrase down when he saw it in the next page of CJ.

pushing at getting of money [uncanceled]

"their Restless pushing at getting of Money"

Defoe Colonel Jack 49: in the para. that begins "This was enough to let anyone see"

["pushing at" and "getting of" appear nowhere in U]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 208

come, come, plain dealing [canceled in red]

"Come, come, Col. [sic] says he, don't flatter me, I love plain Dealing"

Defoe Colonel Jack 189: in the para. that begins "Come, come, Col. says he, don't flatter me, I love plain Dealing"

U 14.578: Come, come, says Mr Vincent, plain dealing

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 210

1.37 and 1.38
the more he has, the ..... lord [uncanceled]
?e understood this, who [uncanceled]

There appears to be a serious transcription problem at 1.37-38. Joyce's handwriting becomes even more casual than usual, and he's trying to squeeze wording into a tight space due to the swelling of the embryological diagram toward the margin of the sheet at this point. I don't even have a clear sense of how many entries this is: two, as in Herring (presumably based on the fact that it appears on two successive horizontal lines)? one? more than two?

I have tried electronically searching CJ for various of these words and even (given the possibility of mistranscription) for other words one might instead see in this passage. I have not yet stumbled upon any promising results. Possibly this wording somehow comes from CJ in some passage or other (or, more than one passage) after p. 189, given the fact that it was jotted just below an entry from p. 189: a plausible but speculative possibility until some solid source or sources turn up. Perhaps Joyce himself had a hard time making the entry out later, hence its uncanceled status -- though on the other hand one might also note that it tends to be the longer entries on ns 1 that Joyce was unable to find a use for and therefore left uncanceled.

with the clerk who the man that stopped the boy had called to. [canceled in red]

"and that he had left word with the Clerk, who the Man that stop'd this Boy had call'd to, and who was there with him"

Defoe Colonel Jack 35: in the para. that begins "Well, when they could get nothing out of him"

[see the discussion, just below, of possible redeployment in "Oxen"]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 207

This exact wording doesn't appear in "Oxen," but the structure of the wording (and the structure seems likely to have been Joyce's reason for entering it into the notesheet) does get echoed several times in the Defoe passage, for example at U 14.552-53: "Frank then in the French language that had been indentured to a brandyshipper that has a winelodge in Bordeaux"; and at U 14.573-76: "Mr Stephen, a little moved but very handsomely told him no such matter and that he had dispatches from the emperor's chief tailtickler thanking him for the hospitality, that was sending over Doctor Rinderpest." But there may be other echoes, as well.

Indeed says he, Robin, that was his name. [ canceled in red]

"indeed, says I, Robin, that was his Name"

Defoe Colonel Jack 37: in the para. that begins "I was silenc'd a good while with that"

U 14.545-46: Faith, no, he says, Frank (that was his name), 'tis all about Kerry cows that are to be butchered along of the plague

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 207

Perhaps this entry also influenced the also early-18C passage at U 14.604-05: "By this time the father of the faithful (for so they called him) was grown so heavy that he could scarce walk to pasture."

It is with this entry that "Oxen" notesheet sourcing began; for Robert Janusko's account of the early days of "Oxen" sourcing, follow this link .)

crimp [canceled in red]

"that is to say, Crimps, and the Masters of Coal Ships"

Defoe Colonel Jack 52: in the para. that begins "Being early in the Morning"

U 14.537: for the most part hankered about the coffeehouses and low taverns with crimps, ostlers, bookies, Paul's men, runners, flatcaps, waistcoateers, ladies of the bagnio and other rogues of the game

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 208

broad day [canceled in red]

"as it was hardly broad Day"

Defoe Colonel Jack 53: in the para. that begins "The Collier Master"

U 14.539: and other rogues of the game or with a chanceable catchpole or a tipstaff often at nights till broad day

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 208

along of me [canceled in red]

"for tis' all long of thy lucky News"

Defoe Colonel Jack 54: in the para. that begins "When he had got it"

U 14.546-47: Faith, no, he says, Frank (that was his name), 'tis all about Kerry cows that are to be butchered along of the plague.

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 208

what belonged to women [canceled in red ]

"and knew the least of what belong'd to a Woman, of any Man in Europe of my Age"

Defoe Colonel Jack 239: in the para. that begins "I Was a meer Boy in the Affair of Love, and knew the least"

U 14.534: He was a kind of sport gentleman that went for a merryandrew or honest pickle and what belonged of women, horseflesh or hot scandal he had it pat.

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 210

Note that Defoe uses this "belong'd of" (i.e., in the sense of "had to do with") several times in CJ prior to this passage.

Given the pagination in CJ of the entries above and below, Joyce seems either to have squeezed this entry in after all the surrounding entries were already in place, or alternatively (though given his rather systematic CJ culling habits, this seems less likely) he jumped far forward in the book and, after making this one entry from after page 200 (no other CJ entries from anywhere near that late appear on ns 1), then turned back again to the much earlier part of the book through which he was looking more systematically.

how he did to how I went on [uncanceled]

(A) "we will not desire you to tell us who this cunning Fellow is that got such a Prize from this Gentleman; but as you have talk'd with him, prethee can you tell us nothing of how he did it, that we may beware of such Sparks again"
(B) "however, once coming to me in a very friendly familiar Manner, and asking me how I went on, I told him that I us'd the old Trade still, that I had had two or three good Jobbs, one with a young Woman, whose Pocket I had pick'd of eleven Guineas"

(A) Defoe Colonel Jack 67: in the para. that begins "But just before they were going away"
(B) Defoe Colonel Jack 74: in the para. that begins "Will was a lusty strong Fellow"

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 208

The phrase "how I went on" here means "how I was doing, how I was getting on."

In this entry Joyce seems to combine two bits of phrasing from nearby passages in CJ. The only examples in the book of "how he did" are on pp. 54 and 67. Page 74 yields the only occurrence of "how I went on." Perhaps when Joyce got to the passage on 74 he recalled the wording from 67; if so, perhaps the associative link involved the fact that in both bits of phrasing the topic under discussion is the career and livelihood into which the book's main character has been drawn: pickpocketing. Possibly Joyce took the two bits of wording as somehow synonymous in some way, and felt that that was stylistically interesting -- even though in the context furnished by his source "how I went on" in fact seems to have as its primary meaning "how I was getting on" rather than "what techniques I was employing" as a pickpocket (and the latter meaning is the one that would make the phrase synonymous with "how he/I did it"). But this is only a guess.

There is only one example of "went on" in "Oxen" (U 14.661 "His project, as he went on to expound"), but it is not employed in Defoe's distinctively archaic sense. There is no example of "how" in "Oxen" where the phrasing seems to recall this entry. In any case, the entry is not crossed through and in all likelihood Joyce did not feel he had redeployed it.

Whatever his reason(s) for linking these two separate bits of wording into one entry (something he does not do elsewhere in his notes from Defoe), Joyce himself either forgot what he had in mind with this entry or else simply could not find an appropriate place to use it in "Oxen." Perhaps this is another example of Joyce not finding a place to use a long notesheet entry, even though he had confected it himself from separate bits of CJ .

oaths [canceled in red]

"he swore most horrid Oaths at every two or three Words"

Defoe Colonel Jack 76: in the para. that begins "Yet I had something in me"

U 14.531: (for he [i.e., Lenehan] swore with an oath that he had been at pains about it)

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 208

Transcription question: Might this instead be "oath," rather than "oaths"? I am working from JJA 14 and cannot tell for sure. In this area of ns 1, Joyce often uses commas to separate successive entries that are in horizontal alignment. Joyce uses "oath" in drafting "Oxen." If the entry were "oath," then p. 79 would be the likelier source: "Will having told him with an Oath, that he would cut his throat," in a paragraph beginning "Will steps up to the Gentleman." Note that p. 79 "with an Oath" happens to correspond more closely with what Joyce writes in "Oxen."

For what it is worth, "oath" also occurs on pp. 98 and 99 and "oaths" also occurs at CJ pp. 256 and 258.

offered to hit [canceled in red ]

[on possible source(s) in CJ, see below]

U 14.549: very friendly he offered to take of some salty sprats that stood by which he had eyed wishly in the meantime

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 210

There are no examples of "offer'd/offered to hit" in CJ. There are however examples of the same construction with other verbs than "hit" as the complement, two of them being examples of "offered to" and eleven of "offer'd to":

offer'd to pick her up (p. 15)
offer'd to have it restor'd (p. 60)
offer'd to give it him (p. 64)
offer'd to make a Noise (p. 79)
offered to break in upon him (p. 258)
offer'd to rise (p. 258)
offer'd to Skirmish (p. 273)
offer'd to Comfort her a little (p. 301)
offer'd to hand my Widow out of the Coach (p. 303)
offer'd to show us (p. 303)
offered to either of those two Towns (p. 315)
offer'd to land (p. 358)
offer'd to Engage (p. 385)

Janusko S&S presents "offer'd to rise" on p. 258 as the source for this entry. Given that Joyce starts to skip around a good deal in his culling after entry 1.41, one cannot empirically discern and rely upon a clear web of closely proximate entries in this area of the notesheet, in contrast to earlier sections of the Defoe notes higher up on the notesheet. Given the content, perhaps the other example of the locution on p. 258, with the spelling "offered," might also be considered: "laying his Hand on his Sword told me, if any Man offered to break in upon him, he would run me thro' the first Moment" (in a paragraph beginning "He heard them come in"). I.e., perhaps this CJ passage containing "offered to" (in a context where the possibility of a violent blow is being discussed) provoked the notesheet entry "offered to hit," even though that wording does not appear in CJ, and the notesheet entry in turn generated the phrase "offered to take" in the Defoe para. of "Oxen."

Then again, given that the entry immediately preceding this one derives from p. 76 (or p. 79) and the entry immediately following derives from p. 81, perhaps its source is the wording "Will kept the Man down, who was under him; and tho' he promis'd not to Kill him unless he offer'd to make a Noise, yet he would not let him stir till he heard the Noise of the Coach going on again, by which he knew the jobb was over on that Side" (p. 79, in a paragraph beginning "While they were at this Work").

punk [canceled in red]

"there was in it, only a Gentleman and a Punk; a Whore that he had pick'd up"

Defoe Colonel Jack 81: in the para. that begins "This made us hasten away the faster"

U 14.543: he could always bring himself off with his tongue, some randy quip he had from a punk or whatnot that every mother's son of them would burst their sides

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 208

"Punk" originated as an Elizabethan term for "whore," and that is still its meaning in this passage in Defoe.

unhung his hat [uncanceled]

This note is difficult to source because it does not seem to appear in exactly this form in either Defoe's CJ or Swift's ToaT , the two main source texts here in the bottom area of ns 1. Furthermore, because the entry was not canceled by Joyce as "used," no solid information can be gained from that quarter either. Mistranscription has to be considered as a possibility, but the transcription here does not seem especially questionable. So let us do the best we can in the current state of information, pending subsequent information or insight.

There are a couple of examples of "hat" in ToaT, but nothing that rings any bell; a search in ToaT for the character-sequence -unh- reveals no examples of unhung/unhang or the like.

However, given the alignment of the entry, it looks to have been written down in conjunction with the CJ entries. Note that on line 1.45 immediately below this entry, Joyce lists three separate bits of CJ wording, with separate entries distinguished from prior entries on the same horizontal line by means of a comma. Joyce does the same thing on line 1.44, and what appears to be the same type of 'separator' comma is discernible between 1.44c (the third entry on the line) and 1.59. Therefore, "unhung his hat" seems likely to function as -- so to speak -- "entry 1.44d." One imagines it ended up as 1.59 in Herring's arrangement because of the way in which two sets of entries that begin on the left and right sides of the bottom of the notesheet collide unclearly in this area, combined with the fact this particular entry begins further to the right than any Defoe entry in the bottom margin. But the comma certainly seems to be there, implicitly linking "unhung his hat" to the entries immediately to its left. Could it somehow have been suggested by CJ?

There are fifteen occurrences of "hat" in CJ, none closely resembling the entry. There are no examples at all of the forms "unhung," "unhang," or "unhanged," but there are two places where "unhang'd" shows up. The first, on page 7, is a past participle and as such not grammatically parallel to the notesheet entry, whose word order suggests, despite the telegraphic and hence perhaps ambiguous nature of private note-taking, that "unhung" is a finite verb (in contrast to, for example, something like "unhung hat" or "hat unhung," which would suggest adjectival or participial force). However, the second CJ occurrence of "unhang'd" happens to be a past tense finite verb and as such sounds closer to the notesheet entry. It comes on page 83, in a paragraph where the young protagonist, living a life of theft, is involved in breaking into a house. One of the things they steal is a copper item that is apparently hanging on some kind of hook on the wall:

"I rambl'd this whole Night with them, they went from Chelsea, being disappointed there as above, to Kensington; there they broke into a Brew-house, and Wash-house, and by that means into an Out-Kitchen of a Gentleman's-House, where they unhang'd a small Copper, and brought it off, and stole about a Hundred weight of Pewter, and went clear off with that too, and every one going their own by-ways, they found means to get safe to their several Receptacles where they used to dispose of such things."

This passage comes in the same area of CJ in which Joyce is reading as he makes his nearby notesheet entries: the three prior entries on the same horizontal line (1.44a, 1.44b, and 1.44c) derive from, respectively, pp. 76, 79 (probably), and 81. The first two entries on the next horizontal line are from pp. 88 and 84, respectively. The longer entry on the next line down, which is the bottom line on the sheet, is taken from p. 78 and seems likely to have been placed further down by Joyce when he was already in the middle of culling the entries on line 1.44, which he seems already to have decided to reserve for multiple short entries that he keeps distinct with commas.

This use of "unhang" as a transitive verb in CJ was distinctive enough to catch the eye of one of OED's readers; the dictionary's entry for the verb "unhang" cites this passage. But given Joyce's changed wording in the notesheet entry he does not appear to have had in mind the idea of anything closely related to unhanging a copper that is hanging on a wall. Possibly at some point he was thinking of a hat hanging somewhere, such as on a hatrack, with the owner "unhanging" it when he leaves; that would at least be a little parallel to Defoe's sense at CJ, p. 83. Recall what happens when everyone rushes out of the conference room near the end of "Oxen": "a universal grabbing at headgear, ashplants, bilbos, Panama hats and scabbards, Zermatt alpenstocks and what not" (U 14.1393-94).

Still, one wonders about the ways in which a hat came into the picture as the item unhung.

CJ mentions several times the idea of males doffing their hats as a sign of respect to women. In fact, it is mentioned twice on p. 109, in a passage crucial to the book, where young Jack is talking with a poor woman whom, during his time as a thief, he had robbed of her life savings, though she is unaware of his guilt. After she tells him she is praying for the thief and his repentance, he restores her money, claiming he is making good on behalf of the criminal:

"In a Word, the good Woman so mov'd me with her Charitable Prayers; that I put my Hand in my Pocket again for her, Dame, said I, you are so Charitable in your Petitions for this miserable Creature, that it puts me in Mind of one thing more, which I will do for him, whether he [i.e., the thief] order'd me or not; and that is, to ask you Forgiveness for the Thief in robbing you, for it was an Offence, and a Trespass against you, as well as an Injury to you; and therefore I ask your Pardon for him, will you Sincerely and Heartily forgive him, Dame? I do desire it of you; and with that I stood up, and with my Hat off, ask'd her Pardon; O Sir, says she, do not stand up, and with your Hat off to me, I am a poor Woman, I forgive him, and all that were with him; for there was one or more with him, I forgive them with all my Heart; and I pray God to forgive them."

This of course is an important moment in Jack's transition from a young thief to a morally respectable and economically successful Maryland colonist. And there are also several other mentions in CJ of doffing one's hat as an act of politeness that sometimes involve deeper issues than mere civility, as for example on p. 238 (the entry on ns 1.42 comes from p. 239):

"There dwelt a Lady, in a House opposite to the House I lodg'd in, who made an extraordinary Figure, indeed she went very well Dress'd, and was a most beautiful Person; she was well Bred, Sung admirably fine, and sometimes I could hear her very distinctly, the Houses being over against one another, in a narrow Court not much unlike Three King Court in Lombard Street. This Lady put herself so often in my way, that I could not in good Manners forbear taking Notice of her, and giving her the Ceremony of my Hat, when I saw her at her Window, or at the Door, or when I pass'd her in the Court, so that we became almost acquainted at a distance; sometimes she also visited at the house I lodg'd at, and it was generally contriv'd, that I should be introduced when she came; and thus by degrees we became more intimately acquainted, and often convers'd together in the Family, but always in Publick, at least for a great while."

But if "unhung is hat" is in fact entirely CJ-inspired, maybe the page-109 mention of hat-doffing is the passage likeliest to have done the most to bring about a linking of "unhang'd"/"unhung" and "hat." Even other wording from the passage seems to echo in "Oxen," for example Jack's sense of guilt about having robbed the poor woman ("I was sensible that I had done one of the vilest Actions, in the World, in attacking a poor Creature in such a Condition," pp. 108-09), which might be felt to show up somehow in several passages near the middle of "Oxen," just as Mrs. Purefoy is giving birth ("a lady, now an inmate of Horne's house, that was in an interesting condition, poor body, from woman's woe," U 14.723-25) and hence as Nurse Callan is being called up to the ward, whereupon the unattached young males make sexually predatory comments about her, provoking young Doctor Dixon's attempt at a guilt-inducing rebuke: "Malign such an one, the amiable Miss Callan, who is the lustre of her own sex and the astonishment of ours? And at an instant the most momentous that can befall a puny child of clay? Perish the thought!" [U 14.829-32]).

So Joyce's idea and notesheet entry about unhanging one's hat may come from CJ, but only if he noticed the unusual verb "unhang" on p. 83 and linked it up in his own mind, though perhaps under the influence of such hat-doffing passages at that on p. 109, with the idea of doffing one's hat to a woman, ostensibly an act of civility but sometimes an indication of something more profound -- anything from a guilty thief's profound respect for the good heart of the poor woman he has robbed (p. 109) to someone interested in flirting, and perhaps even in a more intimate relationship, with a neighbor woman (p. 238).

Even though Joyce does not score through 1.59 as "used," this general array of ideas does show up in a narratively and thematically significant passage early in "Oxen," where Bloom, who has just arrived at the Holles Street maternity hospital only to find Nurse Callan answering the door, decides to take care of some 'old business' by asking her pardon for not having doffed his hat to her the last time their paths had crossed, even though (or, perhaps, because) the two of them had flirted a bit in the past, nearly a decade ago, at a time when they had been neighbors in Holles Street. In the mid-1890s Nurse Callan had been a teen, about the age Milly is in 1904; Bloom was deep in dysfunction and repeatedly losing jobs in the wake of Rudy's death; and because Molly was singing in the evening for a living, Miss Callan would sometimes stop in at the Bloom home to help a young husband left by himself to take care of Milly, then a young child. As the medieval style that "Oxen" is employing at this point expresses what the Bloom of 16 June 1904 does in the hospital's entrance hall, "Loth to irk in Horne's hall hat holding the seeker stood. On her stow he ere was living with dear wife and lovesome daughter that then over land and seafloor nine years had long outwandered. Once her in townhithe meeting he to her bow had not doffed. Her to forgive now he craved with good ground of her allowed that that of him swiftseen face, hers, so young then had looked. Light swift her eyes kindled, bloom of blushes his word winning" (U 14.86-92).

Of course, all this makes a rather fancy web to weave: and because Joyce did nothing but record on a notesheet a three-word entry that does not seem able to be sourced in a clear and undeniable fashion in either of the written sources from which nearby entries are derived, it must remain nothing more than a potentially intriguing speculation that could account for the entry's source(s) and thematic significance(s), but certainly does not demand to be taken as an unimpeachable final answer of the kind one arrives at when one locates the exact or nearly exact wording of a notesheet entry in a published source, particularly when that entry is clustered among other entries drawn from the same source.

Possibly Joyce left the entry uncanceled, despite this possible use in "Oxen," because he did not use the exact phrase and therefore felt it might be worth using later -- though in the event he never did cancel the entry and neither "unhang" nor "unhung" appears anywhere in U or FW. It is also possible that Joyce deliberately didn't use the phrase "unhung his hat" because he was fully aware it wasn't actual 18th-century diction from CJ but instead his own confection; I have not yet been able to find any example in either period or current English of the locution "unhang one's hat."

run for it [canceled in red]

"Will got notice of this just time enough to run for it, and not to be taken"

Defoe Colonel Jack 88: in the para. that begins "Will got notice of this just time enough to run for it, and not to be taken"

[on possible use in "Oxen," see below]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 208

There is no example of "run/ran/running for it" anywhere in U . If Joyce's cancellation of this entry indicates he thought he used it somehow in "Oxen," perhaps the entry contributed to either (1) U 14.561 in the Defoe para. ("then he was for the ocean sea or to hoof it on the roads with the romany folk") or else (2) an "Oxen" phrase that basically means "run for it" but without using that wording, at U 14.487-88 in the Pepys paragraph ("in a brace of shakes all scamper pellmell within door for the smoking shower").

mighty brisk [canceled in red ]

"next Morning we met again, and Will was mighty Brisk and Merry"

Defoe Colonel Jack 84: in the para. that begins "Will and I parted for that time, but next Morning we met again"

U 14.533: on Stephen's persuasion he gave over the search and was bidden to sit near by which he did mighty brisk. He was a kind of sport gentleman

Downing, March 2001

Cullings from Defoe's CJ and from Swift's Tale of a Tub jostle in the middle area of the bottom margin of ns 1. However, there is no example of "brisk" in Tale of a Tub, so this entry clearly stands in the CJ camp. For further discussion of where the borderline falls between Defoe and Swift entries in this area of ns 1, see later entries. For now, it suffices to note that from 1.19 through 1.45b, no entries have yet been identified that do not come from CJ.

gentlemen of gallows [canceled in red ]

"his [definition of a] Gentleman was nothing more or less than a Gentleman Thief... and one that might do something more than Wicked, and better entituling him to the Gallows"

Defoe Colonel Jack 78: in the para. that begins "But I go back to where I left off"

[on the question of Joycean redeployment, see just below]

Downing, March 2001

Another possibly relevant CJ passage is on p. 77, where both of the following phrases appear: "ripening a-pace for the Gallows" and "the life of a Gentleman."

With an eye to the possibility that entries in this part of the notesheet might come from either Swift's Tale of a Tub or Defoe's CJ, it is worth noting that there are many examples in Tale of a Tub of "gentleman/men" but none near "gallows."

There are three examples of the character string "gallow" in U, but none leaps out as especially close to this phrase. Several examples of "gentleman" in "Oxen" seem ironic and hence may be thought to derive in a general way from the Defoe phrase, but the most blatantly ironic of them and the one in which, as in this entry, "gentleman/men" is modified by another word that seems to undercut its traditionally positive meaning, occurs, like so much of the wording culled from Defoe, in application to Lenehan early in "Oxen"'s Defoe paragraph: U 14.533 "He was a kind of sport gentleman." This passage therefore seems to be the U passage that Joyce is likeliest to have had in mind in canceling the entry.


The first "Oxen" notesheet is almost exclusively devoted to Defoe cullings, for most of which the exact sources have been on the published record since the early days of "Oxen" notesheet sourcing decades ago. But there is no published sourcing of 1.47-1.55. However, in an unpublished ms. whose information he has generously given me permission to incorporate here, Robert Janusko has shown that most of these items can be solidly traced to Jonathan Swift's Tale of a Tub (hereafter, in this section of the notesheets, "ToaT"), which belongs to the same stylistic period as Defoe's work. I have added some further information and hypotheses to what Janusko has furnished. The result ties this column of notesheet entries to ToaT -- and, after all, the column physically stands by itself to the left of the bottom half of the large embryological diagram that dominates ns 1, while the upper-left, upper-right, and bottom-left areas of the sheet are almost entirely devoted to Defoe cullings.

naturals [canceled in red]

"However, I thought it fairer dealing to offer the whole work in its naturals"

Swift Tale of a Tub 27

U 14.688: fulfilling the functions of her natural

Downing, March 2001

For additional context, here is more of the ToaT source passage, which comes just before the end of "The Bookseller to the Reader," quite near the beginning of ToaT. Though "natural" and derivatives of "natural" naturally occur with some frequency in ToaT, this is the only occurence of "naturals" in the document:

"But I have been lately alarmed with intelligence of a surreptitious copy, which a certain great wit had new polished and refined, or, as our present writers express themselves, fitted to the humor of the age; as they have already done, with great felicity, to Don Quixote, Boccalini, La Bruyère and other authors. However, I thought it fairer dealing to offer the whole work in its naturals. If any gentleman will please to furnish me with a key, in order to explain the more difficult parts, I shall very gratefully acknowledge the favour, and print it by itself."

Several examples of the character-string "natural" occur in "Oxen," among which U 14.688 is the most non-contemporary-sounding occurrence, as well as the only example that is preceded by a possessive pronoun, as in the ToaT source passage.

at cuffs with [uncanceled]

"when a man's fancy gets astride on his reason, when imagination is at cuffs with the senses, and common understanding, as well as common sense, is kicked out of doors"

Swift Tale of a Tub 109: the source passage comes near end of Section IX of ToaT, three paragraphs after the source passage for notesheet 1.53

[there's no example in U of "cuff(s)" employed in connection with fighting or striking with the fists, either literally or figuratively]

Janusko, "Oxcavations" GJS 2 (Spring 2002)

(reason) just at yr. elbow [uncanceled]

"and the reason is just at our elbow, because imagination can build nobler scenes, and produce more wonderful revolutions than fortune or nature will be at expense to furnish"

Swift Tale of a Tub 109

[on the question of Joycean redeployment, see just below]

Janusko, "Oxcavations"  GJS 2 (Spring 2002)

For additional context, here is the source passage, near end of Section IX of , just a few lines after the source passage for ns 1.48 (cf. also 1.51 just below):

"And first, with relation to the mind or understanding, 'tis manifest what mighty advantages fiction has over truth; and the reason is just at our elbow, because imagination can build nobler scenes, and produce more wonderful revolutions than fortune or nature will be at expense to furnish. Nor is mankind so much to blame in his choice thus determining him, if we consider that the debate merely lies between things past and things conceived; and so the question is only this -- whether things that have place in the imagination, may not as properly be said to exist, as those that are seated in the memory, which may be justly held in the affirmative, and very much to the advantage of the former, since this is acknowledged to be the womb of things, and the other allowed to be no more than the grave."

Though the entry is uncanceled, though "elbow" doesn't appear in "Oxen," and though none of the "Oxen" occurrences of "reason" seems especially relevant, it is interesting to note that the would-be reasonable and would-be scientific Bloom is sitting next to Stephen throughout the conference-room passage that constitutes the bulk of "Oxen" (see, e.g., "Master Bloom, at the braggart's side," U 14.424). This might explain why Joyce made this entry in the first place, while gathering possible "Oxen" verbiage. Likewise, the fact that Joyce specifies Bloom's location next to Stephen by using other wording than "at [his] elbow" may have something to do with why he doesn't end up crossing the entry off as "used."

scantling [uncanceled]

"this I have produced as a scantling of Jack's great eloquence, and the force of his reasoning upon such abstruse matters"

Swift Tale of a Tub 123

[the word appears nowhere in U]

Janusko, "Oxcavations"  GJS 2 (Spring 2002)

"Scantling" occurs only once in ToaT, about one-third of the way through Chapter XI.

previous existence [canceled in red ]

[on the possible source in ToaT, see below]

U 14.1168-69: Theosophos told me so, Stephen answered, whom in a previous existence Egyptian priests initiated into the mysteries of karmic law.

Possibly, as he occasionally does in "Oxen" notesheet entries, Joyce here is summarizing an idea rather than copying down an exact word or phrase. Late in Section IX of ToaT, in the same paragraph that yields 1.48 and 1.49, comes the following passage, containing ToaT's only example of the character-string -exist-. (The character-string -previous- does not occur at all in ToaT.) The theme of the passage is not irrelevant to U in general, with its interest in subjectivity as a factor in narration. It is also more specifically relevant to some aspects of "Oxen," e.g., the three-paragraph passage of Bloomian introspection giving way to Bloomian foresight that begins at "What is the age of the soul of man," U 14.1038-1109. This ToaT  passage, in addition to its insistence on the power and importance of imagination, also mentions the idea that the human memory alters the reality of "things past," creating memories that in their own fashion actually "exist," i.e., have real existence in some sense:

"Nor is mankind so much to blame in his choice thus determining him, if we consider that the debate merely lies between things past and things conceived; and so the question is only this --- whether things that have place in the imagination, may not as properly be said to exist, as those that are seated in the memory , which may be justly held in the affirmative, and very much to the advantage of the former, since this is acknowledged to be the womb of things, and the other allowed to be no more than the grave. Again, if we take this definition of happiness, and examine it with reference to the senses, it will be acknowledged wonderfully adapt.
How fading and insipid do all objects accost us, that are not conveyed in the vehicle of delusion? How shrunk is everything, as it appears in the glass of nature? So that if it were not for the assistance of artificial mediums, false lights, refracted angles, varnish, and tinsel, there would be a mighty level in the felicity and enjoyments of mortal men. If this were seriously considered by the world, as I have a certain reason to suspect it hardly will, men would no longer reckon among their high points of wisdom, the art of exposing weak sides, and publishing infirmities; an employment, in my opinion, neither better nor worse than that of unmasking, which I think has never been allowed fair usage, either in the world or the play-house."

If this passage does not form the source for 1.51, perhaps Joyce simply happened coincidentally to think of "previous existence" while in the middle of culling from ToaT. In any event, the actual wording that Joyce put down on the notesheet seems reminiscent of theosophy, with which he had become quite familiar before leaving Dublin in 1904. And the entry ends up getting employed in one of the most heavily theosophical passages in U, a passage that recounts a conversation that Mulligan and Stephen have about Bloom while he is late in the train of memories and imaginings mentioned above (U 14.1038-1109). Possibly the trend of discussion in the just-quoted ToaT passage reminded Joyce of the theosophical concept of reincarnation that he was already carrying around in his head, had used at various points in U, and therefore thought might be useful in "Oxen" as well. (Of course, the idea of reincarnation (or "metempsychosis") is also crucial to U for reasons that range beyond theosophy in any strict sense, perhaps beginning with the U -pervading Bloom/Odysseus linkage that is indicated by the book's title and ramifies from there into the pervasive ways in which Ulyssean characters interweave with the lives and experiences of prior historical figures and literary characters.)

slap his posteriors [canceled in red ]

"He would stand in the turning of a street, and, calling to those who passed by, would cry to one, 'Worthy sir, do me the honour of a good slap in the chaps'; to another, 'Honest friend, pray favour me with a handsome kick on the arse'"

Swift Tale of a Tub 125: the source passage occurs about one-third of the way through Chapter XI of ToaT.

U 14.593: So be off now, says he, and do all my cousin german the lord Harry tells you and take a farmer's blessing, and with that he slapped his posteriors very soundly.

Janusko, "Oxcavations" GJS 2 (Spring 2002)

Perhaps the explanation for Joyce's alteration of his source's wording in this case is that he has in mind an episode set at a maternity hospital, a location with which slapping of the posteriors might be associated, given the idea that babies are sometimes slapped on buttocks immediately after delivery to get them breathing.

ungrates [canceled in red]

"the base detracting world would not then have dared to report that something is amiss, that his brain hath undergone an unlucky shake; which even his brother modernists themselves, like ungrates, do whisper so loud, that it reaches up to the very garret I am now writing in"

Swift Tale of a Tub 108: the source passage occurs near end of Section IX of ToaT, just prior to the source paragraph for the entries at ns 1.48, 49, and 51

U 14.640: They were, says Mr Stephen, and the end was that the men of the island seeing no help was toward, as the ungrate women were all of one mind, made a wherry raft

Janusko, "Oxcavations"  GJS 2 (Spring 2002)

This is the only example of "ingrate" or "ungrate" in ToaT .

swim for it [canceled in red]

There is no dead-on ToaT match. Several examples of "for it" appear in ToaT, but none seems especially relevant. There's only one -swim- in ToaT, in the third paragraph in the "Epistle Dedicatory," near the beginning of the text, in a passage concerning writings that are able to swim, i.e., survive, into future time:

"'Tis not unlikely, that when your highness will one day peruse what I am now writing, you may be ready to expostulate with your governor upon the credit of what I here affirm, and command him to show you some of our productions. To which he will answer (for I am well informed of his designs) by asking your highness, where they are? and what is become of them? and pretend it a demonstration that there never were any, because they are not then to be found. Not to be found! Who has mislaid them? Are they sunk in the abyss of things; 'Tis certain, that in their own nature they were light enough to swim upon the surface for all eternity. Therefore the fault is in him, who tied weights so heavy to their heels, as to depress them to the center. Is their very essence destroyed? Who has annihilated them? Were they drowned by purges or martyred by pipes? Who administered them to the posteriors of _____? But that it may no longer be a doubt with your highness, who is to be the author of this universal ruin, I beseech you to observe that large and terrible scythe which your governor affects to bear continually about him."

(Note that, whether coincidentally or not, "posteriors" -- cf. ns 1.52 above -- also occurs in this passage.)

(Also compare "run for it," ns 1.45a, culled from Defoe CJ .)

Though the entry is canceled in red, there is no example of "swim/swam/swum" in "Oxen," nor are there any examples of "for it" that seem relevant. Furthermore, in U generally there does not seem to be any example of "swim/swam/swum" or "for it" that looks especially relevant. So it is not immediately apparent how Joyce thought he had redeployed "swim for it." For want of anything more solid, we could speculate for now about the possibility that Joyce thinks the idea inherent in the phrase is subsumed somehow in one of the following eighteenth-century stylistic passages in "Oxen":

(A) The description of people running through the drenching storm that gets so much attention in the Pepys paragraph, which also draws on other entries on ns 1: "biggish swollen clouds to be seen as the night increased and the weatherwise poring up at them and some sheet lightnings at first and after, past ten of the clock, one great stroke with a long thunder and in a brace of shakes all scamper pellmell within door for the smoking shower, the men making shelter for their straws with a clout or kerchief, womenfolk skipping off with kirtles catched up soon as the pour came. In Ely place, Baggot street, Duke's lawn, thence through Merrion green up to Holles street a swash of water flowing that was before bonedry and not one chair or coach or fiacre seen about" (U 14.484-92).

(B) A bit of phrasing from the Defoe paragraph to which so many of the entries on ns 1 contributed: "...then he was for the ocean sea or to hoof it on the roads with the romany folk" (U 14.560-61).

(C) The passage about escaping via water, at the climax of the "Oxen" bull fable that also draws on ns 1 (Joyce uses 1.53 and perhaps 1.55 in the rather Swiftian fable): "the men of the island seeing no help was toward, as the ungrate women were all of one mind, made a wherry raft, loaded themselves and their bundles of chattels on shipboard, set all masts erect, manned the yards, sprang their luff, heaved to, spread three sheets in the wind, put her head between wind and water, weighed anchor, ported her helm, ran up the jolly Roger, gave three times three, let the bullgine run, pushed off in their bumboat and put to sea to recover the main of America " (U 14.640-46).

towardly word [canceled in red ]

"For I have remarked many a towardly word to be wholly neglected or despised in discourse, which has passed very smoothly, with some consideration and esteem, after its preferment and sanction in print"

Swift Tale of a Tub 132: the source passage occurs in the last paragraph of the "Conclusion" to ToaT

Janusko, "Oxcavations"  GJS 2 (Spring 2002)

There's no example of "towardly" in U. There are many examples of "word(s)" in "Oxen," but none that looks particularly promising. Two possibilities:

(A) Perhaps Joyce has in mind the following passage, which also incorporates a nearby notesheet entry, 1.53: "They were, says Mr Stephen, and the end was that the men of the island seeing no help was toward , as the ungrate women were all of one mind" (U 14.440).

(B) Perhaps Joyce blended this entry with ns 3.25, which is also canceled in red: "pregnant remark" (ns 3.25) + "towardly word" (ns 1.55) might yield, in the published text, "pregnant word" (U 14.259).

to his mind [canceled in red]

[on possible sourcing in ToaT, see discussion just below]

U 14.611: Ay, says another, and so pampered was he that he would suffer nought to grow in all the land but green grass for himself (for that was the only colour to his mind)

The placing of this entry on the sheet, at the end of a column of notes taken from Swift's ToaT, suggests that it too may be Swift-derived, though if it is the source has not yet been located. Robert Janusko has searched, so far without success, for something that might suggest the entry's wording located somewhere between or around pp. 132 and 135 in Joyce's Everyman volume of Swift -- pages which are the sources for, respectively, entry 1.55 that stands immediately above 1.56, and 1.60 that is located a bit below and to the left of but physically adjacent to 1.56.

No ToaT passage leaps out either, although "mind" occurs quite a few times in ToaT; here are a couple of possibilities perhaps worth considering if nothing better comes along:

(A) The passage which is the source for 1.49: "And first, with relation to the mind or understanding, 'tis manifest what mighty advantages fiction has over truth; and the reason is just at our elbow [= ns 1.49], because imagination can build nobler scenes, and produce more wonderful revolutions than fortune or nature will be at expense to furnish."

(B) Or perhaps an interestingly "Oxen"-relevant passage from the "Apology" that appears at the outset of ToaT: "There is one thing which the judicious reader cannot but have observed, that some of those passages in this discourse, which appear most liable to objection, are what they call parodies, where the author personates the style and manner of other writers, whom he has a mind to expose."

In addition to these two, there are over twenty other examples of "mind" in ToaT, but none closely where it closely follows "to."

Perhaps promising is a passage from the paragraph immediately prior to that in which "towardly word" (ns 1.55) appears: "I have one concluding favour to request of my reader; that he will not expect to be equally diverted and informed by every line or every page of this discourse; but give some allowance to the author's spleen, and short fits or intervals of dullness, as well as his own; and lay it seriously to his conscience, whether, if he were walking the streets, in dirty weather or a rainy day, he would allow it fair dealing in folks at their ease from a window to critic his gait, and ridicule his dress at such a juncture."

There are a few examples of "mind" in Swift's Battle of the Books ; however, there is no example of "to his mind" nor any passage containing "mind" that appears especially promising at the moment.

But since no clear source passage in Swift has come to light for 1.56, there is also the possibility that 1.56 comes from Defoe's CJ , where "to his mind" appears three times:

(1) p. 110: in the para. that begins "Nothing offer'd in Ware to his mind"
(2) p. 165: in the para. that begins "I knew nothing of the Complaint against me"
(3) p. 203: in the para. that begins "In this interval, my good Friend" (near the end of this long para.)

If any of these CJ passages are at all relevant, perhaps the most likely candidate is the one on p. 110, if 1.56 can be assumed to have been made after the dozen or so CJ items in the bottom margin that appear in the main to have been drawn from pages 35-88. But this is hardly a convincing case for p. 110 as the source here.

pretty talk [ canceled in red]

In a way this is, from a sourcing angle, the hardest item on ns 1. Although some entries can't even be transcribed with certainty, "pretty talk" frustrates because neither its position on the sheet nor its content gives a clear indication as to whether it is from Swift, Defoe CJ, or neither. And meanwhile, though Joyce crosses off the entry as used it is not clear which of several passages in "Oxen" he thought he had used it in. "Pretty talk" appears nowhere in U. Is the transcription beyond question? Assuming for the moment that it is, the only example of "talk" early in "Oxen" is in the Defoe para., U 14.545 ("The other, Costello that is, hearing this talk asked was it poetry or a tale"); there are several examples of "pretty" in "Oxen."

As for the possibility of sourcing this entry in CJ, note that the rest of lines 1.43, 1.44, 1.45, and 1.46 (eight entries in total) come from between CJ 67 and 88. So if 1.45c is really part of the CJ culling it seems most likely to derive from this area of CJ . (More specifically, 1.45a and 1.45b, the other entries on the same horizontal plane, are from CJ 88 and 84, respectively.) The only examples of "talk" in this passage of CJ are "talked of such great things" ( CJ , p. 75), "talk'd oddly (83), and "talk'd to me" (90). There are nineteen examples of "pretty" in CJ, but none of those with "talk." Those between 67 and 88 include "pretty large Bag" (72), "pretty good Purchase" (74), "pretty Tall of my Age" (78), and "said to him, pretty Tartly" (85). Nothing seems especially definitive or even especially intriguing at present.

Meanwhile, perhaps it is also worth noting that, among the several examples of "pretty" in Swift's ToaT, there is only one example that is applied to language or discourse, and it's in a ToaT passage (the short "Conclusion") from which Joyce culled other diction in this area of ns 1 (see especially 1.55): "He looked westward, and said, 'I doubt we shall have a fit of bad weather [cf. the storm coming from the west in the first half of "Oxen"]; however, if you could prepare some pretty little banter (but not in verse) or a small treatise upon the ------ it would run like wildfire.'" This at least seems suggestive, though hardly definitive, and meanwhile the spatial location of the entry on the sheet suggests much more strongly the possibility of being a CJ culling than a Swift culling. So the sourcing of the entry remains up in the air for now.

stood his friend [canceled in red ]

"with the fine feather he had got from Peter for standing his friend"

Swift "The History of Martin" 135 in the Everyman edition of Swift

U 14.594: slapped his posteriors very soundly. But the slap and the blessing stood him friend , says Mr Vincent

Janusko, personal communication, March 2001 and May 2002

The alignment of this entry is of some interest. Joyce made entries from Swift's ToaT in a fairly neat vertical column coming down along the bottom part of the right margin of the sheet, but to make this entry he moved over to the left a bit and tilted his writing so that the right end of the entry ("friend") ends up a bit higher than its left end ("stood"), as if he was thinking of making further entries from Swift in a distinctive slantwise orientation in the bottom-right corner of the sheet. But in the event, this seems to have been the last Swift entry made on the sheet; there is no entry at all either below or to the right of "stood his friend," leaving the very bottom-right corner of the first notesheet blank.

1.57 and 1.58 : ENTRIES 1.57 AND 1.58

These two entries do not seem to be copied from and probably are not even suggested by CJ or Swift (though the hazier possibility of inexact suggestion by one or another of those ns 1 sources is examined below). So in a source-conscious treatment of ns 1, these two entries probably belong by themselves at the end of ns 1 rather than mixed in among the sets of entries drawn from CJ and Swift. Quite possibly Joyce simply placed these perhaps thematically motivated rather than period-style entries contiguously to a long series of period-style entries, as he also does at (for example) 2.27-28, where a pair of bovine-themed rather than period-style entries is placed between the end of the CJ cullings (2.26) and the beginning (at 2.29) of the Peacock anthology cullings from Restoration authors such as Pepys.

due to misconception [canceled in red ]

[on possible sourcing in ToaT or CJ, see discussion just below]

U 14.1176: the preposterous surmise about him being in some description of a doldrums or other or mesmerised which was entirely due to a misconception of the shallowest character

There is no example of the character-sequence -miscon- in CJ, and only two examples of "due to," neither of which is closely reminiscent. Meanwhile, neither "misconception" nor "due to" appears in ToaT.

Other avenues are opened by the possibility that "misconception" is the key word in the entry, and that Joyce might therefore have altered the wording that occurs prior to "misconception" from one of the several English phrases that are synonymous with "due to." Of the examples of "owing to" found in ToaT, one is potentially interesting because it mentions strange conceptions and pregnancies similar to those that Stephen brings up early in the "Oxen" passage where he dominates ("then spake young Stephen... of bigness wrought by wind of seeds of brightness... or, as Virgilius saith, by the influence of the occident [i.e., west wind]," U 14.241-44). And there may also be a reference to male mind in the following ToaT passage that might in turn link 1.57 to the (possibly Swift-sourced) 1.56 ("to his mind") -- if, that is, the following ToaT passage is at all relevant to 1.57 in the first place. In any case, the following passage from ToaT VIII dovetails to some extent with the theological issues that Stephen grapples with in the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century area of "Oxen" as well as again in the Huxley paragraph of "Oxen" (i.e., in, respectively, the first and third/final of the three large-scale discussions in the hospital conference room):

"It is from this custom of the priests, that some authors maintain these Æolists to have been very ancient in the world. Because, the delivery of their mysteries... appears exactly the same with that of other ancient oracles, whose inspirations were owing to certain subterraneous effluviums of wind, delivered with the same pain to the priest, and much about the same influence on the people. It is true indeed, that these were frequently managed and directed by female officers, whose organs were understood to be better disposed for the admission of those oracular gusts, as entering and passing up through a receptacle of greater capacity, and causing also a pruriency by the way, such as with due management hath been refined from a carnal into a spiritual ecstasy. And to strengthen this profound conjecture, it is farther insisted, that this custom of female priests is kept up still in certain refined colleges of our modern Æolists, who are agreed to receive their inspiration, derived through the receptacle aforesaid, like their ancestors, the Sybils. And whereas the mind of Man, when he gives the spur and bridle to his thoughts, doth never stop, but naturally sallies out into both extremes of high and low, of good and evil; his first flight of fancy commonly transports him to ideas of what is most perfect, finished, and exalted; till having soared out of his own reach and sight, not well perceiving how near the frontiers of height and depth border upon each other; with the same course and wing, he falls down plumb into the lowest bottom of things like one who travels the east into the west, or like a straight line drawn by its own length into a circle. Whether a tincture of malice in our natures makes us fond of furnishing every bright idea with its reverse; or whether reason, reflecting upon the sum of things, can, like the sun, serve only to enlighten one half of the globe, leaving the other half, by necessity, under shade and darkness; or, whether fancy, flying up to the imagination of what is highest and best, becomes over-shot, and spent, and weary, and suddenly falls like a dead bird of paradise to the ground. Or whether after all these metaphysical conjectures, I have not entirely missed the true reason; the proposition, however, which has stood me in so much  circumstance, is altogether true; that, as the most uncivilized parts of mankind have some way or other climbed up into the conception of a God, or Supreme Power, so they have seldom forgot to provide their fears with certain ghastly notions, which, instead of better, have served them pretty tolerably for a devil."

But as interesting as this passage may be as a possible inspiration for 1.57, and as much as we are aware that Joyce found these kinds of ideas attractive, the threshold for solid sourcing clearly has not been reached for this entry. The above ToaT passage may well have absolutely nothing to do with 1.57. A solid sourcing would be welcome, but for now the possibility remains that through his own mental operations Joyce realized that the word "misconception" was relevant to "Oxen," given the episode's fusion of, on the one hand, embryological narrative and theme with, on the other hand, the history of human conceptualization as embedded in language.

green rag to a bull [canceled in blue ]

[on possible sourcing in ToaT or CJ, see discussion just below]

U 15.4497: PRIVATE COMPTON We don't give a bugger who he is. STEPHEN I seem to annoy them. Green rag to a bull.

Though CJ contains more than one example each of "green," "rag," and "bull," none of the passages seems especially similar to the entry's exact wording. Perhaps the entry is inspired in some general fashion by the bull fable found in ToaT IV (a passage which in any event is obviously relevant to the heavily Swiftian, communally constructed bull fable found in "Oxen"). Both "green" and "rag" occur several times in ToaT, but not as part of ToaT 's bull fable. However, a passage from not much earlier, specifically in ToaT II, mentions the idea that the "the universe" might be thought to be like "a large suit of clothes, which invests everything," leading to the rhetorical question: "What is that which some call land, but a fine coat faced with green?" -- i.e., green cloth. So one might wonder if ToaT did not somehow inspire this entry without being the direct source for the actual words noted down.

It is also worth bearing in mind that if, while taking these notes, Joyce already had in mind the idea of including in "Oxen" a bull fable about the relationship between Ireland and England (John Bull's island), it might well have occurred to him that English annoyance at Ireland could be wittily expressed in the phrase "green rag to a bull," without any need for a written source for that wording (cf. the possibility that 1.57, immediately above, may also be unsourceable).

As it is, though, Joyce never got a chance to use "green rag to a bull" in the "Oxen" bull fable, even though both "bull and "green" appear in the fable. After all, he was already squeezing so much into the passage that he may have felt it offered no good opportunity for the phrase, and had no special need of it. So he ended up saving the exact phrasing found in this entry for a subsequent Ulyssean examination of the conflict between England and Ireland: the confrontation between Irish Stephen and the English soldiers late in the episode immediately following "Oxen." That the entry is canceled in blue rather than red may reflect that it was added to a subsequent episode; the entries canceled in red tend to appear in "Oxen" itself. (Compare the green-canceled entry 1.24 that ended up in Finnegans Wake.)


headborough [canceled in red ]

"for the Constable, and the Headborough are after him to Day"

Defoe Colonel Jack 89: in the para. that begins "How, Jack! says he"

U 14.555 : From a child this Frank had been a donought that his father, a headborough , who could ill keep him to school to learn his letters and the use of the globes, matriculated at the university to study the mechanics

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 137; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 208

was or no [uncanceled]

"People might have thought I was among them, whether I was or no"

Defoe Colonel Jack 90: in the para. that begins "This was kind, and I thank'd him"

["was or no" appears nowhere in U; no phrase that seems to echo "was or no" appears in "Oxen"]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 208

(im)peached me  [uncanceled]

"he has Peach'd me and all the other"

Defoe Colonel Jack 91: in the para. that begins "Ay, says Will, I am undone"

[no example of the character-string "peach" in U seems to echo this entry]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 209

slept little or none [uncanceled]

"I was so weary I Slept little or none"

Defoe Colonel Jack 92: in the para. that begins "I deliver'd him his Cargo"

[there is no example in U of the character-strings "slept little" or "little or none"]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 209

watchman [canceled in red]

(A) "I heard no Noise at all, but of two Watch-men thumping at the doors with their Staves, and giving the hour past Three a Clock"
(B) "the Watch-men were come about past four a Clock"

Defoe Colonel Jack 93: in the para. that begins "I Was frighted to the last degree"

[no example of the character-string -watchm- occurs in "Oxen"; two candidates for "Oxen" passages that Joyce may have felt this entry helped generate are U 14.558 "the parish beadle" (n.b.: in the Defoe paragraph) and/or U 14.1066-67 "the heavy tread of the watch as two raincaped shadows pass"]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 209

There are only two examples of "watch-men" in CJ, both in the same paragraph on p. 93, either or both of which could have provoked the notesheet entry. However, there are no examples at all in CJ of "watch-man," "watchman," or "watchmen," so as he not infrequently does Joyce alters the source's wording a bit in making his notesheet entry.

(a)cross [canceled in red]

"the very next Morning, when going cross Rosemary-lane"

Defoe Colonel Jack 97: in the para. that begins "I came away exceeding joyful"

U 14.584: True for you, says Mr Vincent cross the table

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 209

Though culling order makes p. 97 the source, there are also other examples of "cross" in CJ where 19-20C standard English would say "across"; see pp. 311 and 384 (1723 edition).

Mr Constable [uncanceled]

"It is but Reason, said his good Worship, Mr. Constable, turning to the officers"

Defoe Colonel Jack 99: in the para. that begins "It is but Reason, said his good Worship, Mr. Constable, turning to the officers"

[although the police and similar figures are mentioned several times in "Oxen," neither "constable" nor any derivatives appear there]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 209

"Constable" occurs several times in CJ, at pp. 99, 100, 101, 259, and 259. Because Joyce's prior entry, 2.7, derives from p. 97 and his next entries, 2.8 and 2.9, are drawn from p. 133, his source here could be one or more of the occurrences on pp. 99-101.

at once or twice showing [uncanceled]

"at once or twice showing"

Defoe Colonel Jack 133: in the para. that begins "I should tell you that before this"

[no closely reminiscent wording seems to occur in "Oxen"]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 209

to buy a colour [canceled in red ]

"a Hundred Pound being at that time sufficient to buy a Colours in any regiment"

Defoe Colonel Jack 133: in the para. that begins "This pleas'd me extreamly"

U 14.654: who had late come to town, it being his intention to buy a colour or a cornetcy in the fencibles and list for the wars

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 209

refreshed [canceled in red]

"We refresh'd here a little"

Defoe Colonel Jack 136: in the para. that begins "We refresh'd here a little, but march'd on with but little stay"

U 14.522: In sum an infinite great fall of rain and all refreshed and will much increase the harvest

Downing, March 2001

There are no examples of "refreshed" in CJ, but there are four examples of "refresh'd" (pp. 17, 52, 136, and 225) and one of "refresh" (p. 126). As usual, Joyce conforms the general orthography of "Oxen" and its antecedent notesheets to his own, and the book's, early-twentieth century orthography, leaving period feel to be generated by such things as period diction, archaic meanings of still-current words, unusual constructions, etc.

Only on p. 136 does CJ employ the word "refresh('d)" in a construction that does not look perfectly standard from the perspective of the standard English of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. However, when Joyce actually incorporates the word "refreshed" in the diarist paragraph, it is not clear whether he is employing it with the archaic construction that seems to have led to its entry into the notesheet, or instead with a standard twentieth-century construction. If we take "refreshed" as an intransitive past verb here it is the archaic construction seen at CJ p. 136, but if instead we understand "refreshed" as a past participial adjective, which is what most readers would naturally tend to do, we are taking it as a standard twentieth-century construction.

Said I, [uncanceled]

(A) "said I, What do you mean by us?"
(A) Defoe Colonel Jack 134 : in the para. that begins "We walk'd together here"

(B) "I like that the best of all the Measures you have laid yet, said I,"
(B) Defoe Colonel Jack 135: in the para. that begins "I like that the best of all the Measures you have laid yet, said I"

[given that the "Oxen" episode's narrative is third-person (contrast "Cyclops"), it is no surprise that "said I" occurs nowhere in "Oxen"]

Downing, March 2001

There are around 100 occurrences of "said I" in CJ. The prior ns entries (2.8, 2.9, 2.10) come from CJ pp. 133 and 136; the entries that immediately follow (2.12, 2.13) are drawn from CJ pp. 135 and 136. In CJ, the example immediately prior to the one on p. 134 of "said I" in the relevant sense occurs at p. 122 and the next such example after p. 135 is on p. 161. Hence, 2.11 is most likely to have been provoked by one or both of these two examples of "said I" on pp. 134 and 135. There are many examples of "says I" in the vicinity of these two occurrences, but none of "said I" aside from these two. The fact that "moonshiny" comes before the "said I" that occurs on p. 135 may argue in favor of p. 134 as the source, but perhaps it is worth leaving both options in play for now, pending further evidence and perhaps some better thoughts.

moonshiny [canceled in red]

"This Minute, says he, no time to be lost; 'tis a fine Moon-shining Night"

Defoe Colonel Jack 135: in the para. that begins "This Minute, says he, no time to be lost; 'tis a fine Moon-shining Night"

U 14.562: kidnapping a squire's heir by favour of moonlight

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 209

There is no example in "Oxen" of the character-string -moonsh-. Presumably the passage listed just above, from the Defoe paragraph of "Oxen," is what led Joyce to cancel "moonshiny" as having been used.

same ... with [uncanceled]

"It was not long before we made them understand that we were in the same Circumstances with themselves"

Defoe Colonel Jack 136: in the para. that begins "It was not long before we made them understand that we were in the same Circumstances with themselves"

[there are various occurrences of "same" in "Oxen," but none linked closely to "with"]

Downing, March 2001

There are several other examples in CJ of "same ... with" where we would now say "same ... as," including some that occur before p. 136 in CJ, but given the order of culling from CJ in this column of ns 2 apparently p. 136 is where Joyce thought to enter it on the sheet.

a sneaker of punch [uncanceled]

"make these honest Gentlemen a Sneaker of Punch"

Defoe Colonel Jack 139: in the para. that begins "No, no, says he, very kindly"

[on possible Joycean redeployment of the entry, see below]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 209

Given the ubiquity of alcoholic beverages in the plotline of "Oxen," at least one motivation for this entry is clear. However, even though Joyce worked various archaic terms for drinking into the episode, this entry did not find a place. But note "punch milk, such as those rioters will quaff in their guzzling den, milk of madness" (U 14.1435-36).

pushed it about apace [canceled in red ]

"We drank on, and drank the Punch out, and more was brought up, and he push'd it about a pace"

Defoe Colonel Jack 140: in the para. that begins "We drank on, and drank the Punch out, and more was brought up, and he push'd it about a pace"

[on possible Joycean redeployment of the entry, see below]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 209

The only example of -push- in "Oxen" does not seem relevant; there is no occurrence of "apace" in "Oxen." Is "in order not to upset any of the beer that was in it about the place" (U 14.1196-97) relevant? In various "Oxen" passages mention is made of sharing out the ale available on the conference-room table, e.g., "the franklin Lenehan was prompt each when to pour them ale so that at the least way mirth might not lack" (U14.217-18) or "Stephen filled all cups that stood empty so as there remained but little mo if the prudenter had not shadowed their approach from him that still plied it very busily" ( U 14.277-79).

Cap. Jack was the same man [uncanceled]

(A) "But the Captain was the same Man"
(A) Defoe Colonel Jack 145: in the para. that begins "But the Captain was the same Man"

(B) "only my surly Captain Jack continued the same Man all the way"
(B) Defoe Colonel Jack 147: in the para. that begins "In short, the wind continu'd to blow hard"

[the phrase "same man" does not appear in "Oxen"]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 209

Given similarities and differences in wording from the notesheet entry, pages 145 and 147 make equally likely sources; perhaps both passages had an effect on the wording Joyce wrote down.

is he in being [uncanceled]

"And is this Gentleman in being that gave you the Bill?"

Defoe Colonel Jack 158: in the para. that begins "Mast. And is this Gentleman in being that gave you the Bill?"

[the phrase "in being" appears three times in "Oxen," all in the opening latinate passage -- but not with the structure or sense inherent in this entry]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 209

(en)listed ["listed" is canceled in red ]

"I know not how to get my Bread there [i.e., in England], if I had not Listed for a soldier"

Defoe Colonel Jack 159: in the para. that begins "Jack. No indeed Sir, if I can but get my Bread honestly here"

U 14.655: it being his intention to buy a colour or a cornetcy in the fencibles and list for the wars

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 210

better than ordinary [uncanceled]

"I began to hope for for [sic] something better than ordinary"

Defoe Colonel Jack 159: in the para. that begins "Accordingly, the Ware-house Keeper"

[both "better than" and "ordinary" occur more than once in "Oxen," but not together or in any phrasing that sounds especially similar to this entry]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 138; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 210

upon a foot of [uncanceled]

"the most Despicable ruin'd Man in the World, has here a fair Opportunity put into his Hands to begin the World again, and that upon a Foot of certain Gain, and in a Method exactly Honest"

Defoe Colonel Jack 159: in the para. that begins "In a word, every Newgate wretch"

["Oxen" shows several examples of "upon a," but nothing closely reminiscent of this uncanceled entry]

Janusko S&S (1983), p. 139; Janusko S&S (1967), p. 210

pockets (naked) [canceled in red ]

"for 'tis indeed something strange, that you should List for a Soldier, when you had 94l. [ = 94 British pounds] in your Pocket"

Defoe Colonel Jack 159: in the para. that begins "Mast. Well, but I must ask you some Questions about that Part hereafter"

U 14.564: He had been off as many times as a cat has lives and back again with naked pockets as many more to his father the headborough

Both "pocket(s)" and "naked" appear repeatedly in CJ, but not linked together in a single passage. However, the idea of pockets both with and without money comes up frequently in CJ: its plot revolves around a young man who is a pickpocket for a time. A few examples: "if you should ever come to have so much Money, that you don't know what to do with it, here are excellent good Pockets" (p. 33); "But, says I, we have no Money in our Pockets; how shall we Travel?" (p. 135); "having not one Penny in their Pockets" (p. 136).

Having come across such passages as these in reading through CJ, perhaps as he neared p. 160 (entries 2.17, 2.18, and 2.19 are all from pp. 158 through 162) Joyce came across the p. 159 passage about the unlikelihood of (en)listing in the army if one's pockets are full and, having just made an entry about "(en)list"ing (2.18), it might have occurred to him that "pockets (naked)" would express the financial situation of someone who would enlist. The idea of nakedness is relevant to and fairly frequent in "Oxen," with its intense narrative and thematic focus on sexuality and reproduction: e.g., "il y a deux choses for which the innocence of our original garb, in other circumstances a breach of the proprieties, is the fittest, nay, the only garment" ( U 14.792-94) and "that last end that is thy death and the dust that gripeth on every man that is born of woman for as he came naked forth from his mother's womb so naked shall he wend him at the last for to go as he came" (U 14.107-10).

Perhaps the parentheses around "naked" indicate that Joyce knew he was not copying that word from the text verbatim but, as he sometimes does in the entries, adding something of his own -- e.g., glossing, or expanding on, or finding his own way to express, some idea conveyed or suggested by the source text: in this case, CJ 's idea of pockets without anything accompanying them as a way of saying penniless, a situation with which, given his cumulative experience down through the period early in 1920 when he composed "Oxen," Joyce was hardly unfamiliar.

cordial waters [canceled in red ]

(A) "she very unhappily got a Habit of drinking Cordials and hot Liquors"
(A) Defoe Colonel Jack 308: in the para. that begins "But I, that was to be the most unhappy Fellow alive in the Article of Matrimony"

(B) "she first took this Cordial, then that, till in short, she could not live without them"
(B) [in the same paragraph and on the same page as (A)]

(C) "whenever she found her self faint, and a Sinking of her Spirits, to take this Cordial and that Dram"
(C) Defoe Colonel Jack 309: in the para. that begins "Never was a woman more virtuous"

U 14.742: having desired his visavis with a polite beck to have the obligingness to pass him a flagon of cordial waters

CJ shows no example of "cordial(s)" linked with "water(s)." No occurrence in CJ of the character-string -water- seems reminiscent of the notesheet entry. However, "cordial(s)" appears three times in CJ, all in a short passage about the protagonist's wife, who becomes an alcoholic after a hard lying-in and childbirth -- topics thematically relevant to "Oxen," of course. Joyce's motivation for entering "cordial waters" when his presumed source has "cordial(s)" is not completely clear: perhaps he thinks there is some amniotic allusion in "cordial waters," possibly making it useful for "Oxen'"s embryological aspect.

husbandman [canceled in red]

[on possible source(s) in CJ, see the discussion just below]

U 14.615: if ever he got scent of a cattleraider in Roscommon or the wilds of Connemara or a husbandman in Sligo that was sowing as much as a handful of mustard or a bag of rapeseed

There are over a dozen examples of "husband" and related words in CJ, but none of "husbandman/men," "husband-man/-men," or "husband man/men." It seems likely that, if this entry is a result of Joyce's look through CJ, he is writing down something that is suggested by Defoe's work rather than copied out of it (cf. the prior entry, "cordial waters"). Since the prior entry seems to derive from pp. 308-09 and the following entry from p. 202, it is hard to pin down an area with CJ that is most likely to furnish the source, but perhaps it is worth noting that "husband" occurs only a few times among the seeming sources for entries 2.17 (p. 158), 2.18 (p. 159), 2.21 (p. 159), 2.19 (p. 162), 2.20 (p. 195), 2.24 (p. 202), 2.25-26 (p. 199), 2.24 (p. 202), and 2.22 (pp. 308-09): between pp. 158 and 309, there are occurrences of "husband" on pp. 173, 195, 251, 252, 254, 290, 302, 305, and 306. None of these appears especially likely to suggest "husbandman" rather than simply "husband," except perhaps for two passages where "husband" and "man" occur in proximity, on p. 195 ("in this Method, I may add, no Diligent Man ever Miscarried, if he had Health to Work, and was a good Husband") and p. 305 ("However I came as a Man that had Business with her, relating to the Ship her Husband was dead out of").

But neither of these conveys any overpowering sense of having suggested "husbandman." Possibly, given the episode's simultaneous interest in marriage ("Oxen" on Mr. Purefoy: "it was her husband's that put her in that expectation," U 14.885; "By heaven, Theodore Purefoy, thou hast done a doughty deed and no botch!," U 14.1410-11) and animal husbandry (i.e., "oxen"), the word suggested itself to Joyce as "Oxen"-appropriate without any impetus from CJ.

but of this hereafter [canceled in red ]

"infinitely more valuable than the Rate of a Slave, which was what I paid for it, but of this hereafter"

Defoe Colonel Jack 202: in the para. that begins "He was an excellent scholar"

[this phrase does not appear in "Oxen," and "hereafter" appears nowhere in U; possibly in canceling the entry Joyce has in mind some similar idea conveyed by "Oxen" without using this wording, perhaps (for example) "he was of a wild manner when he was drunken and that he was now in that taking it appeared eftsoons," U 14.261-63]

Downing, March 2001

(convulsion) was very uneasy to me ["convulsion" is canceled in red, but the rest of 2.25-26 is uncanceled]

"it gave me a kind of a Fit, a Convulsion or nervous Disorder, that was very uneasy to me"

Defoe Colonel Jack 199: in the para. that begins "And now I must Impose a short Digression on the Reader"

[three examples of "convulsions" appear in U, in the sixth, fifteenth, and seventeenth episodes]

Downing, March 2001

Herring seems to mistranscribe a bit here and also, without the benefit of sourcing as a double-check, splits a single multi-line entry into two separate entries. Here is the source, from a passage where Jack is thinking back on his sinful youth:

"The Thought of it was like Reflections upon Hell, and the Damn'd Spirits; it struck me with Horror, it was Odious and Frightful to look back on, and it gave me a kind of a Fit, a Convulsion or nervous Disorder, that was very uneasy to me."

Perhaps some similarity to the hellfire sermon in Portrait and/or the U-relevant theme of guilt helped draw Joyce to this bit of wording.

cow with the crumbly horn [uncanceled]

["cow(s)" only occurs only three times in CJ, all on pp. 193 and 194; neither "crumbl-" nor "horn(s)" appears in CJ]

Just as Joyce at ns 1.17 jotted a perhaps unsourced 18C word ("foodstuff") between his cullings from Peacock's Defoe selections and his extensive gleanings from Defoe's CJ, and again at 1.24 noted down a non-Defoe and non-18C but "Oxen"-relevant term as he was getting into CJ (1.24, "buglehorn"), here he seems to insert a non-Defoe entry between his final CJ entry and the set of late-17C entries from Peacock that begin at 2.29. The fact that 2.28 is a cow-related entry that is definitely not from Defoe or even the 18C supports the impression that this entry's main thrust is bovine rather than period-style.

Quite possibly there is some written source for this entry, but I have not yet located it. The only even somewhat similar phrases I have found so far appear in descriptions of bovine diseases, some of which result in the horny parts of the bovine body becoming crumbly. But to go by sheer impression, the wording Joyce writes down here has as much of a whiff about it of the proverbial or the literary as of the veterinary or medical. (Then again, note the embryological entries Joyce makes in the central column on ns 2, as well as the embryological diagram that dominates ns 1; Joyce clearly has prominent medical interests in his note-taking for "Oxen," set in a hospital.)

Deine Kuh trubsal etc [canceled in red ]

[for the source in Nietzsche, see just below]

U 14.1431-32: How saith Zarathustra? Deine Kuh Trübsal melkest Du. Nun trinkst Du die süsse Milch des Euters.

Harald Beck, personal communication, September 2000

Again, as at 2.27, Joyce inserts a seemingly taurine entry between the end of his long list of CJ notes and the subsequent list of notes from Pepys and others of the same period. Joyce's entry is the beginning (n.b.: "etc.") of a citation from, mirabile dictu, Nietzsche's Also sprach Zarathustra . Note the typical Joycean playfulness inherent in furnishing an identification of the allusion right in the text. Here is the context in Zarathustra :

"Aus deinen Giften brautest du dir deinen Balsam; deine Kuh Trübsal melktest du - nun trinkst du die süße Milch ihres Euters."

Nietzsche, from Also sprach Zarathustra, Erster Teil, Die Reden Zarathustras, V. "Von den Freuden und Leidenschaften": Thus Spake Zarathustra, First Part, Zarathustra's Discourses, V. "Of Joys and Passions."

Here is one possible English translation of the passage:

"Out of thy poisons thou brewedst thine balsam; thy cow, affliction, milkedst thou -- now drinketh thou the sweet milk of her udder."

Note that Joyce's "melkest" should read "melktest." See Paul van Caspel's comments correcting the faulty German here in the James Joyce Literary Supplement 6.2 (Fall 1992), p. 14. But he does not say anything about a Nietzschean source.


After the long list of entries from Defoe's CJ and a couple of non-18C entries (2.27-2.28), the balance of the left-hand column on ns 2 seems to come from various late-17C and early-18C authors anthologized in Peacock, with more entries from Pepys than from any other author. The anthologized passages from which these entries are derived run from Jeremy Taylor (p. 88 ff.) down through Pepys (whose passage ends on p. 128). The Defoe passage from which Joyce culled entries on ns 1 immediately follows his Pepys extracts. Therefore, assuming (as seems most likely, given the forward-moving carryover of CJ entries from ns 1 onto ns 2) that Joyce made the ns 1 entries prior to the ns 2 entries, what happened here is that at 2.29 he simply flipped back in the Peacock anthology from where he'd left off with Defoe (p. 129 ff.) and proceeds to draw material from the Restoration authors who precede Defoe in Peacock, from pp. 88 through 128.

Here are the passages that appear in Peacock between pp. 88 and 128. The authors who as yet do not appear to generate any "Oxen" notesheet entries are shown in brackets:

 (A) Jeremy Taylor passage, editorially entitled "On Prayer"
     and credited to Works, at Peacock pp. 88-91
[(B) Richard Baxter passage, editorially entitled "The Saints' Rest"
     from the volume of the same name, at Peacock pp. 91-93]
 (C) Abraham Cowley passage, consisting of several segments with
     several editorial titles, at Peacock pp. 94-100
 (D) John Evelyn passage, consisting of several segments with several
     editorial titles, all from The Diary, at Peacock pp. 100-05
[(E) John Bunyan passage, editorially entitled "Vanity Fair,"
     extracted from Pilgrim's Progress, at Peacock pp. 105-14]
 (F) George Savile (Marquess of Halifax) passage, editorially
     entitled "A Trimmer" and attributed to Works , at Peacock pp. 115-19
[(G) John Dryden passage, editorially entitled "Shakespeare, Beaumont
     and Fletcher and Ben Jonson," extracted from his Essay of Dramatic
     Poesy, at Peacock pp. 119-22]
 (H) Samuel Pepys passage, consisting of two segments with editorial
     titles, all from The Diary, at Peacock pp. 122-28

no, not to himself [uncanceled]

"The first does much harm to mankind, and a little good too, to some few. The second does good to none; no, not to himself"

Peacock 94 (Cowley): in the middle of the page

["no, not to" appears nowhere in U, though several times Bloom thinks "no, not...."]

Downing, May 2002

This wording comes from "Of Avarice" (in Cowley's Essays), in a passage where he is distinguishing two different types of avarice.

with their hands across [canceled in red]

"for now they began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands across"

Peacock 102 (Evelyn): near the bottom of the page

U 14.565-67: What, says Mr Leopold with his hands across, that was earnest to know the drift of it, will they slaughter all?

Downing, May 2002

This wording comes from Evelyn's diary entry dated 5 September 1666. Evelyn is describing those who have been passively witnessing the Great Fire of London for several days without taking any action.

Possibly Evelyn's mention of intoxicated men helped trigger Joyce's interest in this passage, given "Oxen"'s emphasis on the drinkers sitting around the conference room table in the National Maternity Hospital.

though the man may be, the prayer is not, in proper [uncanceled]

"Many times good men pray, and their prayer is not a sin, but yet it returns empty; because, although the man may be, yet the prayer is not, in proper disposition"

Peacock 88 (Taylor): at the opening of the extract from Jeremy Taylor

[nothing especially similar seems to occur in "Oxen" or U]

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

It seems likely (see, however, the alternative discussion at 2.33) that entries 2.32 through 2.46 are all from or suggested by Peacock's selection from Pepys' Diary, which is drawn from Pepys' diary entries dated 26 July, 3 August, 12 August, and 16 August 1665 (on the plague in London, editorially titled by Peacock "The Great Plague," pp. 122-24); and 2 September 1666 (the first day of the London fire, an entry editorially titled "The Great Fire," pp. 124-28). Note the order in which Joyce seems to have culled, given present sourcing information, from Peacock's Pepys, entry by entry. From the series of page numbers one naturally wonders if Joyce was reading backwards in Peacock's Pepys selection. However, it might be even more sensible to consider the possibility that Joyce, right after beginning to cull from the Pepys extract, skipped down the distance that he estimated he might need for cullings before he would feel satisfied that he had gotten enough wording from Pepys, and then proceeded to make entries one at a time working upwards through the blank space in the column that he had created by skipping down in the first place. In this left-hand column on ns 2 Joyce was working with a small and finite space, because the Malory column to the right seems already to have been in place when he started creating this column of 17-18C entries. This space crunch may have seemed to Joyce to call for the discipline that could be (self-)imposed by trying to "set a bottom limit" and then work upwards on the sheet. I.e., the order of entries as made by Joyce might have been:

skittish [canceled in red]

"The Duke of Monmouth is the most skittish leaping gallant that ever I saw, always in action, vaulting or leaping, or clambering"

Peacock 122 (Pepys): a few lines into the Pepys extract

U 14.502: but would tell him of a skittish heifer, big of her age and beef to the heel, and all this while poured with rain and so both together on to Horne's

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

confinement [canceled in red]

[possibly suggested by Peacock 123 (Pepys); see below]

U 14.883: this freshest news of the fruition of her confinement since she had been in such pain through no fault of hers

Perhaps (cf. "Welsh" at ns 1.9b) this entry was suggested by some details in Pepys' account of the Great Plague of 1665, despite the absence of the term "confinement." A woman is described as ill and therefore confined:

"Mr. Marr telling me by the way how a maid-servant of Mr. John Wright's... falling sick of the plague, she was removed to an out-house, and a nurse appointed to look to her; who, being once absent, the maid got out of the house at the window, and run away. [...] [I]n the way met the wench walking over the common... and was forced to send people to take her, which he did; and they got one of the pest coaches and put her into it to carry her to a pest house. And passing in a narrow lane Sir Anthony Browne, with his brother and some friends in the coach, met this coach with the curtains drawn close. The brother being a young man, and believing there might be some lady in it that would not be seen, and the way being narrow, he thrust his head out of his own into her coach, and to look, and there saw somebody look very ill, and in a sick dress, and stunk mightily: which the coachman also cried out upon. And presently they come up to some people that stood looking after it, and told our gallants that it was a maid of Mr. Wright's carried away sick of the plague; which put the young gentleman into a fright had almost cost him his life, but is now well again." (p. 123)

In any case, Pepys in his whole huge Diary does not often use "confinement" or related words.

Robert Janusko (personal communication, May 2002) points out that "confinement" occurs in the Barnett and Dale stylistic anthology, from which Joyce often but not always draws in conjunction with his sets of Peacock cullings scattered throughout the "Oxen" notesheets (cf. the B&D entries at ns 1.1-1.5 followed by the Peacock entries at 1.6-1.16). In B&D's extract, "Parental Power," from the Restoration author John Locke, p. 187 contains the wording: "For law... is not so much the limitation as the direction of a free and intelligent agent to his proper interest.... Could they be happier without it, the law, as a useless thing, would of itself vanish; and that ill deserves the name of Confinement, which hedges us in only from bogs and precipices." Furthermore, not far from this passage, B&D like probably not a few of the early twentieth century's anthologies of historical prose styles reprints the same Pepys diary entry for the first day of the Great Fire of London that Peacock also anthologizes, an entry that proves such a significant source for Joyce further down in this left-hand column on ns 2. Could the Pepys "Great Fire" cullings come from B&D rather than from Peacock? For now, it may be worth noting that 2.38, from this "Great Fire" passage, is transcribed as "to night" by Herring (which matches the spelling used in Peacock) while S&S 1983 transcribes it as "tonight" (the modernized spelling used by B&D in the same Pepys passage). One could make good arguments for transcribing Joyce's entry either way; Janusko notes that Joyce fairly clearly seems to pick up his pen between the "th" and the "ough" in "though" at 2.31, so it is hard to be sure if Joyce intends "to night" or "tonight" at 2.38.

Leaving aside the "Great Fire" B&D/Peacock overlap, in this column only 2.33 currently gives any hint of being sourced in B&D rather than Peacock. This together with the fact that the reassigning to B&D of entries in this area of ns 2 would involve recasting most of the published sourcing record for Pepys entries has led me to let stand for now all the Peacock sourcings on this sheet. Perhaps the interplay between B&D and Peacock cullings on subsequent sheets will clarify any patterns in Joyce's use of these two sources and resolve the problem Janusko raises. Or perhaps some other information will turn up to put the B&D possibility here in a more definite perspective.

brave dry [canceled in red]

"the news coming every moment of the growth of the fire, so as we were forced to begin to pack up our own goods, and prepare for their removal; and did by moonshine (it being brave dry and moonshine and warm weather) carry much of my goods into the garden"

Peacock 128 (Pepys): near the bottom of the page

U 14.452: turn aside hither and I will show you a brave place

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

There are several examples in "Oxen" of "brave" and derivatives, almost any of which could have been provoked by this entry, but the first example of "brave" in the episode, which is also the example of "brave" (as against derivatives) that sounds closest to the entry, occurs in the Bunyan paragraph of "Oxen"; the only example in "Oxen" of "dry" occurs nearby ("dry flag," U 14.480; cf. ns 2.48 below).

a pair of virginals [canceled in red ]

"River full of lighters and boats taking in goods, and good goods swimming in the water, and only I observed that hardly one lighter or boat in three that had the goods of a house in, but there was a pair of Virginalls in it"

Peacock 127 (Pepys): near the bottom of the page

U 14.352: to be played with accompanable concent upon the virginals

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

she home and he to Paul's [canceled in red]

"We parted at Paul's; he home, and I to Paul's Wharf, where I had appointed a boat to attend me, and took in Mr. Carcasse and his brother, whom I met in the street, and carried them below and above bridge too"

Peacock 127 (Pepys): near the top of the page

U 14.500-01: he bound home and he to Andrew Horne's being stayed for to crush a cup of wine, so he said, but would tell him of a skittish heifer

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

In changing Pepys' "he home" to "she home," it seems likely Joyce was thinking that this phrase could be used in "Oxen" to mention Molly at home while Bloom is still out and about. In the event, he employed the wording in his diaristic description of the chance meeting of Mulligan and Bannon during a thunderstorm.

for aught he knew [canceled in red ]

"and so home, and there find my guests, who were Mr. Wood and his wife Barbary Shelden, and also Mr. Moone; she mighty fine, and her husband, for aught I see, a likely man"

Peacock 126 (Pepys): near the bottom of the page

U 14.481-82: All the world saying, for aught they knew, the big wind of last February a year that did havoc the land so pitifully a small thing beside this barrenness

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

to night (stanotte) [canceled in red ]

"By and by Jane comes and tells me that she hears that above 300 houses have been burned down to night by the fire we saw, and that it is now burning down all Fish-street, by London Bridge"

Peacock 124 (Pepys): near the middle of the page

U 14.508: Leop. Bloom there for a languor he had but was now better, he having dreamed tonight a strange fancy of his dame Mrs Moll with red slippers on in a pair of Turkey trunks

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

Joyce notices that "to night" as Pepys uses it in this passage means "during the previous overnight," and reminds himself of this by glossing it with Italian stanotte, which in like fashion not only can be used in reference to the current or coming night (the modern sense of "tonight" in English) but can also be applied to what we usually call "last night." But the historical evidence and logic seem to suggest that, as in the Pepys passage, this sense of "last night" can only be used the next day, because once the following night begins "tonight" could only with some difficulty be taken to mean not the current night but the prior one. OED tonight (adv.), meaning 3 (obsolete) actually says "Perhaps only said in the morning" (as is  the case in the Pepys passage). So possibly Joyce is misapplying -- whether inadvertently or, for thematic motives, deliberately -- this backward-looking sense of "tonight" when he employs it in reference to the night of 15-16 June at a point in the book when the night of 16-17 June is already underway.

Note yet again (cf. ns 1.34) that in drafting "Oxen" Joyce conforms period orthography ("to night" in Peacock's Pepys and quite possibly in the notesheet entry too) to his own practice ("tonight"), leaving non-contemporary sense, syntax, etc., to give the impression he is seeking to create in "Oxen" of a sequence of period Englishes.

drought [canceled in red]

"Having stayed, and in an hour's time seen the fire rage every way, and nobody, to my sight, endeavouring to quench it, but to remove their goods, and leave all to the fire, and having seen it get as far as the Steele-yard, and the wind mighty high, and driving it into the City, and everything after so long a drought proving combustible, even the very stones of churches, and among other things, the poor steeple by which pretty Mrs. ---- lives"

Peacock 125 (Pepys): near the middle of the page

U 14.508: So Thursday sixteenth June Patk. Dignam laid in clay of an apoplexy and after hard drought , please God, rained, a bargeman coming in by water a fifty mile or thereabout with turf saying the seed won't sprout

Downing, May 2002

This is the sole example of "drought" in Pepys' Diary. Joyce notes it down on his sheet because the standard U.K. spelling, which Joyce uses a number of times throughout U, is "drouth." To Americans, "drought" is still the standard spelling and appears unexceptionable, but to Joyce it is an archaic version of the word. The beginning of the diarist paragraph is the only place in U where Joyce employs the archaic spelling.

likely man [canceled in red]

"and so home, and there find my guests, who were Mr. Wood and his wife Barbary Shelden, and also Mr. Moone; she mighty fine, and her husband, for aught I see, a likely man"

Peacock 126 (Pepys): near the bottom of the page

U 14.505: There Leop. Bloom of Crawford's journal sitting snug with a covey of wags, likely brangling fellows, Dixon jun., scholar of my lady of Mercy's, Vin. Lynch, a Scots fellow, Will. Madden, T. Lenehan, very sad about a racer he fancied and Stephen D.

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

at nine at night all [uncanceled]

"my Lord Mayor commands people to be within at nine at night all, as they say, that the sick may have liberty to go abroad for air"

Peacock 123 (Pepys): near the bottom of the page

[the entry does not appear to echo in "Oxen"]

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

Possibly this wording drew Joyce's attention because "Oxen" was going to be focused on a group of men all together -- at ten at night, rather than nine. However, given that the entry did not get canceled as used or employed in "Oxen," perhaps its actual significance for the text of "Oxen" resides in the subsequent entry, 2.41.

ten of the clock [canceled in red ]

[on sourcing, see note below]

U 14.486: by and by, as said, this evening after sundown, the wind sitting in the west, biggish swollen clouds to be seen as the night increased and the weatherwise poring up at them and some sheet lightnings at first and after, past ten of the clock , one great stroke with a long thunder and in a brace of shakes all scamper pellmell within door for the smoking shower

Neither "ten of the clock" nor any other "of the clock" phrase occurs in Peacock's Pepys selection. However, Pepys does use "of the clock" about ten times in the Diary. (On the other hand, he employs the now-standard "o'clock" over a hundred times.) Pepys actually uses "ten of the clock" in his diary entries for 15 June 1664, 3 June 1666, and 30 June 1667, but it is not necessary to imagine that Joyce researched these passages or was aware of them.

The most likely explanation is that, while or after noting down "at nine at night all" Joyce realized that the earlier and now archaic but in Pepys' day still current way of stating the hour as "ten of the clock," rather than "ten o'clock," would be useful for "Oxen," and made a note of it at this point. Hence, there is no written source in Peacock or elsewhere for this entry, though the prior entry (which does derive from Peacock's Pepys) is the proximate cause of the entry.

which put him .. but .. now [canceled in red]

"presently they come up to some people that stood looking after it, and told our gallants that it was a maid of Mr. Wright's carried away sick of the plague; which put the young gentleman into a fright had almost cost him his life, but is now well again"

Peacock 123 (Pepys): near the bottom of the page

U 14.496: Mal. Mulligan a gentleman's gentleman that had but come from Mr Moore's the writer's ( that was a papish but is now, folk say, a good Williamite)

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

Joyce does not note down the "is" from Pepys, but either deliberately or by chance he ends up using the same "is" with the same word order in "Oxen."

Though Joyce seems to have canceled the entire entry with one stroke, how he would be using the wording "which put him" at U 14.496 is not clear. Just possibly he felt that he was redeploying "which put him" in the following phrase from a late-eighteenth century passage: "so as to put him in thought of that missing link of creation's chain" (U 14.857-58).

looked v. ill and in a sick dress & stunk mightily [ canceled in red]

"they got one of the pest coaches and put her into it to carry her to a pest house. And passing in a narrow lane, Sir Anthony Browne with his brother and some friends in the coach, met this coach with the curtains drawn close. The brother being a young man, and believing there might be some lady in it that would not be seen, and the way being narrow, he thrust his head out of his own into her coach, and to look, and there saw somebody look very ill, and in a sick dress, and stunk mightily; which the coachman also cried out upon"

Peacock 123 (Pepys): near the bottom of the page

U 14.477: So Thursday sixteenth June Patk. Dignam laid in clay of an apoplexy and after hard drought, please God, rained, a bargeman coming in by water a fifty mile or thereabout with turf saying the seed won't sprout, fields athirst, very sadcoloured and stunk mightily, the quags and tofts too

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

Joyce adopts much of the entry's wording, while retaining its basic structure, in shifting the application from a woman with the plague to drought-blighted Irish fields.

chamberlover [canceled in red ]

Neither "chamber" nor "love(r)" appears in Peacock's Pepys extract. No similar-looking word occurs in any nearby Peacock passage. It does not seem to be a word one would encounter in an eighteenth-century text: certainly not spelled, Joyce-style, as a single compound word without hyphenation. The whole of OED2 contains no example of "chamberlover," neither as one word, or two, or hyphenated. Mistranscription seems a possibility. Note that Joyce cancels the entry as "used," so some trace of whatever this wording actually is should somehow show up in U, most likely in "Oxen."

darkish [canceled in red]

"We stayed till, it being darkish, we saw the fire as only one entire arch of fire from this to the other side the bridge, and in a bow up the hill for an arch of above a mile long; it made me weep to see it"

Peacock 128 (Pepys): near the top of the page

[on possible redeployment by Joyce, see just below]

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

Though Pepys only used "darkish" twice in the whole of his vast Diary, one of the uses comes in his account of the first day of the Great Fire of London, anthologized by Peacock.

Joyce canceled the entry in red, suggesting he felt he had incorporated it somehow into U, and most likely "Oxen." However, "darkish" appears nowhere in U. Many examples of "dark" occur in "Oxen," but it is hard to imagine which one Joyce would have had in mind in canceling this entry. The one place in "Oxen" where the idea carried by "darkish" (i.e., somewhat dark) shows up is perhaps the description of young Molly when she and Bloom are about to get together romantically: "Floey, Atty, Tiny and their darker friend with I know not what of arresting in her pose then, Our Lady of the Cherries, a comely brace of them pendent from an ear, bringing out the foreign warmth of the skin so daintily against the cool ardent fruit" (U 14.1368-71).

what do angry men ail to rail? [uncanceled]

"What is there in this that is so criminal, as to deserve the penalty of that most singular apophthegm, "A Trimmer is worse than a rebel!" What do angry men ail, to rail so against moderation?"

Peacock 115 (Savile/Halifax): near the bottom of the page

[nothing in "Oxen" seems especially to echo this entry]

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

dry flag catch at 1st fire [canceled in red]

"it [i.e., general political and social discontent] works several ways, sometimes like a slow poison that has its effects at a great distance from the time it was given; sometimes like dry flag prepared to catch at the first fire, or like seed in the ground ready to sprout up on the first shower: In every shape 'tis fatal, and our Trimmer thinks no pains or precaution can be so great as to prevent it"

Peacock 117 (Savile/Halifax): near the bottom of the page

U 14.480-81: The rosy buds all gone brown and spread out blobs and on the hills nought but dry flag and faggots that would catch at first fire. All the world saying, for aught they knew, the big wind of last February a year that did havoc the land so pitifully a small thing beside this barrenness

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

The three entries on lines 2.49-2.50 remain elusive. They do not seem to be in Peacock's Savile extract (which are the source for the two entries immediately above and the two entries immediately below) nor do they seem to appear in the general pre-Defoe area of Peacock from which everything else at 2.29-2.52 seems drawn. Perhaps these three entries are unrelated to the general 2.29-2.52 process of culling from Peacock and the pre-Defoe period of English prose style. But one possibility is that they are based on Pepys, who is far and away the main source for entries between 2.29 and the bottom of the far-left column on ns 2, so I will comment briefly on the Pepys possibilities for each of these three entries.

manse [canceled in red]

[on possible sourcing, see below]

U 14.455: This was it what all that company that sat there at commons in Manse of Mothers the most lusted after and if they met with this whore Bird-in-the-Hand

It is not impossible that Joyce got this entry from Pepys, though the word "manse" never appears in the vastness of the Diary. In fact, "manse" is one of many English words that was widely used in the Renaissance and early-modern period, then seems to have been relatively unneeded in the London of the Restoration and the eighteenth century, and finally re-emerged into literary prominence around the turn of the nineteenth century as a result of Romantic interest in exotic or archaic words and things. However, Pepys refers to "house(s)" and related words nearly thirty times in the fewer than 3000 words that Peacock anthologizes from the Diary; the account of the first day of the Great Fire naturally contains many references to houses in a variety of dramatic contexts. So it is at least possible that Joyce thought of "manse" while looking though Peacock's Pepys, but there is no assurance of this in the current state of information.

On the other hand Herring, at Notesheets (1972) p. 171, suggests Peacock's extract from the nineteenth-century author Hallam as a possible source for the entry. A passage on p. 296 of Peacock discussing medieval farming says: "One [kind of medieval homestead], with the adjacent domain of arable fields and woods, had the name of villa or manse. Several manses composed a march; and several marches formed a pagus, or district. From these elements, in the progress of population, arose villages and towns.... Country parishes contained several manses or farms of arable land around a common pasture, where every one was bound by custom to feed his cattle." From the point of view of Joyce's cullings in this part of ns 2, one might question whether Joyce would have turned to the Hallam extract, nearly 200 pages removed from where he was otherwise culling in this area, but it is not impossible that he happened to flip to this passage accidentally while in the middle of his Restoration culling. Or perhaps he had already read the Hallam extract and simply decided at this point to make a note of the remembered word "manse." Certainly the Hallam passage on p. 296 of Peacock, with its mentions of cattle, population increase, and (in a portion not quoted just above) fertility, might have seemed especially attractive and auspicious to Joyce as he considered "Oxen" and its cluster of central themes.

I don't know whether it increases or decreases the likelihood of a Hallam sourcing here, but Joyce did cull a cluster of entries from Peacock's Hallam extract on ns 19, including at 19.33c the word "march" seen in the quotation just above, as Herring points out at Notesheets (1972), p. 259.

Like the "inspired by Pepys" idea just discussed, the possibility of sourcing from Hallam's Peacock remains speculative for now. Janusko omitted it when he incorporated into the 1983 version of S&S the Peacock sourcings that Herring had identified after Janusko's 1967 dissertation was completed.

Soon as [canceled in red]

[on possible sourcing, see below]

U 14.490: womenfolk skipping off with kirtles catched up soon as the pour came

Joyce notes down this locution because it had been completely displaced in the formal English of his day by the formula "as soon as." OED2 soon (adv.), meaning 4e, says of "soon as": "Now poet., dial., and colloq." Except for this one place in the diarist paragraph, in "Oxen" Joyce employs the standard formal locution "as soon as": "as soon as his belly was full he would rear up on his hind quarters" (U 14.607-08), and "as soon as it began to dawn on him that the other was endeavouring to help himself to the thing he involuntarily determined to help him himself" (U 14.1191-93).

It is not impossible that Joyce got this entry from Pepys, whose frequently anthologized account of the beginning of the Great London Fire (diary entry for 2 September 1666) contains an especially noticeable sentence-initial example of this locution: "Soon as dined, I and Moone away, and walked through the City, the streets full of nothing but people, and horses and carts loaden with goods, ready to run over one another, and removing goods from one burned house to another." This wording (which is one of only three places in the whole huge Dairy where Pepys begins a sentence with "Soon as") occurs in Peacock's Pepys extract on p. 127, near the top of the page: barely ten lines below the place from which Joyce took ns entries 2.37 and 2.39b, and on the same page from which Joyce also took entries 2.36 and 2.35.

he give me [canceled in red]

[on possible sourcing, see below]

U 14.1515: The ruffin cly the nab of Stephen Hand as give me the jady coppaleen

Though this entry occurs in the midst of a lot of Restoration cullings, Joyce ends up deploying the non-standard use of "give" as a past-tense form in the passage of contemporary vernaculars with which "Oxen" closes.

It is not impossible that Joyce got this entry from Pepys, who writes "he/she/[name] did give me" several dozen times in the Dairy, most  frequently when recording news or gossip someone has passed along to him. The closest that Pepys comes to this phrase in the Peacock extract is when he recounts how his news about the Great Fire was passed on to the king: "and I did give them an account dismayed them all, and word was carried in to the King" (Peacock p. 125, nine lines below the source for 2.39a). However, the wording here is not close enough to either the notesheet entry or the wording finally employed in "Oxen" to feel strongly about this possible source in Peacock's Pepys.

Another possibility is suggested by Herring 1972 p. 161, who sources this entry to Peacock p. 119, where the extract from Savile/Halifax on "A Trimmer" ends and an extract on Elizabethan and Jacobean drama from Dryden's Essay of Dramatic Poesy begins. However, Herring places "Cf." prior to his Peacock page reference, which usually means that he does not feel certain about the sourcing, and Janusko's 1983 S&S, which normally incorporates Herring's 1972 Peacock sourcings in its overall listing, does not include Herring's Peacock sourcings for either 2.49a or 2.50. I cannot find "he give me" on Peacock p. 119, on the facing page 118, or on the top of p. 120 (which is where the first paragraph in the Dryden extract ends). Still, unless Herring's page reference is wrong, perhaps he is thinking of the first paragraph in the Dryden extract, where Dryden, in praising Shakespeare, uses forms of the male third-person pronoun many times. However, the only example of "give" in the passage is: "Those who accuse him to have wanted learning, give him the greater commendation: he was naturally learned...." But how and why this wording would have generated the entry "he give me" is not clear.

the betraying him [canceled in red ]

"and persuade the king to retrench his own greatness, so as to shrink into the head of a party, which is the betraying him into such an unprincely mistake, and to such a wilful diminution of himself, that they are the last enemies he ought to allow himself to forgive"

Peacock 116 (Savile/Halifax): near the top of the page

[on possible Joycean redeployment, see just below]

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171

Finding the passage where Joyce thought he had deployed this entry is not easy. There is no example of "betraying" in U and no occurrence of "betray" in "Oxen." (But perhaps note U 14.908-11: "During the recent war whenever the enemy had a temporary advantage... did this traitor to his kind not seize that moment to discharge his piece against the empire of which he is a tenant at will....") There are many examples in "Oxen" of "the" followed by a word ending in "ing" and also examples of words ending in "ing" followed by a pronoun, but so far none seems especially close to the notesheet entry.

seed to sprout [canceled in red ]

"it [general political and social discontent] works several ways, sometimes like a slow poison that has its effects at a great distance from the time it was given; sometimes like dry flag prepared to catch at the first fire, or like seed in the ground ready to sprout up on the first shower: In every shape 'tis fatal, and our Trimmer thinks no pains or precaution can be so great as to prevent it"

Peacock 117 (Savile/Halifax): near the bottom of the page

U 14.476: after hard drought, please God, rained, a bargeman coming in by water a fifty mile or thereabout with turf saying the seed won't sprout, fields athirst, very sadcoloured and stunk mightily, the quags and tofts too

Herring Notesheets (1972), p. 171