GENETIC JOYCE STUDIES - Issue 6 (Spring 2006)
 


NOTES & ARTICLES  - TOOLS & QUERIES  -  LOST & FOUND  -  ABOUT GENETIC JOYCE STUDIES


 

"His Dark Materials": Joyce's "Scribblings" and the

Notes for 'Circe' in the National Library of Ireland

 

Ronan Crowley

Into this wild abyss,

The womb of Nature and perhaps her grave,

Of neither sea, nor shore, nor air, nor fire,

But all these in their pregnant causes mixed

Confus'dly, and which thus must ever fight,

Unless th' Almighty Maker them ordain

His dark materials to create more worlds.

                                        'Paradise Lost', Book II.910-916

 

After all, the original genius of a man lies in his scribblings: in his casual actions lies his basic talent. Later he may develop that talent until he produces a Hamlet or a 'Last Supper', but if the minute scribblings which compose the big work are not significant, the big work goes for nothing no matter how grandly conceived.1

 

"Six medical students under my direction will write Paradise Lost except 100 lines." This claim of Stephen's does not make it into Ulysses. John Eglinton's jibe, however, "asked with elder's gall" at U 9.18–19 makes it clear that Stephen has at some time alluded to his "six brave medicals". The material absent from Ulysses but implied by Eglinton's question has been known to readers since it appeared in Herbert Gorman's 1939 biography of Joyce.2 There Gorman placed it alongside the Pola 1904 portions of a notebook Joyce had begun in Paris in 1903. Yet when Scholes and Kain reprinted the material quoted by Gorman in The Workshop of Daedalus they saw fit to divide the notebook up into distinct Paris and Pola notebooks.3 Quite why they set keenly to the splitting of such hairs and made distinctions where none existed is unclear. Gorman explicitly states that the notebook Joyce had begun in Paris was continued in Pola. Joyce recorded his scraps and notes for Portrait, Gorman says, in the same "early cahier".4 The allusion to a cahier is not only indicative of Gorman's godwottery; when the notebook turned up in 2002 it bore the imprint of a French stationer.5 This mathematics notebook with its red-brown cover, designated MS 36639/2A in the National Library of Ireland collection list, dates from 1903–04 and contains budgets, literary excerpts and notes alongside handwritten versions of the famous passages on aesthetics (i.e. the contents of the so-called Paris Notebook and Pola Notebook). Stephen's Miltonian pronouncement appears on p. [22v] of /2A, alongside two similar statements for "S. D.", which were given by Gorman and Scholes and Kain.6 The unearthing of the Léon cache not only dissolves the Paris-Pola confusion but it is also shining light on Joyce's "dark materials" – his notes for Ulysses.

Reminiscences of the composition of Ulysses abound with references to Joyce making notes on little writing blocks; on menus, bus tickets and in the margins of newspapers; on stray bit of paper or the backs of advertisements; and, on one occasion, on the cuff of a shirtsleeve. This heterogeneous array of first-order notes, Joyce's "scribblings", has not survived. Instead, the extant body of Ulysses notes includes several notebooks and, in the British Library, loose sheets of notes, more commonly termed 'notesheets', covered with lists of words and short phrases, repositories of the original 'off-the-cuff' notes. Prior to the acquisition of the Léon cache by the National Library of Ireland, only two notebooks were known to be extant: Buffalo MS VIII.A.5, a commonplace notebook compiled in the Zentralbibliothek while Joyce was living at 38 Universitätstrasse Zürich in 1918, and "the deteriorated notebook" Buffalo MS V.A.2, a repository of late notes for most episodes of Ulysses, intended for typescripts and placards.7 The C-series of notebooks at Buffalo, comprising Mme France Raphael's transcriptions, suggested that there were at least two other Ulysses notebooks at one time: Spielberg's MS VI.D.4 and Rose and O'Hanlon's reconstructed "Lost Notebook", MS VI.D.7.8

The acquisition of the Joyce Papers 2002 brought the number of Ulysses notebooks known to be extant to six. The Léon cache includes the so-called "Subject Notebook", NLI MS 36639/3, and three notebooks designated 36639/4, /5A and /5B. The Subject Notebook is a mathematics exercise book with pink-red covers. Apparently it was bought and begun when Joyce was convalescing in Locarno in the winter of 1917, and it contains notes under such headings as "Simon", "Leopold", "Books" and "Recipes". NLI MS 36639/4 is a twenty-four page notebook with pale blue covers containing pages labelled with the episode titles in order but skipping "Sirens", one page labelled "Eventuali", five pages labelled "Penelope", and one "Circe". NLI MS 36639/5A is a notebook with "[p]urple-grey marbled outer cover; grey-green plain inner cover" and contains sixty unnumbered pages labelled firstly on the rectos with the titles of the episodes in order of the Odyssey, the Telemachiad, and the Nostos, then with a seemingly random order (which includes two pages labelled "Eventuali"). A second pale-blue, smaller notebook, NLI MS 36639/5B, contains notes again under the episode titles (in a seemingly random order) and two chronologies of Bloom's life.9

In this paper I examine the expanded genetic dossier of Ulysses note repositories. The bibliography of the recently surfaced notebooks will be familiar to many, but only recently have the relationships between these documents and the preparatory materials that were long known to be extant begun to be established. I examine the connection between the National Library's notebooks and Buffalo MS VI.C.7, and speculate about the implications for Rose and O'Hanlon's reconstituted MS VI.D.4. I also trace Joyce's use of the notebooks in compiling notesheets BL "Circe" 16 and 17, the two sides of BL Add. MS 49975/fol. 20.

The harlequined pages of the notebooks contain entries that fall into the usual lists of words and short phrases, repositories of earlier "scribblings", familiar from the notesheets and Buffalo MS V.A.2. A few pages of the smaller of the two pale-blue notebooks, NLI MS 36639/5B, contain notes in Italian in Lucia's hand. This collaboration between Joyce père and fille raises the issue of the immediate provenance of the entries; are they first-order notes – "the written symbols of the languid lights which occasionally flashed across [Joyce's] soul" (LI: 154) – and was Lucia writing from sore-eyed Joyce's dictation? Or are they second-order remnants of earlier Italian "scribblings" in Joyce's hand here transcribed by Lucia? Do the entries borrow from Italian sources to which Joyce had directed Lucia? None of these explanations is entirely satisfactory but such questions imply the broader inquiry into the intertextual origin of all the notebooks' entries, an inquiry vitiated by the lack of any identifying tags to go with the entries. The earlier 1903–04 notebook acquired by the National Library, NLI MS 36639/2A, contains, alongside its budgets and passages on aesthetics, excerpts copied from Ben Jonson, Aristotle, and Yeats, among others. Whereas these latter quotations are acknowledged as such with authors and titles of works listed, notes on pages labelled "For Stephen Hero" and "For Dubliners" (and, indeed, in the four Ulysses notebooks) have no such indications as to their provenance. Even reading notes cannot be distinguished from creative acts.

The odyssey undertaken by these "dark materials" across the non-extant compositional strata remains obscured, "no narrow frith" to cross. But the material processes by which notes from the second-order repositories entered the text have been documented. While he generally wrote out his drafts without using notes, Joyce relied on them for revisions and additions, "sprawled across two beds surrounded by mountains of notes" (SL: 253). Consulting note repositories, he mottled notebooks and notesheets with coloured crayons, and transferred individual entries into his text. In documenting this accretive process, previous studies have focused on either the intertextual origins of individual notes (the 'oxcavations' of Robert Janusko and Gregory Downing, for example, trace the sources of many entries on the "Oxen of the Sun" sheets to books in Joyce's personal library in Trieste) or on the eventual destination of crossed-through notes in the published text of Ulysses (see Philip Herring's annotation to his edition of the notesheets).10 In the wake of the recent acquisitions, however, there are now enough drafts of individual episodes and so many note repositories available that familiar elements of the published text can be seen at the moment of their incorporation into the text of Ulysses and their corresponding notebook sources can be identified. Notes that are worked into a draft occasionally drop out again or become altered in subsequent drafts; this aspect of the compositional process is elided when one can only correlate notebooks with the published text. The presence of "ousted" "possibilites" (U 2.50–51) among the pages of the notebooks alerts one to the other material that did not make it into Ulysses – the great number of uncrossed entries in the notebooks. This so-called paralipomenal material had a curious afterlife after Ulysses was completed; it was transcribed by Mme Raphael in the '30s into what is now Buffalo MS VI.C.7 pp. [136–269].11

The four Ulysses notebooks at the National Library of Ireland were, perhaps accidentally, among some forty notebooks transcribed by Mme Raphael, and it was long thought that they had been destroyed after transcription. Accordingly, in his catalogue of Joyce's manuscripts and letters at Buffalo, Peter Spielberg presented a reconstruction of the beginning and end of this presumed-lost manuscript (he called the original manuscript MS 'VI.D.4' in his catalogue).12 What Spielberg presumed to have been a single document is, in fact, the four notebooks. By comparing Mme Raphael's transcript, Buffalo MS VI.C.7, with Joyce's original four Ulysses notebooks the order of transcription is readily determined.

 

pp. [136–198] of Buffalo MS VI.C.7 comes from uncrossed entries in NLI MS 36639/5A

pp. [202–234] of Buffalo MS VI.C.7 comes from uncrossed entries in NLI MS 36639/5B

pp. [235–254] of Buffalo MS VI.C.7 comes from uncrossed entries in NLI MS 36639/4

pp. [255–269] of Buffalo MS VI.C.7 comes from uncrossed entries in NLI MS 36639/3.

 

There seems to be no deliberate order to the sequence of notebooks; presumably they were handed to Mme Raphael as part of a group of notebooks to be transcribed. Few of the entries transcribed from the Ulysses notebooks into Buffalo MS VI.C.7 were used for Finnegans Wake, but the revelation that MS VI.D.4 is in fact four notebooks may have implications for Rose and O'Hanlon's Lost Notebook. The Lost Notebook, Rose and O'Hanlon's reconstruction of a notebook from which Mme Raphael transcribed unused material (into pp. [232–274] of Buffalo MS VI.C.16), has retained the catalogue reference Buffalo MS VI.D.7 after the short reconstruction of it given by Spielberg.13 From their masterly reconstruction, Rose and O'Hanlon show that the original Lost Notebook would have contained elements drawn from Joyce's reading in the Zentralbibliothek while he was living in Zürich in 1918 (and so it is a companion notebook to Buffalo MS VIII.A.5), and from his reading of the London Times, a biographical dictionary, the TLS and dictionaries of slang, among other texts.

Like VIII.A.5, the Lost Notebook draws on Joyce's reading in classical mythology around the subject of the Odyssey: library sources present in both notebooks include Victor Bérard's two-volume Les Phéniciens et l'Odyssée and a French translation of Aristotle's Rhetoric. The library call numbers for both of these are found in the Lost Notebook. Only the Lost Notebook, however, contains notes from Walter Leaf's Troy: A Study in Homeric Geography, which, Rose and O'Hanlon write, first lead Joyce to Bérard (on the other hand, notes from W. H. Roscher's Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie are present in only VIII.A.5). These sources were undoubtedly consulted in the Zentralbibliothek. But taken together with the London Times and TLS, the sources present in the Lost Notebook constitute rather a mixed bag. While Joyce's eclectic reading habits are well known, the fact remains that the reconstructed notebook divides into two neat portions. The first twenty-three pages relate to the London Times and TLS, and the 'Thomas Fitzgerald' entry from the Dictionary of National Biography; the remainder to the commentaries of Bérard, Leaf and others, and to Ware's text on slang. The latter material points to a notebook compiled, like VIII.A.5, in the Zentralbibliothek. Despite the presence of Zentralbibliothek call numbers on the 'front cover verso', the former material, the first twenty-three pages of the reconstruction, may constitute a separate lost notebook.14

If among the notebooks Mme Raphael transcribed into Buffalo MS VI.C.16 there were thus two Ulysses notebooks, unused portions of the first of these became VI.C.16 pp. [232–247], and unused portions of the second became VI.C.16 pp. [238–274].15 In his preface to the Archive volume containing the facsimile of VI.C.16 Danis Rose defends the D-series divisions (with the exception of VI.D.3 which "cannot with certainty be considered a single workbook").16 The unearthing of the four Ulysses notebooks at the National Library of Ireland has put paid to VI.D.4's unity; if the Lost Notebook is also several lost notebooks Joyce's reading of datable newspapers cannot be viewed as coterminous with his work on classical sources in the Zentralbibliothek Zürich. This speculation does not invalidate Rose and O'Hanlon's findings in The Lost Notebook. Their reconstruction, while it has not received the attention it deserves, deftly corrects Mme Raphael's mistranscriptions and restores hypothetical deleted entries (which she would have skipped over). The Lost Notebook is one of the few critical works which engages with the early phase of the writing of Ulysses, a period about which little is known and studies of which are, regrettably, largely ignored. The elucubrations of Rose and O'Hanlon have dispelled the darkness surrounding the origins of the Lost Notebook's contents; what remains shrouded is the precise nature of this missing document.

As well as being mined for VI.C.16, across three of the four Ulysses notebooks in the National Library of Ireland there is further evidence of large-scale transferral. Almost all of the "Circe" notes in the three later notebooks, NLI MS 36639/4, /5A and /5B, that are crossed in green recur on notesheets BL "Circe" 16 and 17 (BL Add. MS 49975/fol. 20). While a few green-crossed notebook entries do not appear on the sheet,17 (either an oversight on Joyce's part or evidence of another green-cross harvesting stage) almost all of the notes on BL "Circe" 16 can be traced to sources in the notebooks. Likewise for the centre column and some of the margin of BL "Circe" 17. That the notebook entries were transferred from the notebooks onto the two sides of the sheet and not vice versa is evident from Joyce's colour usage: the notesheet entries are crossed in a variety of colours, indicative of transferral during a range of writing phases. Their source entries in the notebooks are, as said above, all crossed in green.18 There is an additional thematic unity to the notes on BL "Circe" 16 and 17 – in the notebooks the entries are grouped under "Circe" headings, those that were transferred onto the sheet are all for, as Joyce called it, the "Messianic scene" (LI: 171). These notesheets thus represent a deliberate recast of notes from, presumably, already heavily-mined sources.

The recto of the sheet as it appears in the British Library Additional Manuscript (BL "Circe" 16) was also the recto from Joyce's perspective – it contains entries copied from NLI MS 36639/5A, and the early "Circe" pages of NLI MS 36639/5B, whereas some later entries from /5B are found on the top of the verso (BL "Circe" 17). The verso also contains entries lifted from NLI MS 36639/4 and a note repository that is no longer extant. Given the thematic unity of the sheet, and the fact that uncrossed entries remained in the notebooks by the time Mme Raphael came to transcribe them, the transfer of material to a sheet was not the result of mining the notebooks for unused material. The recast was the result of selective runs through the three National Library notebooks and some other missing note repository.

By collation of the notebooks with the sheet, both Joyce's methods of culling source notebooks and layering entries onto a recipient sheet are revealed. The following is BL "Circe" 16. The text has been replaced with a lorem ipsum; compare Herring's transcript of the notesheet in Joyce's Ulysses Notesheets in the British Museum for the original text.19 To aid that comparison, the punctuation of the original has been retained and initials in the original (such as LB and IHS) and replaced with capitalized words in the lorem ipsum. The text is colour coded to indicate source notebooks. Entries transferred from NLI notebook MS 36639/5A appear in blue; those from NLI notebook MS 36639/5B are in red. The notebook page from which each note is lifted is given after the entry. Entries, or portions of entries, in black have no known notebook source. As in Herring's transcript, deleted entries are marked between < > and the colour of cancellation is indicated by means of the capital letters R [red]; S [slate]; and G [green].

 

            "Circe"             16

 

LEFT MARGIN HORIZONTAL

 

 

R <Lorem ipsum dolor>

 

 

R <Sit Amet>

p. [11r]

 

C. Adipiscing

p. [3v]

 

R <Etiam>

 

5

G <tincidunt >

p. [3v]

 

G <Maecenas>

p. [3v]

 

nec risus etiam

p. [3v]

 

R <quis justo aliquam Tempus>

p. [3v]

 

G <libro non nunc maecena & magna DI>

p. [3v]

10

G <Sit Amet!>

p. [3v]

 

G <Semper>

p. [3v]

 

G <eget & quis>

p. [3v]

 

G <augue>

p. [3v]

 

G <nullam>

p. [28v]

15

G <iaculis ante eu>

p. [3v]

 

R <ultricies tincidunt magna MI>

p. [3v]

 

A Risus vitae

p. [3v]

 

R <Gravida Tellus>

p. [3v]

 

G <Maecenas>

p. [3v]

20

G <ligla et nun> G <Mauris tempor libro>

p. [3v]

 

 

LEFT AND RIGHT COLUMNS HORIZONTAL

 

 

 

 

G <At>

 

 

Laoreet

p. [10v]

matti's lorem = mauri's placerat

p. [11v]

 

Felis

p. [10v]

eu posuere

p. [11v]

 

R <ligula purus>

p. [10v]

R <non est Vivamus vestibulum>

p. [20r]

25

R <Atque dolor iaculis>

p. [10v]

G <pretium (N. M.)>

p. [20r]

 

R <Tristique>

p. [10v]

G <cras & dapibus eros porta LEO>

p. [20r]

 

G <Donec N Ante>

p. [10v]

R <donec ac arcu aliquam>

p. [10v]

 

R <diam dui>

p. [10v]

R <sceleris, sit, amet, vestibulum>

p. [20r]

 

G <vitae blandit a 30>

p. [11v]

G <feugiat facilisis>

p. [20r]

30

R <nibh fusce>

p. [11v]

R <sit amet felis>

p. [20v]

 

G <at diam consect>

p. [11v]

G <con dimen tum sed el ementum>

p. [3v]

 

R <DUI ut laoreet>

p. [12r]

R <tincidunt>

p. [20v]

 

sem

p. [12r]

G <Arcu Cursus Lectus>

p. [22v]

 

R <ut & interdum>

p. [19v]

G <felis sodales elit>

p. [22v]

35

R <lam at fus Mattis>

p. [19v], p. [19v]

 

 

 

G <eget Metus hunc proin>

p. [19v]

G <VELIT pellents ullamcorpe>

p. [3v]

 

G <Cursus>

p. [20r]

 

 

 

R <nibh>

p. [19v]

G <nulla a Fermentum & Quam>

p. [3v]

 

consequat

p. [19v]

 

 

40

G <Adipi Nunc Tellus> 

p. [19v]

 

 

 

G <accumsan urna non bibendum> 

p. [20v]

 

 

 

R <velit lorem>

p. [19v]

 

 

 

et felis Mauris faucibus bibendum  

p. [19v]

 

 

 

Dui nulla interdum tellus     Sed dapibus

p. [19v]

 

 

45

R <scelerisque leo>

p. [20v]

G <VELIT ornare erat>

p. [2r]

 

G <IN bibe massa> 

p. [20v]

G <lorem quis libero>

p. [20v]

 

R <AN nisl sed vehicula> 

p. [20v]

 

 

 

R <laoreet dui 10 fuscenec>

p. [20v]

R <risus vitae est>

p. [22v]

 

G <sem per Inter dum> 

p. [20v]

R <cras ultricies>

p. [22v]

50

NI sit         amet Lectus

p. [20v]             

suspendisse potenti donec ligula

p. [20v]

 

G <EROS interdum vel>

p. [20v]

 

 

 

Imperdiet nec

p. [20v]

G <accumsan id>

p. [27r]

 

R <fe lis Aliquam induces enim mihi>

p. [20v]

 

 

 

R <egestas nisi hendrerit vis>

p. [20v]

 

 

55

R <Phar etra phas ellus>   

p. [20v]

 

 

 

Veh icula Suspend is Se X & 2 faucibus sapien

p. [22v]

 

 

 

R <aliquet sodales nunc elit hendrerit odio>

p. [22v]

 

 

 

G <non hendrerit felis>

p. [22v]

G <URNA in Estabo>

p. [2r]

 

mauris ut massa

p. [22v]

vitae justo volutpat

p. [2r]

60

R <MO sed consectetuer enim vel justo>

p. [22v]

 

 

 

R <Aenean adipiscing. Dui id. Nisi.>

p. [22v]

 

 

 

G <proin nonummy cras commodo>

p. [22v]

 

 

 

R <proin congue, augue sit

p. [20v], p. [11v]

 

 

 

R <AM faucibus l. lobortis>

p. [20v]

 

 

65

R <metus odio blue>

p. [11v]

R <Velit'Eget Eleifend>

p. [27r]

 

augue arcu. Bibendum!

p. [27r]

 

 

 

R <dui sed ac>

p. [27r]

R <velit id>     

p. [27r]

 

Arcu tincidunt elementum mauris 

p. [27r]

 

 

 

Tortor purus ?Mollis 

p. [27r]

 

 

70

G <Sit amet fermentum>

p. [27r]

 

 

 

G <Nulla 1st Nulla 2nd>

p. [27r]

G <Non>

p. [27r]

 

G <Nulla Facilis ac Ornare   Nunc Aligula>

p. [28v]   

 

 

 

G <Integer, vehicula libero   sed 6 mths>

p. [28v]

 

 

 

G <Ullamcorper lacus etiam mi. rumor volant £5.

 

 

 

75

Suspen disse potenti £5.>

p. [28v]

 

 

 

G <nulla augue neque (volutpat)>

p. [28v]

 

 

 

G <cut cursus>

p. [28v] 

 R <non consectetuer guis>

p. [28v]

 

R <nisl mauris>

p. [28v]

 

 

 

G <volut elit vitae>

p. [28v]

G <DUI>

p. [3v]

80

R <PH & nibh sem posuere asellus oculus memoriae,

 

 

 

 

            tempor>

p. [3v]

 

 

 

R < " vel convallis>

p. [3v]

 

 

 

Some clear patterns of transferral emerge. The earliest stratum of writing on BL "Circe" 16 is, predictably enough, the left column of entries (as usual the left margin, 16:1–20, is later). The left column entries are taken from NLI MS 36639/5A. The entries at 16:22, 24–28 come from the first "Circe"-entitled page of the notebook, p. [10v]. Joyce works through the notebook methodically, from earliest "Circe" page to last, and entries generally remain clustered together on the sheet. For some pages of the notebook, p. [20v] for example, the notes are repeated in an order almost identical to that of the source notebook: the inscription of 16:47–55 follows seriatim the exact order of the notebook.20 For other pages of the source notebook, p. [19v] for example, there is little resemblance between the order of inscription in the notebook and their reproduction on the sheet. To labour the point, among the many other entries on p. [19v], both used and unused, the green-crossed entries appear in the following order: in the left margin of the page, the note that is now at 16:35 appears before 16:34; in the centre block of notes, the notes originally occur in the order BL "Circe" 16:42, 35, 44, 43, 40, 38, 39, 36. While the notes occupy a localized corner of the sheet, the order of their transferral could just as well indicate multiple runs through the source page (crossing and transferring a few notes at a time) as a single run, during which all useful entries were committed to memory and then transcribed in whatever order they came to Joyce.

Either inferred explanation is plausible; more interesting, perhaps, is what happens to the notes during transferral. When Joyce wrote to Weaver, on 20 July 1919, defending the method of "Sirens" (and that of "Cyclops" and "Circe") he said that "[t]he elements needed will only fuse after a prolonged existence together" (LI: 128). In the transferral of elements from notebook to notesheet it is possible to see that fusion in action. The attentive reader may have already spotted that the note at BL "Circe" 16:35 is sourced twice to p. [19v] of /5A in the layout of notesheet 16 given above. That is because 16:35, "R <this stinking goat of Mendes>", comes from two discrete entries on that page of the notebook. Similarly 16:63, "R <ear covers eye, contorts face>", is a composite, the first half of which comes from p. [20v], the second from p. [11v] of /5A (the double sourcing of BL "Circe" 16:71 to /5A p. [27r] is the result of a correction: "G <Bloom 1st Bloom 2nd Sibylline>" in Herring is two discrete entries "Bloom the first, bloom 2nd" and "Sybilline" [sic] in /5A). Other notes on the sheet, 16:28 right column, "R <urine, spittle, saliva, sweat>", and 16:42, "R <you beast>", for example, are truncations of their sources in the notebook. BL "Circe" 16: 44 "R <embroidered prayerbook>" appears as the lengthier green-crossed "hausfrau buried with key (had) embroidered prayerbook" on p. [20v]. Longer entries such as these may help the search for the sources of the notes.

As the sheet fills up, and when he comes to use NLI MS 36639/5B, Joyce fits notes in wherever he can, squeezing into BL "Circe" 16:45, 58 and 59 entries from p. [2r] of the notebook, before moving to the margin for p. [3v]. Interesting features include the duplications of "Hornblower" at 16:6 and 19 and "S. Michael" at 16:3 and 17. The notes at 16:9, "G <row in gallery for & against LB>", 16:12, "G <eagles & palms>", 16:15 and 16, "G <crowded wall falls>" and "R <bone thrown at LB>", are all translations of the Italian entries in Lucia's hand from p. [3v] of NLI MS 36639/5B. Herring's transcript of 16:20, "G <clap clap hands Poldy come home>", might seem at first to be an embellishment of the note "clap clap hands" present in the notebook. What Herring has transcribed as a single note is, however, two notesheet entries – they even occupy two separate lines in the margin. Perhaps the green strikethroughs of both caused him to read them as a single unit. With the body and margin and thus the entire recto saturated, Joyce continues on the verso.  The centre column entries, BL "Circe" 17:33–45, account for the remainder of the notes taken from NLI MS 36639/5B, with the final entry, BL "Circe" 17:44–45, "R <lechery with dissolute grandam, gave example of excessive sensuality>", combining entries on two pages of "Circe" notes in the notebook, pp. [11r–11v]. Interestingly, the first half of the entry, "lechery with dissolute grandam", comes from the second of the two pages; the second half "Gave example of excessive sensuality" from the earlier.

 

At BL "Circe" 17:46, "R <LB visited medically>", the use of notebook NLI MS 36639/4 begins. 17:81 gives an example of currente calamo development as Joyce begins to reproduce the source note verbatim (from p. [7v] of the notebook) only to alter it: "G <LB funny word  Recorder what is was that?> What is the man saying?". This same page of the notebook, p. [7v], also contains the "Kidney of Bloom" litany (U 15.1941ff.), crossed in green but which does not appear on the notesheet. BL "Circe" 16:77, "G <whores sing litany>", is the only mention of the litany on the sheet and this note is itself a development of the notebook source which mentions only a hymn sung by the whores.21 The earliest next known occurrence of the litany is in Buffalo MS V.A.20.22 Conversely, neither the last few entries in centre column of "Circe" notesheet 17, nor the entire left margin, can be found in any of the extant notebooks.23 This seems to indicate at least one other notebook, one which has not survived. 17:23, the uncrossed "pillar pin of collar", looks like the correction of a note incorrectly transcribed from this missing notebook. Such a notebook or notebooks may have continued onto another notesheet, also missing, for the Messianic scene to which the other Ulysses notebook from the late stage of composition, Buffalo MS V.A.2, may have contributed. Phillip Herring has written:

 

Most of the [V.A.20] draft originated in "Circe" notesheets 16 and 17, but some seventeen phrases can be found in notebook V.A.2, pages 11 and 12, which means that before item V.A.20 was finished, Joyce had about exhausted his notesheet material and was already mining the notebook. Many more phrases from notebook V.A.2 were added to this section of "Circe" in typescripts and proofs.24

 

Of the seventeen phrases, five are crossed in green. While Herring speculates, reasonably enough, that Joyce exhausted "Circe" notesheets 16 and 17 before moving onto notebook V.A.2, his use of the notebooks and sheets may have been more interrelated than Herring realized. V.A.2, like the three National Library of Ireland notebooks discussed above, may have been used as the source for another Messianic scene notesheet. Further collation of the preparatory materials is necessary and it still may not show conclusively whether notebook V.A.2 was used as a source for notesheets or after them.

Within the three notebooks that I have shown contributed to BL "Circe" 16 and 17, entries on "Circe"-labelled pages that are crossed in different colours appear interspersed with the green-crossed entries that did end up on the sheet. The former enter the text of "Circe" at every stage: some are even present in the body of the earliest draft, Buffalo MS V.A.19. Joyce was gathering notes for the Messianic scene, not written until summer 1921, during the earliest phase of his work on "Circe". Further work on this process, and this stage of composition, will provide more information on Joyce's move into, what Michael Groden calls, the 'last stage' of the writing of Ulysses.25

In Ulysses in Progress Groden instances two of the three stages of writing with a test case – the early stage with "Aeolus", the middle stage with "Cyclops". Material limitations as well as thematic concerns govern his choice of episodes. The composition of "Aeolus", which "serves as a microcosm of the entire book", comprises an equivalent three stages: the period from May-September 1918 during which the episode was drafted, typed, augmented and dispatched for serial publication; a middle stage of further additions to the typescript for Darantiere for book publication; and a last stage of placard and page proof additions (which included the headlines so familiar from the published text).26 "Cyclops" is not only the episode in which Joyce abandoned the interior monologue, but from then on more care was taken of manuscripts and notebooks and a more complete genetic dossier is extant for the later episodes (certainly this was the case when Groden was writing Ulysses in Progress in the '70s before the appearance of the National Library Joyce Papers).27 For the discussion of the last stage, covering the eighteen months from Joyce's arrival in Paris in 1920 to book publication in 1922, Groden does not single out any one episode. The diffuse treatment he provides stems from the mixture of new writing and revision that characterized Joyce's work on Ulysses after 1920. Since the acquisitions of recent years there are four drafts of "Circe" and six notebooks known to be extant. Now the textual gestation of this episode and Joyce's attendant compositional difficulties as he entered the last stage can be more fully described.

In conclusion, the uncovered material builds on our understanding of Joyce as the "notesnatcher" (FW 125.21–22). The preponderance of note repositories may lead to a 'malestimation' of his role in the production of Ulysses, reducing him to a copyist of his own text. "Scylla and Charybdis" resounds with predictions of its future composition, of a "national epic ... yet to be written" (U 9.309), and includes Stephen's self-exhortations to remember the slight passed on him: "See this. Remember." (U 9.294). Without "slips from the library counter" (U 3.407) he cannot graphically record the incident, but his claim that "in the future, the sister of the past, I may see myself as I sit here now but by reflection from that which I shall be" (U 9.383-85) links him with Joyce creating the scene out of, presumably, such notes in 1918. Stephen's ability to look forward to looking back, he tells us, depends on the simultaneity of selves past, present and future created by "the intense instant of imagination when the mind, Shelley says, is a fading coal" (U 9.381–82). The allusion to Shelley appears not only in Ulysses but also in Portrait and in both versions of the James Clarence Mangan lecture Shelley describes the mind in creation as

 

a fading coal, which some invisible influence, like an inconstant wind, awakens to intransitory brightness; this power arises from within, like the colour of a flower which fades and changes as it is developed, and the conscious portions of our nature are unprophetic either of its approach or its departure. Could this influence be durable in its original purity and force, it is impossible to predict the greatness of the results; but when composition begins, inspiration is already on the decline. [...] The toil and the delay recommended by critics, can be justly interpreted to mean no more than a careful observation of the inspired moments, and an artificial connection of the spaces between their suggestions, by the intertexture of conventional expressions; a necessity only imposed by the limitedness of the poetical faculty itself; for Milton conceived the 'Paradise Lost' as a whole before he executed it in portions. [...] And let this be the answer to those who would allege the fifty-six various readings of the first line of the Orland Furioso. Compositions so produced are to poetry what mosaic is to painting.28

 

Mosaic was the correspondence Frank Budgen found for Joyce's writing among the pictorial arts.29 And in 1921 Valery Larbaud compared the preparatory material to "the little boxes of coloured cubes of the mosaic worker".30 Even Joyce himself referred to his marked proofs as "mosaics" (LI: 172). While the occurrence of the mosaic image in 'A Defence of Poetry' may be nothing more than serendipitous, as a description of composition it can only aggravate any sense one may have of Joyce as a mere artisan. Taking Shelley's declaration that "when composition begins, inspiration is already on the decline" to its conclusion, the contents of the National Library notebooks become lifeless repetitions of earlier "significant ... scribbling" that were recorded on more ephemeral material during "the intense instant of imagination". This makes Joyce the amanuensis of his own text. But, by tracing the succession of iterations of a scribbling through second-order and subsequent repositories, one realizes that the recurrence of an entry across preparatory strata is in fact a kinetic process of further creation, a fusing and elaborative process, rather than the labours of a copyist. This Joycean 'rigmarole' of following a thread of transmission, either back to intertextual source texts or forward through subsequent note repositories or deployment in drafts, illuminates Joyce's "dark materials".31

 

2007 Afterword.

 

Since this article first appeared in Genetic Joyce Studies further work has been carried out on the Joyce Papers 2002. As we have come to understand the notebooks more, the interrelationships between them and the note repositories previously known to be extant have emerged. Rather than revise the above, I have produced this Afterword to showcase some recent findings. Many more of the entries on the verso of BL Add. MS 49975/fol. 20 (Herring's BL "Circe" 17), for example, have been traced to the National Library notebooks. Their source is the "Eventuali"-labelled pages of the notebooks. To demonstrate this aspect of the transferral a lorem-ipsumed BL "Circe" 17 is reproduced below; again compare Herring's transcript of the notesheet in Joyce's Ulysses Notesheets in the British Museum for the original text.32 Entries transferred from NLI notebook MS 36639/5A appear in blue; those from NLI notebook MS 36639/5B are in red. Those from NLI notebook MS 36639/4 are in green. Entries which come from "Eventuali" pages are additionally boxed in yellow. In this Afterword I also present the current state of research on the dates of the notebooks' compilation and present an errata list for Herring's edition of BL "Circe" 16–17.

 

            "Circe"             17

 

LEFT MARGIN HORIZONTAL

 

 

Lorem ipsum dolor sit. amet consectetuer elit?

 

 

G <Proin risus   ipsum tristique       ut & gravida   - sed tincidunt

 

 

ristique urna>

 

 

G <Fusce tempus class   Aptent taciti     sociosqu ad litora>

p. [18v]

5

?Torquent

 

 

G <conubia>33

 

 

per nostra

 

 

inceptos -

 

 

hymenaeos suspendisse

 

10

G <sem sapien porta>

p. [18v]

 

Placerat ut malesuada nec metus

p. [18v]

 

G <tincidunt in blandit augue>

p. [18v]

 

quis

p. [19r]

 

rutrum Adipiscing

p. [7v]

15

Libero Sem Condimentum

p. [7v]

 

G <tellus ut sagittis risus>

p. [19r]

 

G <(ipsum)>

 

 

G <lectus>

p. [19r]

 

G <Non Morbi>

p. [18v]

20

In ?Enim

p. [18v]

 

nec Quam

p. [18v]

 

tincidunt

p. [19r]

 

ultrices ultrim cursus neque

p. [18v]

 

G <Molestie. et aliquet>

 

25

G <Orci Pede, Inter Dum>

 

 

G <Nibh Ut. Vehicula>

 

 

G <Quam Dolor, Et Felis>

 

 

G <Pellentesque ac Nulla, UT's magna>

 

 

G <porttitor,   dignissim>

 

30

G <cras & ut>

 

 

G <Ante, M ut Felis,>

 

 

G <Sagittis duis eleifend>

 

 

CENTRE COLUMN HORIZONTAL

 

 

G <sagittis,>   G <magna>

p. [3v]

R <quisque,>

p. [11r]

 

R <Lacinia,>

p. [11r]

R <In arcu>

p. [11r]

35

G <tellus,>                  G <ut erat ac Bloom,>

p. [11r]

G <3 erat

 

 

 

 

            & ac ut,>

p. [11r]

 

G <etiam 3 mauris lacus viverra gravida>

p. [11r]

 

 

 

condiment quis           Fauci at eros mauris             enim,

 

libero pretium

p. [11r]

 

suspendisse pote Pellentes    que

p. [11r]

 

 

40

G <Elementum Et,>

p. [11v]

consectetuer a, velit sed,

p. [11v]

 

enim urna cursus non            

p. [11v]

Ultricies non tincidunt,

p. [11v]

 

R <ut ac convallis erat yr. maecenas, aliquam,>

p. [11v]

Odi'o ornare

p. [11v]

 

R <sodales>

p. [11v]

 

 

 

R <tincidunt odio urna accumsan, augue vel consequat massa

p. [11v], p. [11r]

 

 

45

            nisl,>

 

 

 

 

R <UT erat tellus,>

p. [5v]

 

 

 

G <nunc et ipsum & nullam ac libero vel, quam

 

 

 

 

            Elementum porta,>

p. [5v]

 

 

 

G <AC morbi dui,>     G <A diam ex molestie, Eget's

p. [5v]

 

 

50

            scelerisque,>

p. [5v]

 

 

 

G <Vitae,>                             

p. [5v]

G <molestie> feugiat

p. [5v]

 

G <lorem vestibul um Facilisis,>      

p. [5v]

G <Adipiscing, purus sed

p. [5v]

 

 

 

            vestibulum,>

 

 

ante ipsum Primi's in,      

p. [5v]

G <faucibus Orci>

p. [5v]

55

G <Ut sit Luctus et sit Ultrices,>      G <Posuere,>

p. [5v]

Cubilia,

 

 

Fusce              X. ac Fermen  Tristique,

p. [5v]

            G <Est sed Tincidunt,>

p. [5v]

 

G <MI nulla velit,>   

p. [5v]

R <semper ante quis,>

p. [5v]

 

G <facilisis & enim nisl,>                 

p. [5v]

G <nec nisi>

p. [5v]

 

R <integer nisi Consequat molestie velit. sed aenean

p. [5v]

 

 

60

            massa,>

 

 

 

 

3 X 3,              R <AC frin gilla nec inter, dum pulvinar>  

p. [5v]

R <fetor

 

 

 

 

judaicus>

 

 

G <ET integer & accumsan,>

p. [5v]

mi sed, sed, sed

p. [5v]

 

R <I metus aliquam ullam,>

p. [5v]

G <A Liquam lo rem enim,>

p. [5v]

65

G <Sollicitudin!>

 

 

 

 

G <ut pharetra sit;>

p. [5v]

G <LB amet Egestas (ipsum

 

 

 

 

            translation)>

p. [5v]

 

cras,                G <ut leo aenean quis do lor nec,>

p. [7v]

G <lacus

 

 

 

 

            suscipit sollicitudin,>

 

70

G <mauri's eu>

p. [7v]

 

 

 

G <Est Indem Lorem,>

 

G <Imper di et Imperdiet,>

p. [7v]

 

maecenas euis mod

p. [7v]

G <Metus Nec Ipsum Vestib Ante

 

 

 

 

            Ipsum Primis Faucibus>

p. [7v]

 

G <600 voces Orci luctus, ultrices>

p. [7v]

 

 

75

R <posuere cubilia,>              G <curae nunc vesti bulum>  

p. [7v]

G <risus>

p. [7v]

 

G <sedturpis>                        G < ?... Morbi Nibh>

p. [7v]

G <nibh mollis sit

 

 

            amat>  R <Ut. Iaculis,>

p. [7v]

G <vel blandit Lorem Vestibulum,>

p. [7v]

 

G <dictum leo eu        luctus mo Lestie   lacus ip malesuada,

 

 

 

 

            Libero portaorci>

p. [7v]

 

 

80

G <lorem vitae,>

p. [7v], p. [7v]

 

 

 

G <LB pede fusce      Pellentesque ve lit sit amet?>

p. [7v]

Velit ut erat

 

 

 

 

            sed feugiat?

p. [7v]

 

R <Tellus ac lectus vivamus?>

p. [7v]

R <Lectus laoreet?>

p. [7v]

 

G <Felis porttitor elit.>

p. [7v]

G <Suspend Vehi tor tor ali quet >

p. [7v]

85

R <Vestibulum et ante,>

p. [7v]

R <quisque suscipit justo>

p. [7v]

 

R <at tortor>

p. [7v]

R <Nulla placerat nunc SI>

p. [7v]

 

R <Amet metus,>

p. [7v]

G <curabit'ur biben dum dolor>

p. [7v]

 

R <sit pede am donec et ut>

p. [7v]

R <mi proin odio est

 

 

 

 

            Dolores>

p. [7v]

90

G <1st civis sit amet Autor hic          2nd civis ut erat         

 

 

 

 

            Autor>

p. [7v]

 

 

 

G <Accumsan tell us ut urna >

p. [7v]

G <Velit Tincidunt,>

p. [7v]

 

G <nec Pretium nisi>

p. [7v]

G <vestibulum inligula,>

p. [7v]

 

R <morbi felis dui>

p. [7v]

R <IN egestas vehicula>

p. [7v]

95

pretium sit,

p. [7v]

 

 

 

G <LB amet tellus proin >

p. [12v]

G <Rhoncus Varius,  lacus ob

 

 

 

 

            Nunc,>

p. [12v]

 

elementum est vesti bulum, ?neque

p. [9v]

G <sed pede dignissim,>

p. [7v]

 

G <interdum,>

 

G <integer (DV)>

p. [7v]

100

G <tincidunt auctor nisi, Donec (C) elementum (UT)>

p. [7v]

 

 

 

R <Mauris Condimentum>

 

 

 

 

                                                                                               

 

The earliest stratum of writing is, again, the central column. Having filled up the body and margin of the recto, Joyce turned over the page and continued copying from NLI MS 36639/5B onto the verso of the sheet; BL "Circe" 17:33–45 accounts for the remainder of the entries taken from this notebook. Joyce then moved onto notebook /4. As said above, at BL "Circe" 17:46, "R <LB visited medically>", the use of notebook NLI MS 36639/4 begins. Some features of BL "Circe" 17, not alluded to in the previous discussion of the harvesting, are here described. In the transferral of the muses onto 17:72–73, for example, their ranks are expanded. The notebook source, /4 p. [7v], lists the "Music Sculpture Justice Industry Commerce Painting Chemistry" that find their way (in that order) onto the notesheet. The Bloomian muse 'Publicity" was added in the process. Of the twelve "new nine muses" at U 15.1707, incidentally, only "Commerce" and "Publicity" make the transition unchanged from the notesheet into the final text of Ulysses. The entry at BL "Circe" 17:42 "Noah's ark" is a minor elaboration of its green-crossed notebook source  "Noah" on /5B p. [11v]. The note "Noah's Ark" actually also appears as such in /5B; the previous page of the notebook, /5B p. [11r], has the red-crossed entry "Noah's Ark". This enters the text of Ulysses with a cluster of adjacent entries at U 15.3868–69 onto the first setting of placard 59 around the turn of 1922 (JJA 20:187–94). So while the notesheet entry "Noah's Ark" is an unused duplicate Joyce had already expanded this element within the notebook. Many other elements are altered in the move from the notebook to the notesheet. The name of Asher Lämmlein, a German who proclaimed himself a forerunner of the Jewish Messiah in Istria in 1502, appears as such in the notebook entry (Istria appears bracketted after his name). On the notesheet, however, at BL "Circe" 17:55–56 this becomes "Asher | Lammlein of Istria". Only the second line of the entry is cancelled and the name of the pseudo-Messiah is further altered, becoming "Laemlein of Istria", in the transfer into the text (U 15.1907).

Of the eighteen pages across the three notebooks that contain material for "Circe" (four pages of that group also contain material for other episodes) only two do not contribute material to BL "Circe" 16 and 17. Both of these unharvested pages are only partially devoted to "Circe": 36639/5B p. [7r], has a dense block of red and blue crossed "Circe" entries wedged into a page originally intended for "Penelope" but which, in addition to "Circe", has a section labelled "Naus[icaa]"; and 36639/4 p. [2v] contains only five entries – all crossed in red – under "Circe" (the page also contains material for "Wandering Rocks"). The entries on /5B p. [7r] may have been deemed unsuitable for the Messianic scene as none of its entries end up in the scene; on the other hand Joyce may simply have overlooked the hemmed-in block of notes, indistinctly labelled "Circe", as he was flipping through the notebook. The cluster of entries on /4 p. [2v] was probably just deemed to be unsuitable for the scene as not all its entries had been harvested (and crossed in red) by the time Joyce came to compile BL "Circe" 16–17.

After going through all but this "Circe" pages of 36639/4, Joyce then turned to the notebook's one "Eventuali" page, crossing in green and transferring one item to BL "Circe" 17:98, "cuckoos oust other birds". The features of the "Eventuali" transferral mirror the harvesting pattern described for the "Circe" pages. After scanning through /4 Joyce then turned to 36639/5B, inserting a number of entries from its one "Eventuali"-labelled page, p. [7v], onto the bottom of the sheet and into the margin. The note at BL "Circe" 17:98 "G <bill of health>" is again a translation of an Italian note in Lucia's hand, "G <Bollettino salute>" from p. [7v]. Moving onto 36639/5A, Joyce crossed in green and transferred entries from two facing "Eventuali" pages, p. [18v–19r]. The former is the source of the uncrossed "pillar pin of collar", BL "Circe" 17:23, mentioned above. And the entry does indeed correct a note incorrectly transcribed from this page of the notebook. The final "Eventuali" page (36639/5A p. [27v]) contains no green-crossed entries. So of five pages that contain "Eventuali" entries, only this one page was not harvested for Messianic scene material.

In mining the "Eventuali" pages Joyce went over his notebooks in the reverse order (36639/4; /5B; /5A) to that used for the initial "Circe" run-through (36639/5A; /5B; 4). The order of the "Circe" run is also the order in which Mme Raphael went through the three later Ulysses notebooks when she transcribed them into Buffalo MS VI.C.7 pp. [136–254] (pp. [255–269] of the document, remember, come from the earlier Subject Notebook, NLI MS 36639/3). In fact, recent scholarship has determined that /5A, /5B, /4 was the order in which Joyce compiled these notebooks. 36639/5A and /5B were compiled in 1920 and first draft usage indicates that they contributed to the earliest draft of "Circe" known to be extant, Buffalo MS V.A.19. Notebook NLI 36639/4, on the other hand, was compiled by early summer 1921, primarily with "Penelope" in mind (particularly the draft of the episode at the National Library: MS 36639/14).34 That the order of initial transcription is reduplicated on the notesheet and then immediately reversed for the "Eventuali" harvesting indicates that Joyce probably did not have any other Ulysses notebooks in front of him when he was compiling BL "Circe" 16–17. While it remains certain that other notebooks were being compiled and used at this last stage of the writing of Ulysses (Buffalo MS V.A.2, for example), in compiling this sheet for the Messianic scene Joyce used a particular subset of his raw materials. He worked steadily through the three notebooks, perhaps laying them to one side as he was done with each, before going again through his small stack in the reverse order for the "Eventuali" pages. The claims for a missing notebook, tentatively made in this article's first outing, need to be withdrawn (at least on the basis of evidence on this sheet). Within BL "Circe" 16–17 the only substantial material not cued to any of the National Library notebooks is found in the margin of the verso: BL "Circe" 17:01–04, 05–09, and 24–32. Most of these entries relate to positions in the British Royal household, Bloom's coronation and investment with regalia; crossed in green, the entries appear at U 15.1436–44. Given the nature of this material, a thematically linked unit clustered together in the margin, it is likely that these unsourced notes are only second-order borrowings. One can envisage a loose sheet of "significant scribblings" lifted from a book on coronation, the contents of which were shoehorned into the notesheet. Anything taken from a National Library notebook, on the other hand, is at least third order as it appears on the notesheet; recent work on the Joycean rigmarole has shown that some notesheet entries are of an even higher order.

NLI MS 36639/5B is a particularly interesting document. Not only does this notebook contain Italian entries in Lucia's hand, but a later stratum of writing saw Joyce turn to his notesheets for source material; traffic in the opposite direction to that which I have been describing in this article. Two facing pages of the notebook, pp. [3v–4r] (the verso of which is labelled "Circe"; the recto "Oxen of Sun"), contain material transferred from the notesheets. The verso page consists of thirty-five lines of text with additional marginalia, with entries crossed out with red, blue and green crayon as usual; all but one of the green-crossed entries end up on BL "Circe" 16–17 (see the lines tagged to p. [3v] in the lorem ipsum above). Eleven entries within lines 21–29 of the page can be traced back to the two sides of BL Add. MS 49975/fol. 19 (i.e. BL "Circe" 10–13). As we shall see, there is some overlap between these two categories. The following diagram, a diplomatic transcript of NLI MS 36639/5B p. [3v], lines 21–29, represents this ancestry. Individual entries within the block of text are demarcated by [ ]. Entries that were subsequently transferred onto BL "Circe" 16–17 are cued with their Herring notesheet designation (and are, of course, cancelled in green). Entries that were transferred from notesheets into the notebook are cued with their Herring designation and, to distinguish them, have also been asterisked. Compare Herring's transcript of the notesheets in Joyce's Ulysses Notesheets in the British Museum for the original text.35 Text that does not come from or go to a notesheet has been replaced with a lorem ipsum to respect copyright. The colours displayed below denote crayon cancellation in the notebook, in red, blue or green, or in the case of black text uncancelled entries. With respect to cancellation colour of the notesheet sources, of the eleven notes on the page ten are crossed in blue on the notesheets prior to their transferral into the notebook. The final note is uncrossed on the notesheet before moving from BL "Circe" 13:91 ("run to earth") to NLI 36639/5B p. [3v], line 29; an oversight on Joyce's part, one assumes.

                                   

 

 

 

 

25

 

[BL "Circe" 17:33], [BL "Circe" 16:79], [*BL "Circe" 13:17*], [BL

            "Circe"

            16:80–81]

[lorem ip sum doler], [*BL "Circe" 12:26*] [*BL "Circe" 12:34* | BL "Circe" 16:05]

[*BL "Circe" 12:36*], [*BL "Circe" 11:91*]

[Amet] [*BL "Circe" 13:30*], [*BL "Circe" 13:31*] [*BL "Circe" 13:95*]

[*BL "Circe" 13:87*], [consectetuer adipiscing elit],

[*BL "Circe" 10:54* | BL "Circe" 16:38] [proin risus ipsum

Tristique], [*BL "Circe" 13:91*], [Gravida Sed],36

 

 

All but one of the green-crossed notes within this cluster were subsequently transferred to BL "Circe" 16–17. The source for the long notesheet entry BL "Circe" 16:80–81 "R <LB & little child poke smile pigmentless eyes hiccup, milkcurdles>" is found in a slightly different format occupying two and a half lines of this notebook page but two more-immediate points of interest are entries in lines 24 and 28. Each entry appears twice among the notesheets. While Herring had noted such duplications in his annotations, until the reappearance of NLI 36639/5B, their interrelationships (at least in these two cases) could not be determined. The first of these two entries is the word 'amnesty'. It occurs as such in its earliest known iteration (and probably not as a first-order borrowing) at BL "Circe" 12:34, where it is crossed in blue. From there it was transferred into the notebook, sometime later crossed in green and transferred to the recto of the Messianic scene notesheet BL "Circe" 16:05. From there, incidentally, it was crossed in green again and deployed in a draft anterior to Buffalo V.A.20. The earliest draft presence of the element known to be extant is that manuscript, where Bloom calls for "General amnesty, esperanto the universal language with universal brotherhood" (now U 15.1690–93). The green-crossed entry at line 28 of the notebook page is "bishop of Down & Connor". Moving upstream one encounters the same phrase crossed in blue at BL "Circe" 10:54; downstream the same phrase crossed in green at BL "Circe" 16:38. In draft deployment it too entered the text of "Circe" (U 15.1420) in a missing document anterior to V.A.20. While I speculate that the cluster of entries in the verso margin, BL "Circe" 17:01–04, 05–09, and 24–32, which relate to Bloom's coronation are second-order notes, by tracing the Joycean rigmarole through the above "mosaic of movement" (U 15.4100) it emerges that some entries as they occur on the same sheet are fourth- or higher-order notes.

           The bulk of this article has been concerned with tracing notebook to notesheet transferral. This direction of movement is also evident in notebooks NLI 36639/3, which contributes to BL "Cyclops" 8 and 10, "Oxen" 6, "Circe" 3, "Eumaeus" 5 and "Ithaca" 12, and Buffalo VIII.A.5, which contributes to BL "Cyclops" 7, "Nausicaa" 6, "Circe" 1, 3, 6 and 11 and "Eumaeus" 5 and 6. The counter direction of transferral, instanced in the "Circe" page represented above, can also be seen in the movement of entries from "Oxen of the Sun" notesheets to page [4r] and "Eumaeus" notesheets to pages [6v] and [9r] of the same notebook and from "Ithaca" notesheets to NLI 36639/5A. Notebook to notebook transferral can be seen from 36639/3 p. [8v] (labelled "Irish") to 36639/4 p. [3v] (labelled "Hades") and from /3 p. [4r] ("Recipes") to /5B p. [1v] ("Ithaca"). Intra-notebook movement of entries is also in evidence. While notebooks were used for first-order harvesting, there is no discernable progression from notebooks to notesheets or vice versa as the dominant repository of later stages of the note-taking process (on the other hand, it seems clear that for the parallel process of drafting Joyce moved from bound copybooks to loose leaf drafts).

 

Notebook NLI 36639/5B was compiled, recent scholarship has determined, in 1920.37 By bringing other documents to bear that dating may be improved on – at least for portions of this page of the notebook. Herring dated the first term in this particular Joycean rigmarole, the sheet containing BL "Circe" 10–13, to between 15 July and 1 November  1920. The working orientation of both the recto and verso of that sheet are as they appear in the British Library volume (BL Add. MS 49975/fol. 19) i.e. at 'landscape' orientation. The sheet was in two separate halves, BL "Circe" 10/11 and 12/13, when Herring worked on Arthur Walton Litz's slides and a British-Library-issue microfilm but since the two have been joined up a stratum of writing that predates the use of the page for recording note is discernable. At landscape layout there are four columns of entries, but turn the sheet to portrait orientation and a cover sheet familiar from the Rosenbach Manuscript emerges. (This is also obvious from consulting the Archive reproduction JJA 12:54–55 turned on its side). At this orientation we find, written left of the centre, on the top half of the page (JJA 12:55):

 

Ulysses

  II

(continued)                                            BL "Circe" 12:42–44

                       

And on the right side of the bottom half of the page (JJA 12:54):

 

?Mr

            James Joyce

            rue de l'Assomption 5

            Passy

Paris                                                     BL "Circe" 11:51–55

 

Herring notes that Joyce lived at this address from July 15 to November 1, 1920 – an interval in the lengthy period that "Circe" demanded of Joyce's creative efforts. The sheet enjoyed a prior life as a title page or cover sheet for a draft of, presumably, this episode before being later recycled for use as a note repository. Joyce's letters help to pinpoint the moment when the document ceased to be a cover sheet and began to be used for recording notes. One uncrossed note in the notebook, "conscience", is a truncation of its notesheet source BL "Circe" 12:36, "B <Moly = conscience>". The sheet also features more evidence of Joyce's thinking on moly, seven entries in total, all crossed in blue.

 

Moly–indifference

Moly–beauty

Moly–laughter

Moly–satire

Moly–pessimism                                  BL "Circe" 10:26–30

 

Moly = escape from prison                     BL "Circe" 12:32

 

Joyce wrote to Budgen on the topic of moly on 29 September 1920 as follows:

 

I am sorry you do not think your ideas on Circe worth sending. As I told you a catchword is enough to set me off. Moly is a nut to crack. My latest is this. Moly is the gift of Hermes, god of public ways and is the invisible influence (prayer, chance, agility, presence of mind, power of recuperation) which saves in case of accident. This would cover immunity from syphilis [...]. Hermes is the god of signposts: i.e. he is, specially for a character like Ulysses, the point at which roads parallel merge and roads contrary also. he is an accident of Providence. In this case his plant may said to have many leaves, indifference due to masturbation, pessimism, congenital, a sense of the ridiculous, sudden fastidiousness in some detail, experience. It is the only occasion on which Ulysses is not helped by Minerva but by her male counterpart or inferior (LI: 147–148).

 

An undated letter also to Budgen (which is placed before the Michaelmas letter in the Gilbert edition but probably a follow-on from it) continues Joyce's preoccupation with the magical herb.

 

Circe goes on very slowly. As regards 'moly' it can be changed, also laughter, the enchantment killer (LI: 144).

 

The "many leaves" of the plant that are described in letters and which reappear on notesheets have been marked in bold above. The letters document Joyce's creative process more intimately than the conflation typical of the notesheets and are more coterminous with "the intense instant of imagination" (U 9.381). Witness the condensation of "indifference due to masturbation" to the notesheet's sparse "Moly–indifference". Presumably, however, both document types radiate from a shared ancestry of first-order "scribblings". As his letters testify, Joyce was working on moly at the very end of September. Sometime after this, the results (a sheaf of loose throwaways, no doubt) were collected together on the notesheets. A terminus a quo of early October 1920 can be therefore established for the notesheets' compilation; sometime later for transferral to the notebook page. The second half of this page of the notebook was thus compiled late in the "Circe" drafting period. Draft usage bears this out; while some entries in the top half of the page were added to "Circe" copybook NLI 36639/12, the earliest that any note from the bottom half appears in the text of "Circe" is at the level of the Rosenbach Manuscript (compiled in early 1921). Incidentally, the trend towards the quotidian observable in Joyce's correlates for moly continues on the page of NLI 5B under scrutiny: the uncrossed note "ginger cordial (Moly)" appears in the margin.38

 

Errata for Herring's transcript of BL "Circe" 16–17.

 

Phillip Herring's Joyce's Ulysses Notesheets in the British Museum, the first full-length edition of the notesheets, remains the starting point for any study of that fascinating treasury. Herring supplied an errata list as a supplement to his Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection (his single correction that pertains to BL "Circe" 16–17 is reproduced and starred below). Through work undertaken at the British Library in March 2005 and September 2006 by the present writer and collation of the National Library notebooks with the resultant transcript, additional errata are here offered for the reader.

 

BL       "Circe" 16:

7

FOR    "?fluid invisible hedge" 

READ  "druid invisible hedge"

 

13

            READING CONFIRMED

 

 

18

FOR    "R <Ben Israel>"

READ  "R <Beni Israel>"

 

20

FOR    "G <clap clap hands    Poldy come home>"

READ  "G <clap clap hands>   G <Poldy come home>"

 

27

FOR    "G <... A Bloom>"

READ  "G <sir L. Bloom>"

 

44

            READING CONFIRMED

 

 

50

FOR    "LB crusader ?gets ?nil"

READ  "LB Crusader   Le Vitrail"

 

57

FOR    "R <Sgenl inn ban bata coisde gan capall>"

READ  "R <Sgeul i mbarr bata coisde gan capall>"

 

59

            READING CONFIRMED

 

 

63

FOR    "R <ear covers eye, contacts face>"

READ  "R <ear covers eye, contorts face>"

 

64

FOR    "G <LB turns out fools>"

READ  "G <LB turns on 1. foot>"

 

71

FOR    "G <Bloom 1st Bloom 2nd Sibylline>" 

READ  "G <Bloom 1st Bloom 2nd>     G <Sibylline>"

 

BL       "Circe" 17

19

            READING CONFIRMED      

 

 

20

FOR    "Jerry Pe..."

READ  "Jerry ?Percy"

 

21

            READING CONFIRMED

 

 

29

            READING CONFIRMED

 

 

43

            READING CONFIRMED

 

 

55

FOR    "G <... ben Joseph or ben David,>"

READ  "G <Ms ben Joseph or ben David,>"

 

56

            READING CONFIRMED

 

 

63

FOR    "all hallow hallow hallow"

READ  "all hollow hollow hollow"

 

71

FOR    "G <Wailing on the Wall,>"

READ  "G <Writing on the Wall,>"

 

75

FOR    "R <vitrioled lust,>"

READ  "R <unbridled lust,>" *

 

78

            READING CONFIRMED

 

 

99

FOR    "G <flatty (BC)>"

READ  "G <flatty (PC)>"

 

100

            READING CONFIRMED

 

           

 

 


1 Joyce quoted in Arthur Power, Conversations with James Joyce, Clive Hart, ed. (London: Millington, 1974), p. 89.

2 Herbert Gorman, James Joyce (New York: Rinehart and Company, 1939; revised ed. 1948), p. 138.

3 James Joyce, The Workshop of Daedalus: James Joyce and the Raw Materials for A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Robert Scholes and Richard M. Kain, eds. (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1965), pp. 52-55, 80-91. The notebook had disappeared in the interim between the biography and The Workshop of Daedalus.

4 Herbert Gorman, op. cit., pp. 133, 135.

5 Peter Kenny, compiled, The Joyce Papers 2002: Collection List No. 68 (Dublin: National Library of Ireland, 2003), p. 9. The collection list is also available to download from the National Library's website: http://www.nli.ie/pdfs/joyce02.pdf

6 Ibid., p. 12. In the collection-list partial transcript the page is headed "S.W." – an understandable mistake given the shape of Joyce's Ds. Less forgivable is the description of the three items: "Programme of study for 6 medical students being taught English by Joyce".

7 James Joyce, Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, Phillip Herring, ed. (Charlottesville: published for the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, by University Press of Virginia, 1977), p. x. The V.A.2 notebook is discussed and transcribed at pp. 37–118.

8 Peter Spielberg, compiled, James Joyce's Manuscripts and Letters at the University of Buffalo: A Catalogue (Buffalo: University of Buffalo Press, 1962), pp. 143–44; Danis Rose and John O'Hanlon, The Lost Notebook (Edinburgh: Split Pea Press, 1989).

9 Michael Groden, "The National Library of Ireland's New Joyce Manuscripts: A Narrative and Document Summaries", Journal of Modern Literature 26.1 (2002) pp. 9–11; Peter Kenny, op. cit., pp. 14–24.

10 Gregory M. Downing, "Joyce's "Oxen of the Sun" Notesheets: A Transcription and Sourcing of the Stylistic Entries", Genetic Joyce Studies 2 (Spring 2002) http://www.antwerpjamesjoycecenter.com/GJS/GJS2Oxen1.html; Robert Janusko, "Further Oxcavations", Genetic Joyce Studies 2 (Spring 2002); http://www.antwerpjamesjoycecenter.com/GJS/GJS2Janusko.html; James Joyce, Joyce's Ulysses Notesheets in the British Museum, Phillip Herring, ed. (Charlottesville: published for the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, by University Press of Virginia, 1972).

11 See JJA 41:406–40 for Mme Raphael's transcript. The use of the National Library notebooks by Mme Raphael was spotted by Luca Crispi, who was credited with the discovery in Michael Groden, "The National Library of Ireland's New Joyce Manuscripts: A Narrative and Document Summaries", Journal of Modern Literature 26.1 (Fall 2002), pp. 10–11.

12 Peter Spielberg, op. cit., pp. 143–44.

13 Ibid., p. 145.

14 The call numbers for Bérard's Les Phéniciens et l'Odyssée and La Rhétorique d'Aristote en français appear on what Rose and O'Hanlon call the front cover verso of the Lost Notebook. A third number is also present on the 'verso': 1537. Is this the call number of De Coloribus? Danis Rose and John O'Hanlon, op. cit., p. [front cover verso].

15 Reproduced as JJA 42:348–52 and JJA 42:352–59 respectively.

16 Danis Rose, 'Preface', JJA 42:xv.

17 I use the term 'sheet' here as opposed to 'notesheet' because the latter more usually refers to a single side of a sheet. Thus, the sheet BL Add. MS 49975/fol. 20 is two notesheets, BL "Circe" 16 and 17. This logic also applies to the double sheets, where a large sheet, folded once, produces four notesheets.

18 Wim Van Mierlo has charted a similar case of entry transferral, this time from the Subject Notebook, NLI MS 36639/3, onto BL "Circe" 3. Intriguing examples of the opposite pattern of transferral have emerged as the notebooks are collated with the notesheets of other episodes. See the 2007 Afterword.

19 Joyce's Ulysses Notesheets in the British Museum, pp. 343–45. See JJA 12:58 for facsimile reproduction. Lorem ipsum is the standard placeholder text used by typesetters to demonstrate the graphic elements of a document. As a dummy text it is not supposed to have any meaning beyond focusing attention on the appearance of a document over its content. The text is ultimately derived from Cicero's De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum and is said to approximate typical letter distribution in English – aiding the shift in focus from content to presentation.

20 The entries that end up on BL "Circe" 16 account for almost half of all the notes harvested from p. [20v] of the notebook. The particular block transferred to "Circe" 16:47–55 appears towards the bottom of the notebook page. Within that block, only the note now at BL "Circe" 16:41, "G <That man is Leopold Macintosh>", is transferred onto the notesheet out of sequence. In the notebook it is sandwiched between the sources for the uncrossed "Exultet roll" and "R <So may the Creator deal with me>", BL "Circe" 16:52–53. On the notesheet it appears at 16:41.

21 NLI MS 36639/5A, p. [28v]: G <whores sing hymn to Blm>.

22 James Joyce, Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, Phillip Herring, ed. (Charlottesville: published for the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, by University Press of Virginia, 1977), p. 259. The litany is also included in Joyce's letter to Larbaud which mentions the completion of the Messianic scene (Letters I, 169).

23 See the 2007 Afterword for the most recent version of this.

24 Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, p. 206.

25 Michael Groden, Ulysses in Progress (Princeton (N.J.); Guildford: Princeton U.P., 1977).

26 Ibid., pp. 5, 64–65.

27 Ibid., p. 125.

28 P. B. Shelley, "A Defence of Poetry", Thomas Love Peacock, P. B. Shelley and Robert Browning, Peacock's Four Ages of Poetry [and] Shelley's Defence of Poetry [and] Browning's Essay on Shelley, H.F.B. Brett-Smith, ed., (Oxford: Blackwell, 1972), pp. 53–54.

29 Frank Budgen, James Joyce and the Making of Ulysses, Clive Hart, intro. (London: Oxford University Press, 1934; rpt. 1972), p. 168. 1 Ibid., p. 125.

30 Valery Larbaud, "The Ulysses of James Joyce", T. S. Eliot, trans., The Criterion I (October 1922), p. 102.

31 The word 'rigmarole' emerged in the eighteenth century as a colloquial survival and alteration of 'ragman's roll', the roll used in the game of chance ragman. Ragman was "played with a written roll having strings attached to the various items contained in it, one of which the player selected or 'drew' at random" (OED). This game seems to be an apposite description of the process of tracing Joyce's notes across notebooks and notesheets.

32 Joyce's Ulysses Notesheets in the British Museum, pp. 347–50. See JJA 12:59 for facsimile reproduction.

33 NLI notebook MS 36639/5A has the uncrossed entry "codpiece" on the "Scylla and Charybdis"-labelled p. [6r]. This is probably not the source of the notesheet entry, however.

34 See Luca Crispi's forthcoming catalogue of the National Library of Ireland's Joyce Papers.

35 Joyce's Ulysses Notesheets in the British Museum, pp. 320–35, 343–45, 347–50. See JJA 12:54–59 for facsimile reproductions of the six notesheets.

36 Consult [Image: 05-038] for an image of the original notebook page.

37 See Luca Crispi's forthcoming catalogue of the National Library of Ireland's Joyce Papers.

38 Moly supplies signposts for the compilation of another notesheet – references to BL "Circe" 21:35 "B <Moly = absinthe, mercury>" and the uncrossed BL "Circe" 21:50 "Moly = chastity" occur in Joyce's letter to Budgen dated 24 October, 1920: "Moly could also be absinthe the cerebral impotentising (!!) drink or chastity. Damn Homer, Ulysses, Bloom and all the rest" (LI: 149).

 

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