GENETIC JOYCE STUDIES -
Issue 4 (Spring 2004)
I. 1905 – 1913: 14
II. 1914 –1916: 28
IV. 1918 –1919: 60
V. January – 8 July 1920: 70
VI. 12 July 1920 – March 1921: 81
VII. 8 April 1921 – August 1921:
VIII. 26 August 1921 –
2 February 1922: 113
On 12 March 1905,
Joyce and his family arrived in Trieste. They would remain there until 31
July 1906, when he left for Rome.
On 30 September
1906, while in Rome, Joyce told his brother Stanislaus he was writing a
story for Dubliners about a certain "Mr Hunter". It was to be called
On 7 March 1907,
Joyce returned to Trieste. From 22 March 1907 to 16 May 1912, the Triestine
newspaper Il Piccolo della Sera published at least eight of Joyce's
By 7 April 1908,
Joyce had written the first three chapters of
A Portrait of the Artist as a
On 29 July 1909,
Joyce and his son Giorgio travelled to Dublin to see about the publication
of Dubliners by Maunsel & Co. and then went to visit Nora's family in
On 13 September,
they returned to Trieste and then Joyce travelled back to Dublin on 21
October. On 20 December, Joyce opened the Volta, the first cinema in Dublin.
In January 1910, Joyce returned to Trieste.
In January 1910,
Joyce compiled the so-called "Alphabetical Notebook". He used it to finish
writing A Portrait
and would later use for the opening of "Telemachus" (1). It is now at
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
In the summer of
1911, Joyce wrote a "Letter to the Editor" describing the difficulties he
had encountered with the censors and printers in Dublin that had precluded
the publication of Dubliners. It was published in the Belfast
Whig (26 August) and in the Dublin
In early March 1912,
Joyce delivered his lectures on Daniel Defoe and William Blake at the
Università Popolare of Trieste.
In the summer of
1912, Joyce returned to Ireland; this would be his final visit. While in
Galway, Joyce developed certain scenes, using the exact wording he would
later incorporate in "Proteus" (3).
1912, as Joyce was returning to Trieste, he wrote a satirical broadside,
Gas from a Burner, about the destruction of the sheets of Dubliners
by John Falconer, the printers of the Dublin publisher, Maunsel & Co.
From November 1912
to February 1913, Joyce presented his lectures on Hamlet at
Università Popolare of Trieste. These ideas would form the nucleus of the
"Scylla & Charybdis" (9) episode of Ulysses.
From 1912 to 1914,
Joyce wrote early drafts for several more episodes of Ulysses,
including at least "Proteus" (3), "Lotus Eaters" (5), and "Hades" (6).
On 23 December 1913, at Ezra
Pound's instigation, the New Freewoman, edited by Dora Marsden
and Harriet Shaw Weaver, became the Egoist. One of Pound's first
initiatives was to contact James Joyce, offering to publish his work in the
On 15 January 1914,
with Ezra Pound at the helm, the London magazine the Egoist published
Joyce's "A Curious History" in its second issue. In it Joyce recounts the
troubles he had encountered finding a publisher and printer in Dublin
courageous enough to issue his book of short stories, Dubliners.
On 2 February 1914,
Joyce's thirty-second birthday, the Egoist
serialising A Portrait
of the Artist as a Young Man.
ran serially in the Egoist for a year and a half in
twenty-five non-consecutive installments.
In February, with
Pound's support, one of Joyce's early poems appeared in the New York poetry
magazine Glebe. Joyce had included it in his first book, Chamber
Music (1907). It was only the second of Joyce's literary works to appear
in the United States.
In the spring of
1914, Joyce wrote his only play, Exiles.
On 15 June 1914,
Grant Richards published the first Edition of Dubliners in London.
During May 1915,
Joyce's Dubliners stories, "The Boarding House" and "A Little Cloud",
were published in the Smart Set in New York.
On 16 June 1915
Joyce wrote to his brother Stanislaus that he had written the first episode
of Ulysses, "Telemachus". At this stage, Ulysses already had
three Parts, but he claimed they consisted of twenty-two episodes (not the
eighteen that comprise the published work).
By June 1915, Joyce
had used notes from his "Alphabetical Notebook" to write the earliest
episodes of Ulysses.
On 1 September 1915,
the final instalment of
appeared in the Egoist magazine.
On 14 September
1916, Joyce sent W.B. Yeats his play, Exiles, saying he was writing a
book called Ulysses that would not be finished for several more
On 10 October 1916,
Joyce wrote to his publisher and patron Harriet Shaw Weaver to say he was
busy writing a book: "I am working at it as well as I can. It is called
Ulysses and the action takes place in Dublin in 1904. I have almost
finished the first part and have written out part of the middle and end. I
hope to finish it in 1918". Ulysses was ultimately published on 2
On 8 November 1916,
Joyce wrote to Harriet Shaw Weaver that he had begun Ulysses in Rome
"six years [ago] or seven" and that it would be finished in two more years.
Joyce was actually in Rome in 1906, ten years before he wrote this letter.
1916 (and then again in April 1917), B.W. Huebsch published the first
American edition of Dubliners.
On 29 December 1916,
Huebsch published the first edition of
A Portrait of the Artist as a
On 12 February 1917, Harriet Shaw
Weaver's Egoist Press published the first English edition of A Portrait.
Then on 15 March
1917, Joyce wrote to his friend, the Irish writer, C.P. Curran that he had
begun Ulysses in Rome "six or seven years ago" and would finish it in
On 9 April, Joyce
wrote to Ezra Pound that the only episode he had ready to send him was the
"Hamlet chapter", that is, "Scylla & Charybdis" (9).
In May and then in
November 1917, the influential Chicago-based Poetry magazine printed
seven of Joyce's poems. A decade later Sylvia Beach's Shakespeare & Company
published these poems along with five more in Pomes Penyeach.
By 5 June 1917,
Joyce said he had finished "Lotus Eaters" (5) and "Hades" (6) and was
gathering his notes for "Aeolus" (7).
In August 1917,
Grant Richards published the first English edition of Exiles. Joyce
wrote that it would allow him to concentrate on Ulysses, "which if
all goes well, I hope to have ready for publication next year".
By the end of August
1917, Joyce assured Ezra Pound that he could consign Ulysses in 6000
word instalments for simultaneous serialisation in the Egoist and the
Little Review beginning on 1 January 1918.
In the summer of
1917, while in Zürich, Joyce wrote the earliest surviving Ulysses
manuscript draft material for "Proteus" (3). It is now in the National
Library. No early drafts for "Telemachus" (1) or "Nestor" (2) survive.
From 12 October 1917
to January 1918, Joyce and his family lived in Locarno, Italy. He wrote the
earliest complete draft of "Proteus" (3) in a form that is fairly close to
the text as it would be published in the Little Review. It is part of
the Joyce Collection at the University at Buffalo, New York.
1917, Joyce wrote-out the "Telemachus" (1) episode as a faircopy. His Zürich
friend, Claud Sykes then typed it. The faircopy manuscript is at the
Rosenbach Museum and Library in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
On 16 December 1917,
Joyce sent Sykes "Nestor" to type.
From January to
October 1918, while living at 38 Universitätstrasse, Zürich, Joyce compiled
the earliest surviving notebook for Ulysses and used it to write and
revise several of the early episodes of Ulysses.
In January 1918,
Elkin Mathews (London) published a second edition of Joyce's first
collection of poetry, Chamber Music. That same year two American
editions of the book were also published; an unauthorised edition by the
Cornhill Company (Boston) and an authorised one by B.W. Huebsch (New York).
Huebsch became a friend as well as the American publisher of Joyce's
In 1918, Joyce wrote
the earliest surviving draft of "Sirens" (11). The first portion was
obviously copied from a now lost earlier draft, but Joyce wrote the rest of
the manuscript as fragmentary texts. It was only uncovered in 2002 and is
now at the National Library.
By March 1918, the
first three episodes of Ulysses had been typed. Joyce was encouraged
by the news that his novel would begin to appear in serial form in the
United States. "Telemachus" (1) appeared as "Ulysses I" in the New York
literary magazine Little Review that month.
On 25 May 1918,
Huebsch published the first American edition of Joyce's only play, Exiles.
By October 1918, six
monthly instalments of Ulysses had appeared in the Little Review,
reaching "Aeolus" (7).
At the end of 1918,
Joyce wrote "New Year's Eve, 1918 | End of First Part of Ulysses" on
the last page of the faircopy version of "Scylla and Charybdis" (9). It
marked a significant turning point in Joyce's conception and elaboration of
1919, the printers, The
Complete Press, of West Norwood,
set "Nestor" (2) for
the Egoist, having previously refused to set "Telemachus" (1).
In the United Kingdom, printers as well as publishers were liable to
prosecution for obscenity. They also set "Proteus" (3), although with
deletions. The printers then again refused to set "Calypso" (4) and "Lotus
The January 1919
issue of the Little Review, which contained "Lestrygonians" (8), was
seized in the U.S.
1919, Joyce wrote the tenth episode "Wandering Rocks", at least in the form
in which it appears in Ulysses. Until the beginning of 1919,
Ulysses seems to have only consisted of 17 episodes, not the 18 that
comprise the published work. He wrote "Wandering Rocks" from notes, which he
may have been accumulating as early as 1917.
Between 1919 and
1921, Joyce transferred his earlier notes to large sheets and used them to
write and revise the last seven episodes of Ulysses. These notesheets
are at the British Library in London.
In early 1919,
Joyce's poor eyesight prevented him from completing the faircopy of
"Wandering Rocks" (10). He wrote a note on the last page of this manuscript
indicating that the second half of the episode was written by his "friend
Francis Budgen at my dictation". Joyce made some revisions himself to this
manuscript, but dictated still more to Budgen. It is a unique collaborative
effort in Joyce's works.
In March 1919, Joyce
had "Wandering Rocks" (10) typed, sent it on to New York and it appeared in
two issues of the Little Review in June and July 1919.
On 20 July 1919,
Joyce wrote to Weaver that it had taken him five months to prepare the first
complete draft of "Sirens" (11). It fills two copybooks, the first half of
which is at the National Library and the second is at the University at
Buffalo, New York. Joyce said that after writing this episode he found it
"impossible to listen to music of any kind".
In June and July
1919, Joyce wrote the earliest surviving manuscripts of "Cyclops" (12). It
is also in two copybooks, but reversing the situation of "Sirens" (11), the
first half is in Buffalo and the second is in Dublin.
In July 1919, the
Egoist had the first half of "Hades" (6) printed and published, and the
rest appeared in their next issue in September. The following Egoist
issue appeared four months later in December 1919 and contained a part of
"Wandering Rocks" (10). It was the final instalment of Ulysses to
appear in the Egoist magazine.
On 3 August 1919,
Joyce wrote to John Quinn that it took him "four or five months to write a
chapter" of Ulysses. Even though Joyce still had the six most
difficult (as well as some of the longest) episodes to write, surprisingly
his schedule is fairly accurate: Ulysses would appear two and one
half years after he wrote this letter.
1919, Joyce recopied "Cyclops" (12) as a faircopy. It appeared in three
issues of the Little Review from November 1919 to January 1920.
On 17 October 1919,
Joyce and his family returned to Trieste from Zürich and remained there
until 3 July 1920.
From November 1919
to January 1920, Joyce wrote the earliest surviving draft of "Nausikaa" (13)
in two copybooks. The first half of this episode is at Buffalo, whereas the
second is at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York.
On 7 December 1919,
Joyce wrote to his agent, James B. Pinker, that the text as published in the
Little Review was "not" his text and that when Ulysses
appears it "is to be published as I wrote it with a few additions on the
V. January – 8 July 1920:
In January 1920, the
Little Review resumed publishing the novel. Three issues of the
Little Review had appeared without any instalments of Ulysses.
They reached the second instalment of the National Library episode, "Scylla
& Charybdis" (9), in their April-May issue. This was the second issue of the
Little Review to be seized by the U.S. authorities, but not the last.
In early February
1920, Joyce began writing the earliest surviving draft of "Oxen of the Sun"
(14). It consists of four copybooks, the first two are in Dublin and the
others two in Buffalo. He called this episode "the most difficult episode in
an odyssey, I think, both to interpret and to execute". Of course, he had
still to grapple with "Circe" (15).
In March and April
1920, Joyce wrote out the next version of "Oxen of the Sun", grouping
clusters of parodies in ten different copybooks. These manuscripts are also
dispersed between the Joyce Collections in Buffalo and Dublin.
In early 1920, Joyce
wrote to John Quinn, a New York patron and collector, who was buying the
faircopy of Ulysses as Joyce produced it, that he still had to write
the "adventure" of "Circe" (15).
On 11 March, Joyce
reassured Quinn, claiming that the last three episodes, were "simpler" than
the first three, "in part written" and that he expected "the book will be
ready for publication in late autumn ". Joyce greatly underestimated
the difficulties both he and his book would encounter over the next two
On 18 March 1920,
Joyce said that he had calculated that it had taken him "1000 hours of work"
to finish writing "Oxen of the Sun" (14). For five of the central episodes
of Ulysses, including "Oxen", the extant Rosenbach faircopy was not
used by the typist. The episode's extant typescript, which was completed on
24 March, contains revisions and additions that are not present on the
From April to August
1920, the Little Review published "Nausikaa" (13). This episode
provoked John S. Sumner and the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice
to lodge a complaint against the editors and the magazine for publishing
September-December 1920 issue, The Little Review published its final
instalment of Ulysses, the first part of "Oxen of the Sun" (14).
In December 1920,
the Little Review was suspended.
On 8 July 1920,
James Joyce and his family arrived in Paris.
VI. 12 July 1920–March 1921:
On 12 July 1920,
Joyce wrote to Harriet Weaver that he and his family had arrived in Paris
and were intending "to remain here three months in order to write the last
adventure Circe in peace (?) and also the first episode of the close... I am
very tired of it and so is everybody else".
Beginning on 16
August 1920, Joyce variously claimed that he had re-written it "from first
to last" five, six, even nine times. At 157 pages in the first edition,
"Circe" (15) is by far the longest episode in the book. Only one early draft
of the episode was known until 2000 when a new manuscript surfaced for sale
at auction in New York. This was the first new Ulysses manuscript to
appear in 40 years. The National Library acquired it and then, in 2002, yet
another "Circe" (15) draft was uncovered and again, the National Library
acquired it along with 13 other manuscripts for seven other episodes. It now
seems less likely that Joyce was exaggerating the difficulty and the labour
of writing "Circe".
In September 1920,
Joyce prepared a first version of his plan (often referred to as a "schema")
of Ulysses in Italian for his friend Carlo Linati.
On 24 November 1920,
while in Paris Joyce wrote to John Quinn that he had started Ulysses
in "1914 and shall finish it, I suppose in 1921. This is, I think, the
twentieth address at which I have written it – and I suppose the coldest."
From January to
December 1920, "Circe" (15) demanded an entire year of Joyce's creative
In January 1921,
Joyce wrote out "Circe" (15) once again as a faircopy.
In July 1920, when
Joyce arrived in Paris he claimed that he had written drafts of the last
three episodes, the "Nostos", Part III of Ulysses. He may even have
written some portion of these episodes as early 1916, evidence of which may
be found in the earliest surviving draft of "Eumaeus" (16).
In January 1921,
Joyce revised an earlier draft in a copybook he labelled "Eumeo" in three
colours of ink, making it one of the most visually striking Ulysses
manuscripts. This document surfaced in 2001 and was acquired by an anonymous
collector at auction in London.
Joyce recopied an
earlier draft of the "Eumaeus" (16) episode again in January to mid-February
1921, and a portion of it survives at the University at Buffalo. One of the
typists who worked on "Eumaeus" was prudish to the point of leaving blank
spaces where she disapproved of certain words. Not only did Joyce make his
usual rounds of corrections and additions to the typescript, but he was also
compelled to fill-in such words as "shite" and "bloody" on the typescript to
prepare it for the prospective printer of Ulysses.
In February 1921,
Margaret Anderson and Jane Heap, the editors of the Little Review,
were tried and subsequently fined $50.
On 24 March 1921,
Joyce's American publisher, Huebsch, wrote to John Quinn, Joyce's patron and
the lawyer who had unsuccessfully defended the editors of the Little
Review, that he could not publish Ulysses without some
alterations in the text. Joyce refused and, on 5 April, Huebsch formally
declined to publish Ulysses.
VII. April 1921–2 August 1922:
On 8 April 1921, the
husband of one of the several typists who was engaged to prepare the "Circe"
(15) episode read Joyce's manuscript and threw a portion of it in the fire.
By the end April
1921, a year after he had begun writing and re-writing the episode, the
typescript was complete, but the work on it was far from done.
In mid-April 1921,
Sylvia Beach of Shakespeare and Company, Paris, and Maurice Darantiere,
Master Printer, Dijon, signed a contract to print and publish James Joyce's
In the spring of
1921, neither the printer nor the publisher could have known that Joyce had
still to finish writing the last two episodes of the book: "Ithaca" (17) and
"Penelope" (18). Joyce himself could not have known how difficult writing
those 113 pages (a full one sixth of the book as published) would prove to
At the start of May
1921, Shakespeare and Company began sending out copies of a subscription
form for Ulysses. Greatly underestimating the difficulties that the
author, publisher and printer would face over the next 10 months, it
promised that Ulysses would appear in the autumn of 1921.
From 11 to 17 June
1921, Darantiere set the first 5 episodes of Ulysses, "Telemachus"
through "Lotus Eaters", in print as galley proofs (known as "placards" in
French). Joyce revised these proofs for the next 10 days.
Then, from 27 to 30
June, Darantiere went to the next phase of printing a book: he set the
author's corrected and revised text of those 5 episodes in page proofs.
Joyce needed 5 to 11 sets of proofs to accommodate his additions. In all,
Ulysses grew approximately one-third longer from additions Joyce made on
By 25 July 1921,
Darantiere was temporarily forced to stop setting Ulysses in proofs
because the printing house had run out of certain letters that are more
common in English than in French: "w, h, e, and y".
In August 1921,
Joyce worked to finish "Penelope" (18) before completing "the spectral and
penultimate" episode, "Ithaca" because he was anxious that Valery Larbaud
On 11 August,
Darantiere's chief printer contacted Joyce about the numerous compound words
in Ulysses. Hirschwald, who knew more English than the rest of the
printers, noted that he had always seen these as two words, and wanted Joyce
to confirm that he really wanted them all as one-word units.
At the end of August
1921, Joyce turned to Robert McAlmon, his friend and fellow author, to type
"Penelope" (18). McAlmon was just the last in a long line of amateur typists
that helped produce Ulysses.
In August 1921, the
printers set the five episodes, "Aeolus" (6) to "Wandering Rocks" (10), in
galley proofs for the first time. By mid-August, Joyce had incorporated the
newspaper "headlines" to "Aeolus" (7). These "crossheads" that distinguish
this episode from all the others had not appeared in the Little Review
version and were only added at this late stage. This modification signalled
a profound reorientation of the second half of Ulysses.
VIII. 26 August 1921–2
On 26 August 1921,
Joyce collapsed in the Alhambra music hall from the strain of overwork,
prompting him to reduce the number of hours he spent writing and revising
Ulysses from 16 to 5 or 6 and taking 8-mile walks around Paris once or
twice a day.
In late August,
after the text had been set three times, twice in page proofs, Darantiere
took the unusual and costly step of actually resetting the first 5 episodes
back in galley proofs. The extraordinary willingness of both the publisher
and printer of the book to accommodate Joyce's changes to the text made
Ulysses as we know it possible.
In the autumn of
1921, Joyce wrote three new, major additional scenes for Ulysses from
his "store-house" of notes. At the start of September the final sentence of
"Penelope" seemingly did not exist in manuscript form. Joyce wrote it out in
his faircopy hand at the end of that month and sent it directly to the
printer without bothering to have it typed.
By 21 September, the
first three episodes, the "Telemachiad" were in their final state for the
first edition of Ulysses. Joyce's revisions required that "Calypso"
(4) be re-set once again, but "Lotus Eaters" (5) took three more printings
before he was finished with it in mid-October.
By 24 September
1921, Joyce had written "Trieste–Zürich–Paris | 1914–1921". Ulysses
finally had its ending, but Joyce still had "Ithaca" to finish and thousands
of pages of proofs for all 18 episodes to correct.
On 26 September
1921, Joyce asked that several corrections be made to "Telemachus" (1), even
though he had signed-off on them the week before. This was the beginning of
various efforts to correct the text of the first edition. Darantiere was
able to institute one change on one of the three series of the first
From 21 September to
5 October 1921, Darantiere's printing house was busy with 9 different
episodes of Ulysses, from "Calypso" (4) to "Cyclops" (12), the most
they would ever handle at one time.
September 1921, "Calypso" (4) and "Lotus Eaters" (5) were set in print for
the 6th time; the last for "Calypso", though the other was re-set
In September 1921,
Joyce wrote Bloom's "stump speech" for "Circe" (15), which is often referred
to as the "Messianic Scene". Joyce had it typed, revised it and sent it
Darantiere on 23 September.
October 1921 was the
printer's busiest month. At its start, Darantiere set the next two episodes,
"Sirens" (11) and "Cyclops" (12), in print for the first time; they would
set "Sirens" six times and "Cyclops" nine. Joyce had finished correcting and
revising "Sirens" at the end of October, but he continued to revise
"Cyclops" until mid-November 1921.
In October, Joyce
wrote the last new addition to Ulysses. It is known as the
"Metropolitan Police" scene in "Cyclops" (12). Like the last sentence of
"Penelope", he sent it directly to the printer for inclusion in Ulysses
as a handwritten faircopy.
By 6 October 1921,
Joyce, Beach and Darantiere were still searching for blue paper to match the
colour of the Greek flag that Joyce wanted for the cover of Ulysses.
In mid-October 1921,
the first galley proofs of "Penelope" (18) were printed. On 20 October, the
printers set "Circe" (15) in proof for the first time; it was in proof an
astonishing 10 more times, from the start of November right up until late
With the 2 February
1922 deadline looming, Joyce used two different typists with two typewriters
to prepare "Ithaca" (17) for the printer. Not only was it typed 4 separate
times, but Joyce revised each one and then revised its five sets of proofs
On 29 October 1921,
Joyce announced that he had finished writing "Ithaca" (17) and so the
composition of Ulysses was complete. Joyce, in fact, added 16% more
text from notes to the typescript before he sent it to the printer a full
month later. He then managed to add a further 18% more text to "Ithaca" on
At the end of
November, the printers still had some hope that Ulysses might be
ready by the end of year.
In November, the
printers set "Penelope" (18) a second time, "Cyclops" (12) an eighth time,
and "Nausikaa" (13) and "Oxen of the Sun" (14) a third time each. "Cyclops"
had to be re-set once more the following week, whereas the other two
episodes had to be re-set twice more and Joyce was only finished with them
at the end of November.
On 3 January 1922,
the printers claimed that they had finished composing Ulysses.
On 12 January, the
printers informed Beach that they would not be able to find suitable blue
paper for the cover. So it was decided that it would be printed in blue on
white paper, with the title and author's name in reserve in white. By 27
January, Joyce had chosen the exact tint of blue he wanted and the covers
were then printed.
On 2 February 1922,
two copies of the book (numbered 901 and 902) were sent by train from Dijon
to Paris and Ulysses was "now ready".