GENETIC JOYCE STUDIES - Issue 5 (Spring 2005)


NOTES & ARTICLES  - TOOLS & QUERIES  -  LOST & FOUND  -  ABOUT GENETIC JOYCE STUDIES


 

A Source for Joyce's Notes on 'Indian outcasts' for Finnegans Wake II.1

 

Eli Lassman

 

While at work on Finnegans Wake II.1, the Children's Games episode, Joyce collected notes from a diverse group of source texts.  In a letter dictated on 4 March 1931, Joyce describes his reading:

Marie Corelli, Swedenborg, St Thomas, the Sudanese war, Indian outcasts, Women under English Law, a description of St. Helena, Flammarion's The End of the World, scores of children's singing games from Germany, France, England and Italy and so on . . . (Letters I, 302)

Some of the works in this list are literary or philosophical primary sources: Corelli, Swedenborg and Flammarion.  The children's singing games are the type of popular and folk culture material that Joyce enjoyed collecting.  Many of Joyce's notes come from standard reference works or anthropological works.  Joyce's source for notes on 'Indian outcasts', however, falls into none of these categories.  Joyce filled eight pages of VI.B.32, pages 212-19, a notebook that Joyce filled in late 1930 and early 1931 now held in the Lockwood Poetry and Rare Books Library at the State University of New York, Buffalo, with notes from an obscure source describing the plight of India's Untouchables, Rev. WS Hunt's India's Outcastes: A New Era.  Hunt's book is an inexpensive paperback published in 1924 by the Church Missionary Society, a London-based Anglican missionary group.

India's Outcastes: A New Era is not an obvious source for Joyce's notes on India's Untouchables, those members of Indian society who are outside of and below the Hindu caste system–literally 'out of caste'.  WS Hunt's book, while it did provide the vocabulary that Joyce desired and despite the title, is not an anthropological work on the Untouchables.  Rather, Hunt, an Anglican missionary working in the Travancore region of India, focuses more specifically on the progress of Christian missionaries in converting the Untouchables and the establishment of Christian communities among the Untouchables.  In his preface Hunt writes, 'This book is concerned with one aspect of the coming of the Kingdom of God in India–namely, that presented by the mass movements among the outcastes.  The poor have had the Gospel preached to them, and are now "besieging" the Kingdom.'[1]  The first phrase of the second sentence, 'The poor have had the Gospel preached to them', is Joyce's first note from India's Outcastes, so he was clearly aware of the rather particular mission of the book he quarried for its information on the Untouchables.  Given that numerous books of greater anthropological weight detailing the plight of the Untouchables were available, India's Outcastes was either the book closest to hand, had a title that sounded promising, or the evangelical focus of the book had some appeal to Joyce, perhaps as nothing more than an unusual and obscure source.

The Church Missionary Society, publisher of India's Outcastes and now known by the shortened name the Church Mission Society, is a major organisation of Anglican missionaries that proselytise in all parts of the developing world, notably in India and Africa.  Founded in London in 1799, the Society's endeavours are underpinned by a sort of mission statement from the earliest document published by the society: 'Of all the blessings which God has bestowed upon mankind, the Gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ is the greatest.  It is the sovereign remedy for all the evils of life, and the source of the most substantial and durable benefits.'[2]  The Society aimed to create 'mass movements' of Christian believers by empowering recent initiates in the administration of churches and schools and establishing 'well-trained Native congregations under Native Pastors'.[3]  The aim of the society is not only to instruct people in developing nations in the religion but to create Christian communities that will in turn continue the evangelical work of the society.

Joyce would have had little interest in the goals of the Church Mission Society, given his declared atheism and aversion to dogmatic religious institutions.  Joyce's interest in India's Outcastes: A New Era derives most probably entirely from the title.  Of the notes covering eight pages in VI.B.32 that Joyce likely compiled in January 1931, Joyce crossed through eight notes; all eight notes appear in Finnegans Wake in four lines at 237.21-25, the passage in the Children's Games chapter in which the girls heap effusive praise upon Shaun.  And although Joyce's notes from India's Outcastes cover a diverse range of subjects, the notes Joyce transferred from VI.B.32 to MS 47477-69 all pertain to cleanness, uncleanness and purity; in the passage where these notes appear, the girls are celebrating Shaun's purity.  Moreover, the notes crossed through from India's Outcastes are the last that Joyce entered in VI.B.32; Joyce put India's Outcastes aside as soon as he found the notes for which he was really looking: those notes about uncleanness and pollution in the Indian caste system.[4]  Joyce was drawn to India's Outcastes by the title's promise of specific information on issues of cleanness and pollution for India's Untouchables.

Joyce's insertion of the notes from India's Outcastes as a bloc on the typescript II.1§3.2/MS 47477-69 in January 1931 and the fact that he put aside his source for notes on the caste system after finding notes on uncleanness suggests that Joyce's note-taking was targeted.  At the time that Joyce recorded these notes and transferred them onto the fragment of II.1, he was finding composing extremely arduous; this period was one of the most difficult periods for Joyce during the composition of Finnegans Wake.  In a letter accompanying a draft fragment from II.1 to Harriet Shaw Weaver, Joyce famously described the writing as coming out 'like drops of blood' (Letters I, 295).  In the letter quoted above, Joyce emphasises the quantity of reading he is doing for the chapter; Danis Rose states that Joyce paused after composing part of II.1 to focus entirely on note-taking.[5]  In the case of Joyce's use of India's Outcastes, Joyce's note-taking was an integral part of the composition process.  The passage to which these notes contribute, beginning '–Enchainted, dear sweet Stainusless' (FW, 237.11) was reworked over three extant typescript versions; to the first version, Joyce added the original version of the passage that corresponds to 237.21-25, without the India's Outcastes notes, as an interlinear addition:

You are pure.  You are pure.

You are pure <in your puerity>.  You have not brought

stinking members

into the house

of Amanti. (MS 47477-68 | II.1§3.2 | JJA 51, 83)

The addition originates with the concept of purity; this prompts Joyce to include specialised information on social restrictions on cleanness and uncleanness in the Indian caste system to enrich the language of the passage.  With the specialised vocabulary gained from India's Outcastes, Joyce expands and develops the passage on a subsequent typescript.  Joyce adds the notes from India's Outcastes to the second extant typescript, first as an interlinear addition, then, when he runs out of space, as a marginal addition.  Joyce reworks part of the marginal addition currente calamo, changing 'Leperstower is not yo' to 'Leperstower is not yo ^+has not seen your pollution+^' and then to '^+Leperstower ^+, the karman's loki,+^ ^+has not seen your pollution+^' (JJA 51, 88); otherwise, the additions are already in their final forms when Joyce inserts them on the typescript.

 

Notes from India's Outcastes: A New Era

Note: In preparing these notes I have for reasons of copyright quoted minimally from Joyce's unpublished notebook VI.B.32.  The words or phrases in bold are those words and phrases that Joyce transferred to his notebook.  Joyce's transcriptions are not always entirely faithful to the source material, so for the exact text of Joyce's notes, please refer to the photo-reproduction of VI.B.32.212-19 in James Joyce Archive 36, or the published transcription in The Finnegans Wake Notebooks at Buffalo, Notebook VI.B.32.  The letters in parentheses denote the lines of the notebook pages.

 

VI.B.32.212 

(a Preface: This book is concerned with one aspect of the coming of the Kingdom of God in India–namely, that presented by the mass movements among the outcasts. The poor have had the Gospel preached to them, and are now "besieging" the Kingdom.  While Christ is known and admired, reverenced an loved by many among India's intelligentsia, it is still the "babes" who are flocking into His Church.  This book is an attempt to sketch the beginning of the reign of God in these Indian souls.

VI.C.8.040(c)

 

VI.B.32.213

(a)  1: Let us begin with a picture.  We are in Travancore.  That lovely and lovable   land is at its loveliest . . . It is Sunday, and we are in church.  Our church is built partly of rough red laterite and partly of dried red mud.  

Note: Laterite: A red, porous, ferruginous clayey substance, forming the surface covering in some parts of India, south-western Asia, and other tropical and sub-tropical regions, which is soft when first dug but hardens irreversibly to the consistency of rock when exposed to the air (OED).

VI.C.8.040(d)

(b) 1: It is thatched with sun-browned palm-leaves and has yellow bamboo poles     for rafters.  The tropic noonday sun is right overhead but a refreshing breeze comes through the open doors and unglazed windows.

VI.C.9.040(e)

(c) 1: Outside the note is that of joy–the joy of Nature at her freshest.  Inside,   too, the note is one of joy.  There is an awed joy in the eyes of the bunch of people–small, sturdy, and very dark–standing in a rather huddled line as    close to each other as possible (in obedience to the group instinct as well as    because room is scant) at the west end of the church, and facing west.

VI.C.9.040(f)

(d) 1: There is an awed joy in the eyes of the bunch of people–small, sturdy,   and very dark–standing in a rather huddled line as close to each other as possible (in obedience to the group instinct as well as because room is scant) at the west   end of the church, and facing west.  

VI.C.8.040 (g)

(e) 1-2: And joy is the prevailing expression on the not very expressive faces of the rest of the congregation.  They sit on the mud floor, men on the north side and women on the south, also facing west.  By the west door a basin has been   placed on a three-legged stool, and beside this improvised font is an English missionary reading the baptismal service in the vernacular, Malayalam.  By     him stands the teacher, who for some months, and indeed years, has been preparing these catechumens for this moment.

Note: Catechumen: A new convert under instruction before baptism. Used in reference to the ancient church and in modern missionary churches. Sometimes applied to young Christians generally, and especially to those preparing for the rite of confirmation (OED).

VI.C.8.040(i)

(f)  2: The catechumens, thirty-three in all, consist of five families and three or four "oddments" . . . The missionary takes the right hand of each adult,    hardened by toil to the consistency of a boot-sole, as he receives him or her     into the congregation of Christ's flock . . . After all have been baptized an   appropriate lyric is sung, while the new Christians and the rest of the    congregation turn and settle into their accustomed places.          

VI.C.8.040(i)

 

VI.B.32.214

(a)  2-3: Then, with the Jubilate and Apostle's Creed, the service proceeds.  It was preceded by examination of the catechumens and instruction, all the    congregation being taught a vese of Scripture, and by prayer; and a special     extempore prayer for    the new brothers and sisters in Christ follows the     sermon–a not-too-brief catechetical address. (Our congregation does not   approve of sermonettes, but likes something hot and strong and long.)

Note: Sermonette: A short sermon.

V.C.8.041(a)

(b) 3: After an interval for the entering-up of registers, and a further interval for refreshment–curry and rice in the teacher's house for the missionary and     teacher, betel and tobacco for the rest–comes a church committee meeting, followed by conversation with one another . . . And then the tired missionary    gets into his bullock-coach and lumbers and bumps back to his bungalow, which he left at dawn and reaches again at sundown.

Note: See note to VI.B.32.216(b)

VI.C.8.041(b)

(c) 3-4: That is the mass movement–a tiny fragment of it.  Multiply the picture   by a hundred, or perhaps a thousand time and you will have some conception of that movement . . . A mass movement is (obviously) a movement of people en masse . . . Then it suggests the idea of a people moving in obedience to some instinct or for the achievement of some purpose, or both combined . . .   In its religious or missionary connotation a mass movement is the    simultaneous and (more or less) concerted acceptance of Christianity by a whole people, usually   in groups or companies here and there, and their   baptism in groups, such group baptisms occurring with the comparative   frequency until the whole, or a large proportion, of the people have become Christian.

Note: The Church Missionary Society mission in India began early in the early years of the Society's existence, in the early nineteenth century; the period Hunt describes is from the mid-nineteenth century to the 1920s.

VI.C.8.041(c)

(d)  4-5: In India the people who are thus moving belong to a particular community.  The community which is moving to Christianity is the outcaste community–or, more strictly, certain outcaste communities in certain areas. And no doubt it is because they are primitive people, in whom the sense of    individuality is still faint, that they thus act corporately in what seems to us so    individual a thing as a change of religion.

Note: The people who Hunt refers to as 'outcastes' are more commonly known as Untouchables.  This segment of society is, in fact, 'outside' of India's traditional rigid caste system.  The term 'Untouchables' refers to the strict rules about cleanness and pollution which dictates that the touch or proximity of a lower caste person pollutes an upper caste person and the touch or proximity of an Untouchable pollutes any member of a caste.  Untouchables traditionally hold the most undesirable and 'unclean' jobs in Indian society–those deemed unacceptable for caste members because the jobs themselves are polluting.

VI.C.8.041(d)

(e) 6: To convince individual souls that life eternal is to know the only true God and Jesus Christ Whom he has sent, has been the avowed object of every     modern missionary and of the Church that has commissioned him.  And this policy has been gloriously successful–witness the long roll of notable converts, confessors and martyrs, and the still longer roll of those unremembered save in   Heaven.  The hope with which missionary enterprises have been begun has no    doubt been that converts might be many, but as individuals, or at most households, one here and another there, not in groups or masses.  The latter,    however, has sometimes happened.

VI.C.8.041(e)

(f) 6: To convince individual souls that life eternal is to know the only true God and Jesus Christ Whom he has sent, has been the avowed object of every modern missionary and of the Church that has commissioned him.  And this policy has been gloriously successful–witness the long roll of notable converts, confessors and martyrs, and the still longer roll of those unremembered save in   Heaven.

VI.C.8.041(f)

(g) Michal = girl

Note: There is no obvious correlation between this note and the text of India's Outcastes.  There is mention of a Miss Amy Wilson Carmichael on page 8, which could possibly be the source for this note but the note is likely not related to India's Outcastes.

VI.C.8.041(g)

(h)  6: Mass movements are going on in the widely separated parts of India mentioned above, and in others.  The report of the last Indian census, taken in 1921, showed that "there are now two and a half times as many Christians [in India] as there were in 1881," and gave the following remarkable percentages of increase during those forty years, namely, in the Punjab 1134.3; in Baroda 862.5; in the Central Provinces 489.9; in the United Provinces 326.2; in Haidarabad 360.2; and in Travancore 135.3.  The greatest increase of all was   in Assam, where there were only 7000 Christians in 1881 and are now 132,000, a growth of 1762.5 per cent.  It is mainly to mass movements that these increases have been due.

VI.C.8.041(h)

(i) 9-10: A missionary sat in his bungalow at Bezwada in a dejected mood.  For eight years he had been preaching the Gospel, and not a single soul, as far as he knew, had been affected.  Raising his head in the midst of these thoughts, he was aware of a group of men standing just beyond the veranda, whose leader, as soon as he saw that their presence was noticed, advanced and said   that they wished to know about "the great God." 

VI.C.8.041(i)

 (j) [il pap x]

Note: This note has been written across the previous entry and the entry below may be part of this entry.

Not transferred

(k) [city?]

VI.C.8.041(i)

 

VI.B.32.215

(a) 10: Overjoyed, the missionary poured out form a full heart he gospel story, and when at length he paused, the man solemnly arose and said: "This is my God; this is my Saviour.  I have long been seeking him; now I have found Him." The man's name was Venkayya.  He was an outcaste belonging to the section called Malas. A few months later the missionary baptized him and his family in their village of Raghavapuram. Venkayya became as earnest a seeker after souls as he had been after God. He spoke of Christ to outcastes wherever he went, while the mission workers followed up these openings and were led on from them to others.

VI.C.8.041(j)

(b) 10: There are now 117,000 Christians connected with the Anglican Church in the Telugu-speaking Andhra country, where the S.P.G. and the C.M.S. are working.  this is the Diocese of Dornakal.  The numbers have increased by 40,000 in the last three years.

Note: S.P.G.: The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG), a missionary society associated with the Church of England, was founded in 1701.  C.M.S: The Christian Missionary Society, an Anglican Missionary Group, was founded in 1799.

VI.C.8.041(k)

(c) 11: Medak has become a familiar name because of the Rev. C.W. Posnett's intriguing advertisements.  It is a station of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society in Haidarabad, in this same Telugu-speaking area. During the terrible famine of 1896 and following years the mission compound and a   big open plain beside it were turned into a relief centre.

VI.C.8.041(l)

(d) 13: We are standing just before sunset near a bund in Cochin.  A bund is a causeway carrying a road through the rice-fields. During the rainy months these fields are transformed into a shimmering, rippling shallow lake; later, when the rice is springing out of the semi-liquid mud, they are a sea of livid green.  The road is raised well above the level of the fields, but it is sometimes flooded.  Here and there it crosses a bridge.

VI.C.8.041(m)

(e) 13: It is an important road leading to an important town and may persons pass along it.  There are also bullock-bandies, pony jutkas, and rickshaws, "Fords" converted into motor 'buses, and cars of other make. Goats and skipping kids are plentiful, as well as cows in search of grass, striped squirrels, hens and ducks, and the ubiquitous crows and kites.

Note: Bullock Bandy: a cart drawn by bullocks used in India and Sri Lanka.

VI.C.8.042(a)

 (f) 13: There are also bullock-bandies, pony jutkas, and rickshaws, "Fords" converted into motor 'buses, and cars of other make. 

Note: Jutka: In southern India, a slight two wheeled cart pulled by a horse (OED).

VI.C.8.042(b)

 

VI.B.32.216

(a) 14-15: During an afternoon drive in Travancore we come upon a group of people whom we now recognize as outcastes.  A dozen of them, some standing and some squatting, are in the middle of the road facing a very humble shop [. . .]  The shopkeeper lolls against the door-post, preparing a "chew" of betel and chatting with two or three friends. His wife is bathing her lamenting and kicking baby in an areca-palm spathe beside the well; her little daughter is a washing a cooking pot.

Note: See note to VI.B.32.216(b)

VI.C.8.042(c)

(b)  14: The shopkeeper lolls against the door-post, preparing a "chew" of betel and chatting with two or three friends. 

Note: Areca: Name of the tree and fruit of a genus of palms, of which one species (A. Catechu) bears nuts of the size of a nutmeg, which many inhabitants of South-East Asia roll up with a little lime in the leaves of the betel, and chew, thereby tingeing their teeth and saliva red (OED).  Spathe: A large bract or sheathing-leaf enveloping the inflorescence (usually a spadix) of certain plants, as arums, palms, etc., in such a way as completely to enclose it before expansion (OED).

VI.C.8.042(d)

(c) 14-15: His wife is bathing her lamenting and kicking baby in an areca-palm spathe beside the well; her little daughter is a washing a cooking pot.

VI.C.8.042 (e)

(d) 15-16: Outcastes, from the moment they are born until they die, are "unclean."  They are so unclean that their proximity, much more their touch, pollutes.  If one of those grass-cutters had come nearer to the Hindu lady she would have been polluted.  She would have had to return to the temple and to re-perform her somewhat complicated ceremonial ablutions, and possibly to undergo other purificatory ceremonies involving the payment of fees, before she could associate with her friends and relatives or eat her evening meal. And, if one of these outcaste purchasers had gone too near that shop, no Hindu could have patronized it until its polluted contents had been destroyed and it had been ceremonially cleansed, for which again the priest would have to be paid.

MS 47477-69, TsILA: ^+Unclean you are not.  Outcaste thou [?] are not^+^+^ You are pure.  You are pure.  You are in puerity.  | JJA 51:088 | probably Jan 1931 | II.1§3.2+ | FW 237.21

(e) 15-16: And, if one of these outcaste purchasers had gone too near that shop, no Hindu could have patronized it until its polluted contents had been destroyed and it had been ceremonially cleansed, for which again the priest would have to be paid.

MS 47477-69, TsILA: now that you hast ascertained ^+ceremonially+^ our names.  | JJA 51:088 | probably Jan 1931 | FW 237.21

(f)  16: But we must not suppose that Hindus avoid pollution merely because of   the trouble and expense which it causes.  To the orthodox it really matters.  It has for them "the nature of sin."  It affects their karma, and, therefore, their   status in their next life.  That high-cast lady would genuinely believe that she had been made unclean, that her ceremonial purity had been besmirched, by the propinquity of those unclean outcastes if they had dared tom come too near to her. Ceremonial purity is, indeed, for the reason just mentioned, the Hindu's most prized possession.

Note: Karma: A Hindu (and Buddhist) belief that holds that each possesses a sort of spiritual accounting, in which good and bad actions affect a person's standing in successive incarnations.  A person's karma determines whether they are reincarnated in a higher or lower state of being, including determining cast standing in successive reincarnations.

MS 47477-69, TsBMA: ^+Unclean you are not.  Outcaste thou [?] are not. ^+Leperstower ^+, the karman's loki,+^ is not yo ^+has not seen your pollution+^ blanched at [. . .]+^+^ | JJA 51:088 | probably Jan 1931 | FW 237.22

 

VI.B.32.217

(a) 16: That high-cast lady would genuinely believe that she had been made unclean, that her ceremonial purity had been besmirched, by the propinquity of those unclean outcastes if they had dared to come too near to her.

MS 47477-69, TsILA: ^+Unclean you are not.  Outcaste thou [?] are not^+^+^ You are pure.  You are pure.  You are in puerity.   | JJA 51:088 | probably Jan 1931 | FW 237.21

(b) 17: The distinguishing thing about outcastes all over India is that their touch pollutes.  It is this that first catches your attention. Caste people and their belongings are defiled by their touch.  Even the lowest castes, who themselves pollute those of higher caste, are polluted by them. Outcastes are outside the pale of Hindu society, though in a sense annexed to it.  They are regarded much as lepers were in Jewry, and the regulations respecting them are not very different from those concerning lepers in Lev. xiii. 45, 46.  Like the lepers, they have to live outside towns and villages, and (in some parts of India) to announce their approach by a cry equivalent to "Unclean!  Unclean!" and that although they may be, unlike lepers, altogether free from any contagious disease, or any moral taint.  A healthy, clean-minded outcaste would have to keep the prescribed distance from an immoral and leprous Brahman, to prevent the latter form being polluted by him.

VI.C.8.042(f)

(c) 17: They are regarded much as lepers were in Jewry, and the regulations respecting them are not very different from those concerning lepers in Lev. xiii. 45, 46.

Note: Leviticus xiii, 45-46: And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and the hair of his head shall go loose, and he shall cover his upper lip, and shall cry, Unclean, unclean.  All the days wherein the plague is in him he shall be unclean; he is unclean: he shall dwell alone; without the camp shall his dwelling be.

VI.C.8.042(g)

(d) 17: Like the lepers, they have to live outside towns and villages, and (in some parts of India) to announce their approach by a cry equivalent to "Unclean Unclean!" and that although they may be, unlike lepers, altogether free from any contagious disease, or any moral taint.

MS 47477-69, TsBMA: ^+Unclean you are not.  Outcaste thou [?] are not. ^+Leperstower ^+, the karman's loki,+^ is not yo ^+has not seen your pollution+^ blanched at [. . .]+^+^  | JJA 51:088 | probably Jan 1931 | II.1§3.2+ | FW 237.22

(e) 17: A healthy, clean-minded outcaste would have to keep the prescribed distance from an immoral and leprous Brahman, to prevent the latter form being polluted by him.

Note: 'Brahman' also appears in the plural on page 18 of India's Outcastes in a list of Indian castes which Joyce quarries for names of all the major castes but given that Joyce uses the singular, his note likely comes from the first usage on page 17.

VI.C.8.042(h)

(f) 18: Hindus are divided into four castes: (1) Brahmans (priests) ; (2) Kshattriyas (warriors) ; (3) Vaisiyas (landowners) ; (4) Sudras (labourers).  They do not now necessarily follow these traditional avocations.  Brahmans  may be lawyers or professors or shopkeepers or cooks, but there are certain priestly functions that only Brahman's can perform.  Sudras are nowadays practically a "good" caste.  They are often landowners, merchants, and in all     kinds of business, etc.  The other two castes have now a comparatively small number of representatives. Whatever the caste of a Hindu's parents and forefathers, that is his caste until his life's end.

VI.C.8.042(i)

(g) 18: (3) Vaisiyas (landowners)

VI.C.8.042(j)

(h) 18: (4) Sudras (labourers). 

VI.C.8.042(k)

 

VI.B.32.218

(a) 19: There are innumerable divisions and sub-divisions of each caste.  Not only do people of different castes, if they are orthodox, not feed together or intermarry, but people of different sub-castes within the same caste as a rule do not.  Pollution would occur if they did.  Food is polluted if touched by a person of lower caste.  The lower a man's caste the more polluting he is, and   the higher he is the more sensitive he is to pollution. A Brahman in Malabar is polluted if an outcaste comes within ninety paces of him, but a man a litter lower is not polluted if the outcaste keeps fifty paces away.

VI.C.8.042(l)

(b) 19: A Brahman in Malabar is polluted if an outcaste comes within ninety paces of him, but a man a litter lower is not polluted if the outcaste keeps fifty paces away.

MS 47477-69, TsBMA: ^+Unclean you are not.  Outcaste thou [?] are not. ^+Leperstower ^+, the karman's loki,+^ is not yo ^+has not seen your pollution+^ blanched at and your intercourse at ninety legsplits does not defile.  Untouchable is not the scarecrow is on you.+^+^   | JJA 51:088 | probably Jan 1931 | II.1§3.2+ | FW 237.23-4

(c) 19: Hindus account for the low estate of the outcastes in this way: it is due,   they say, to karma.  "That which a man soweth that shall he shall also reap."  That is karma; but a man will reap in subsequent lives on earth the fruit of his acts in his present life. Hindus believe in transmigration. If a man lives a good life, according to Hindu standards, doing all that a man of his caste should do, he will in his next life be born a member of a higher caste than that to which he belongs; if he is a bad man, according to the same standards, he will be lower in caste than he is now, or an outcaste–perhaps even an animal or reptile.

VI.C.8.042(m)

(d) 20: Another explanation of the outcastes' low estate, and one that is more in   consonance with western ideas is this: there are several racial strains in the Indian people.  The chief of these are the Dravidian and the Aryan.  There is also a Mongolian strain; and there are others.  All these are believed to have been introduced from outside at different periods . . . A race called the   Dravidian is supposed to have swarmed into India from the north-west at     some remote, almost prehistoric period.  At a later period–say 1000 B.C.–  Aryan people followed them . . . some [outcastes] are considered by certain authorities to be descendants of the aborigines.  The myths of the Hindus represent the Aryans of the heroic ages as encountering, when they pushed   southwards, repulsive little black creatures whom they could hardly believe to be human . . . These may have been the ancestors of the outcastes.

VI.C.8.043(a)

(e) 20: Outcastes are outcastes because of bad former lives, because of persistent infractions of caste rules.  They are but working out their karma, and (from   that point of view) are hardly to be pitied.  How they pollute by proximity is sometimes thus explained.  Every one has an aura, a kind of invisible, ethereal   sheath around and extending beyond the body, possessing the same qualities as himself.  The aura of an unclean outcaste is unclean, and therefore defiles the pure aura of a holy man if it touches or mingles with it.

VI.C.8.043(b)

(f) 20: The chief of these are the Dravidian and the Aryan. There is also a Mongolian strain; and there are others. 

VI.C.8.043(c)

(g) 22-23: Assuming that the outcastes were aborigines, difference of customs and   culture, and the aversion such differences produce, easily account for their exclusion from the castes (i.e. from Aryan or Dravidian society), and for the prohibition of intercourse with them.  The sense of their inferiority, and the needs of the community, account for their enslavement.  the determination to keep their race pure and dominant led the Hindu lawgivers, typified by Manu (the code called by his name may have been contemporary with that of Moses), to prevent for all time any kind of social intercourse between their people and people of other races, including outcastes–the aliens with whom they were in actual contact.  This the caste system has achieved.  To clinch the matter, the keeping of caste became for Hindus their "practical" religion (dharma), and contravention of it the sin entailing the heaviest retribution.

MS 47477-69, TsBMA: ^+Unclean you are not.  Outcaste thou [?] are not. ^+Leperstower ^+, the karman's loki,+^ is not yo ^+has not seen your pollution+^ blanched at and your intercourse at ninety legsplits does not defile.  [...].+^+^   | JJA 51:088 | probably Jan 1931 | II.1§3.2+ | FW 237.23

(h) 22: The determination to keep their race pure and dominant led the Hindu lawgivers, typified by Manu (the code called by his name may have been contemporary with that of Moses), to prevent for all time any kind of social intercourse between their people and people of other races, including   outcastes–the aliens with whom they were in actual contact.

Not transferred.

 

VI.B.32.219

(a) 22-23: To clinch the matter, the keeping of caste became for Hindus their "practical" religion (dharma), and contravention of it the sin entailing the heaviest retribution.

Note: Dharma: In India, social or caste custom; right behaviour; law; esp. in Buddhism and Hinduism: moral law, truth (OED).

VI.C.8.043(c)

(b) 23: "What crimes," exclaimed Mr. Ghandi, "have we not been guilty of towards our untouchable brethren!"

MS 47477-69, TsBMA: ^+Unclean you are not.  Outcaste thou [?] are not. ^+Leperstower ^+, the karman's loki,+^ is not yo ^+has not seen your pollution+^ blanched at and your intercourse at ninety legsplits does not defile.  Untouchable is not the scarecrow is on you.+^+^   | JJA 51:088 | probably Jan 1931 | II.1§3.2+ | FW 237.24

(c) 24: Is it not wholly consistent with Christianity to do all that we can to raise    these "little ones" from such degradation?  It is certainly our duty to teach them to know the compassionate Saviour Who came that they might have life, and have it abundantly. "Being moved with compassion, he stretched forth his hand and touched him, and saith unto him: 'Be thou made clean.'" What He did for the leper He can and will do–and is doing–for the untouchable.  He touches him and he is made clean, not ceremonially, but actually.

VI.C.8.043(d)

 

Works Cited

The Church Missionary Society: A Manual Outlining Its History, Organization and Commitments. London: Highway Press, 1961.

Hunt, William Saunders. India's Outcastes: A New Era. London: Church Missionary Society, 1924.

Rose, Danis. The Textual Diaries of James Joyce. Dublin: Lilliput, 1995.


[1] William Saunders Hunt, India's Outcastes: A New Era (London: Church Missionary Society, 1924).

[2] The Church Missionary Society: A Manual Outlining Its History, Organization and Commitments,  (London: Highway Press, 1961), 3.

[3] Ibid., 4.

[4] The remaining notes were all transferred to VI.C.8.40-43 but remained unused.  A word from one note, 'aryan' from VI.B.32.218, appears in Finnegans Wake at 567.22 but given that Joyce did not cross the note through on the note repository VI.C.8.43 and the larger cultural significance of that word, it is quite possible the use of 'aryan' on page 567 has nothing to do with the notes from India's Outcastes.

[5] Danis Rose, The Textual Diaries of James Joyce (Dublin: Lilliput, 1995), 113.

 

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