GENETIC JOYCE STUDIES - Issue 8 (Spring 2008)
 


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Proof^finder: Placards

 

Introduction  [skip]

 

by

Ronan Crowley

 

In November 1920 Joyce wrote to John Quinn, who was then involved in talks with Huebsch about the possibility of a New York publication of Ulysses. After receiving word of the Little Review trial and Huebsch’s subsequent pusillanimity, Joyce went on to withdraw Ulysses “by cable an hour after receipt” of letter from Harriet Shaw Weaver (LIII: 40), but while the negotiations were underway, he had written to Quinn specifying the conditions of any possible New York printing.

 

I must stipulate to have three sendings of proofs (preferably a widemargined one must be pulled), namely:

            (1)        A galley-page proof of all the book up to and including Circe.

            (2)        A similar proof of the three chapters of the Nostos.

            (3)        A complete proof of the book in page form (LIII: 30–31).

 

Clearly, this is actually a request for only two “sendings of proofs”: a galley proof of the whole book and page proofs of the whole book. In November 1920 Joyce was at work on the last of the adventures, “Circe,” and perhaps envisaged working on the galley proofs of the first fifteen episodes as he completed the Nostos. With publication finally arranged through Beach and the Dijon works, Joyce’s anticipation of the first proofs is evident. J’attends les premiéres èpreuves d’ Ulysse au 10” he writes to Valery Larbaud on June 5 1921 (LIII: 43). Two days later he tells Alessandro Francini Bruni, “aspetto le prime bozze domani l’altro” (LIII: 45).  Ellmann dates the first galley proofs to 10 June 1921 (JJII: 513) but the earliest proofs, now located at Harvard, are actually dated 11 June (JJA 17.002).

This first sending of proofs, the marked épreuves en placard of Ulysses, was deposited at the Houghton Library by Marian Willard Johnson on November 29, 1950. The ‘placards,’ as they are more usually called, correspond, in the Anglophone printing-world, to slip proofs or galley proofs. A placard is a proof taken from composed type before page composition to allow for the detection and correction of errors. They are printed on one side only and with wide margins to cater for the author’s inspection and corrections. Large sheets of paper generally measuring 470 x 744 mm, each placard contains eight unnumbered pages of text, four across and two high, arranged with the second page printed below the first, the fourth below the third, the sixth below the fifth and the eighth below the seventh. Each placard was pulled three times and Joyce usually made his corrections and additions to a single copy. There are exceptions to this general rule, however: the first setting of “Sirens” Placard 31, for example, was pulled five times at the end of September 1921 and Joyce marked up two of these copies with different corrections and additions. Six copies of the second setting of Placard 42, for “Oxen of the Sun,” are at Princeton (one of these is marked). The usual printers’ practice is, once the marked placard is returned and its corrections set, to divided the type up into pages, insert the page numbers and submit a further proof––the page proof––to the author (this happened in the case of the first five episodes of Ulysses). Such was the weight of Joyce’s additions, however, that Darantiere began to pull the revised settings as placards (and again, generally in sets of three copies).

The printers worked sequentially through the episodes of Ulysses, setting typescript as Joyce supplied it and successive placards are demarcated by rising numerals. As well as leading towards the first edition, the placards were also circulated among Joyce’s patrons and promoters––whether to Harriet Shaw Weaver (LIII: 52) or to Valery Larbaud. In late October, Joyce sent Larbaud the five galleys, “uncorrected and incomplete,” that constituted the first setting of “Penelope” in type (LIII: 51). Though the printers had only reached “Nausicaa” the final episode was pushed forward to prepare Larbaud for the December séance in the Maison des Amis des Livres bookshop––though Joyce hoped the conférence would take place two weeks earlier (LIII: 53) and had actually sent the typescript to Darantiere in late September.1

Because they were printed out of line, these five placards are demarcated not numerically but alphabetically. Four settings of the resultant Placards A to E were made; copies of the first setting were dispatched on 20 October (LIII: 51). The following table shows the number of copies of each “Penelope” placard that Joyce corrected at each setting level.

 

 

Pl. A

Pl. B

Pl. C

Pl. D

Pl. E

First setting

2

1

1

3

1

Second setting

2

2

1

2

1

Third setting

2

2

2

2

2

Fourth setting

1

1

1

1

1

 

The dip in the number of copies marked in the final setting should not be taken as evidence that the proofing process had abated. On 6 December Joyce reported to Weaver that the episode “in printed proof (the 4th) is so illegible with interlineations that it would be useless to send it” (LI: 178). Looking across the placards of the first setting, all three copies of Placard D are marked. One might imagine that “Penelope” was not quite as “uncorrected and incomplete” as Joyce claimed when dispatching it (and since the second setting of Placards A–D was pulled from November 2 onward––JJA 21.163––it must have been the first setting that was sent to Larbaud). Consulting the documents at Harvard, however, the markings on one of the copies amount to no more than French glosses of Molly Bloom’s Hiberno-Englishisms. Presumably these translations were prepared with the Paris reading in mind. For the placard numbers of the remaining Nostos episodes Darantiere switched from his previous format of rising numerals and printed “Eumaeus” and “Ithaca” on placards labelled III-1 to III-13. Two settings of these were made and Joyce often marked up two copies of each setting of a placard.

Roman numerals are also present in the labels attached to some early placards. The printers had pulled the first five episodes of Ulysses in placard over the course of a week in early June 1921. Joyce’s corrections were set and the second sending of proofs––page proofs––pulled at the end of the month. The page proofs, which split placard text into pages and add headlines and page numbers, went through two settings before Darantiere decided on the unusual course of reverting to placards for the reset text. Not only had some confusion regarding episode versus tripartite-section breaks finally been resolved by a letter from Joyce, dated 10 August 1921, but such was the weight of additions to the second setting of the page proofs that Darantiere reinstated placard printing to accommodate the further growth he expected. Only when the second placards were returned, as he informed Beach on 31 August, would he set “la mise en pages définitive [the definitive make-up].”2 The printing of a long sequence of placards for the episodes from “Hades” to “Scylla and Charybdis” had continued in the meantime, however, commencing around 10 August, so when the eleven placards of the first five episodes were repulled from 18 August onward, they were labelled I–XI. Unlike all the others, these eleven placards are paginated. It seems that in returning to the pulling of galley proofs from page proofs the compositors had not bothered to remove the page numbers from the set type, which they were rearranging for galleys. For the placards from number 10 onward, consisting of text being set for the first time, Darantiere pulled two or three settings of each before proceeding to page proofs. These placards revert, of course, to the more usual unpaginated format.

 

Another portion of the text of Ulysses that was set out of sequence was the Messianic scene of “Circe.” Joyce had composed the scene long after “Circe” was completed and typed up, but before he had submitted the episode to Darantiere’s printers. Each of the two extant typescript exemplars of “Circe” contains a coloured line to denote the point of insertion of the Messianic scene typescript but, for whatever reason, the printers set this latter portion of the text first. Again parting with numerical sequence, the resultant Placards Y and Z went through four settings when they were pulled beginning on 20 October 1921. Only on 3 December did the setting of the rest of the episode catch up on what was to have been an insertion, and the end of Placard 52 contains, after the final words “their reign is over for ever” (now U 15.1397), the printed instruction “(ICI, pl. Y, Y bis et Z)” (JJA 20.056).

 

Provenance of the marked placards.

 

As each marked copy was set the dirty proof was returned to Joyce and Beach along with copies of the new setting. In 1935, at the mercy of the Great Depression and having ceded the rights to Ulysses, Beach prepared a sixteen-page catalogue of her collection offering the “great treasures” given to her by Joyce,3 among them all the proofs then in her possession. She describes them as “abundantly corrected and added to by the author. About 600 pages contain 5 to 10 lines of autograph corrections, others are almost completely covered with manuscript.”4 Most of the collection, including the unmarked placards, remained in Beach’s possession until it was acquired by Buffalo and Princeton but the marked placards were disposed of around the time she issued her catalogue. She recounts the period in her memoir Shakespeare and Company.

 

I issued a little catalogue of my own. Perhaps this catalogue failed to reach the Joyce collectors––or perhaps few were collecting Joyce in the thirties. At any rate, most of the letters I got asked whether I had anything of Hemingway’s. […]

On a trip to the United States at about this time, I visited my friend Miss Marian Willard, now Mrs. Dan Johnson of the Willard Gallery, in New York. I relinquished to her my set of the corrected proofs of Ulysses.5

 

Here and elsewhere Beach’s reference to the “corrected proofs of Ulysses” is ambiguous as she does not distinguish between the galley proofs and the subsequent compositional stratum, the page proofs. From the reproduction included on the inside front cover of Beach’s catalogue (the first page of Placard 13 setting one: JJA 18.03) and the material holdings now at Harvard, however, it is clear that of the “complete set, and several incomplete sets” of proofs which she describes one is the marked placards.6 Initially on deposit, the marked copies formally joined the Houghton Library collection in August 1969 through part purchase by the college and a partial gift by Mrs. Johnson, in memory of Beach. The unmarked placards are at Buffalo, V.C.1.A–C [V.C.3 and V.C.4], and Princeton, IV.B.125 and IV.B.126.7

 

Different settings or versions of the same placard illustrate the expansive nature of Ulysses at this time. A placard’s first setting generally contains thirty-seven lines of text to a page, unless some typographical peculiarity such as the “Circe” speakers’ names has intruded on regular spacing. On each version of a placard, the same portion of the text of Ulysses is generally found but because of the volume of additions that Joyce made, each placard was pulled in from one to four settings. As a marked copy was returned and the additions set, the first and last lines of each of the eight pages of the placard forme remained the same, with the text in between swelling. (A forme is that whole assemblage of tightly bound pages of type, steel wedges and wood furniture from which an impression is made.) From the printers’ point-of-view, one readily discerns typographical exigencies rather than aesthetic deliberations to be at the forefront of such conservatism. If the act of resetting were to push lines of type onto the following page not only would material be shunted across the eight pages of an individual placard forme but also, in all likelihood, across a number of formes, necessitating copious resetting in an already perplexing print job.

In the case of the earlier placards, when the space required to meet Joyce’s additions was too great, additional lines were tagged onto the page of type; again, rather than to force the resetting of a number of pages. Thus, the second page of “Hades” Placard 11 moves from thirty-seven lines in the first setting (JJA 17.222) to forty-five in the second (JJA 17.230) to forty-nine in the third (JJA 17.238). As the compositors learned to expect heavy additions from Joyce––a visitation no doubt marked by Darantiere’s “characteristic gesture [of] throwing up his hands in despair” (JJII: 513)––they used large quantities of blank pieces of type when the proof was in galley, inserting them between the justification points to pad out the individual lines of the forme’s pages. Setting an addition, therefore, did not require a lot of the type to be broken up or ‘killed.’ Instead the blank type––the quadrats––were removed and the compositors only had mere patches of type to reset with Joyce’s additions incorporated. Enough quadrats were removed so that the page could be reset with the minimum number of line-breaks disrupted. Thus, the remainder of the page went unchanged. A drama ensues, a two-hander played between Joyce’s expansive practices and the printers’ attempts to accommodate that growth, the enacting of which can be seen in the marked placards. Joyce frequently vetoes undesirable line-breaks, insisting, consequently, that the type be killed and reset. The integration of F. O. T. E. I. Kriegfried Überallgemein’s title (now U 12.0567–69) serves as a memorable example of this back-and-forth (compare JJA 19.131 and 19.139 where Joyce instructs the compositor to “finir la parole dans la ligne”).

Even these two solutions were not always efficacious; placards that were heavily worked over and went through numerous settings––or received other typographical complications––required portions of text to be shunted onto subsequent pages. The three settings of Placard 13, the opening of “Aeolus,” give a visually arresting example of this practice. The portion of text covered remains a constant across the three settings (JJA 18.03–032; now U 7.001–372) but with Joyce’s addition of the headlines on the first version and other long passages the text waxes and finally overflows. The first page of the first version contains twenty-six lines of text (JJA 18.3; U 7.021–037, 040–053) but once Joyce’s additions are set this swells to forty-three lines on the first page of the second version (JJA 18.013; U 7.01–016, 021–037, 040–053). Both pages end with Bloom’s thoughts about “Mario the tenor” (U 7.053). By the third version of the placard, however, Joyce’s additions are so copious that incorporating them means that the first page has to be reset (as U 7.01–030; JJA 18.021) and Mario is pushed on to the middle of the second page (JJA 18.022).

The same principle of negotiable constancy holds true at the level of the first and last line of the entire placard. Eventually, if additions continue beyond the physical possibilities of a single eight-page forme, the content spills over into a short supplementary placard (denoted ‘bis’). This was the case with the final setting of “Penelope,” for example. The flurry of activity in the third setting of the episode, in which two copies of each of the five placards were marked, coupled with the weight of additions made to the previous settings, meant that the final setting of the episode was too extensive for five placard formes. The point of rupture was the beginning of the episode, Placard A (U 18.001–364). The additions made on six previous placard exemplars combined to force some forty-one lines in the fourth setting (now U 18.320–364) onto a newly set single page (JJA 21.204).

The three settings of “Aeolus” Placard 13 also resulted in a bis placard. As did the resettings of Placard Y of the Messianic scene and Placard 34. In the latter case, a “Cyclops” proof, Joyce incorporated a lengthy manuscript addition beginning “A posse of Dublin Metropolitan police” (U 12.0534ff.) into the first setting. He supplied the printer with a two-sheet fair copy of his text (Buffalo MS V.A.9) and left an instruction on the first setting of the October 1 Placard 34, “Insérez ici le passage sur les deux feuilles en manuscrit sans interrompre le paragraph” (JJA 19.123). Such were Joyce’s revision to “Cyclops” that its placards actually required a second bis. When the second setting of Placard 36 came to be reset the compositors realized they would require a supplement: the instruction “Pla. 36 bis” appears scrawled on Joyce’s marked copy (JJA 19.179). And when the text was reset, a bis placard was accordingly pulled to accommodate the overflow caused by Joyce’s additions.

Sometimes a bis placard was pulled to complete an episode––rather than have it running over into the subsequent placard. The first setting of Ulysses in type, consisting of the first five episodes, for example, amounts to nine placards and a single-page Placard 9bis, which was necessary to cover the end of “Lotus Eaters” (JJA 17.93). Similarly, Placard III-5bis completes “Eumaeus.” On the two settings of Placard 23, by contrast, which complete “Scylla and Charybdis,” the final two pages of the proof were left blank––this may not have been due to any reluctance on the part of the printers to set the beginning of “Wandering Rocks,” however, but rather because they had run out of typescript to set. Darantiere informed Beach on 12 August 1921 that the typesetters were nearing the end of the portion of typescript then in their possession.8 In any event, the atmosphere of effluxion was matched in the expense of printing Ulysses. An early estimate reckoned Fr 27,875.96 for the entire job; by 3 December the extra cost incurred for Joyce’s revisions alone came to 3,852 francs.9

 

Joseph Prescott was perhaps the first scholar to work with the placards. In 1944, while he was preparing a doctorate at Harvard, Marian Willard Johnson made the marked copies available to him.10 In his dissertation Prescott examined the various types of revisions that Joyce had made to the galley proofs––since he focused on the placards, however, his study concentrated on the late stage of composition from 1921–1922 and he could only document Joyce’s accretive methods, as very few erasures occur in the proofs of Ulysses.11

 

Joyce’s revisions represent almost exclusively a process of elaboration. Great numbers of additions gravitate into patterned constellations of purpose and method, and innumerable details, in the final text as well as in the additions, become luminous with meaning.12

 

Using the placards-finder.

 

The following table prioritizes the placards as material documents and arranges them according to their placement in the Archive. Individual documents are denoted by ‘Pl’ followed by their Darantiere numeration / alphabetization and the setting number. To distinguish placards from page proofs, the setting is demarcated with a lower case Roman numeral. The entire range of each placard is recorded below––both in terms of text covered (using Gabler’s line numbers) and Archive pagination. Click on the episode-specific line numbers to go to that placard’s position in the episode-by-episode listing of all proofs. Information regarding when Joyce used a particular placard can also be accessed from there.

 

 

Notes for the introduction.

 

 

1.         XIV.32: Maurice Darantiere to Slyvia Beach; 23 September 1921. T. l. s.: 1l. and XIV.33: Darantiere to Beach; 26 September 1921. T. l. s.: 1l.

 

2.         XIV.21: Maurice Hirchwald to Beach enclosed with XIV.20: Darantiere to Beach; 11 August 1921. T. n. s.: 1l. and XIV.23: Darantiere to Beach; 31 August 1921. T. l. s.: 1l.

 

3.         Letter from Beach to Holly Beach Dennis, early 1935, quoted in Noel Riley Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation (New York: Norton, c1983), p. 353.

 

4.         Sylvia Beach, Catalogue of a Collection Containing Manuscripts & Rare Editions of James Joyce, a Few Manuscripts of Walt Whitman, and Two Drawings by William Blake Belonging to Miss Sylvia Beach and for Sale at Her Shop Shakespeare and Company, 12, rue de l'Odeon, Paris VIe (Paris: Shakespeare and Co., 1935), p. 3, item 2.

 

5.         Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare and Company (London: Faber and Faber, 1960, c1959), pp. 211–12.

 

6.         Beach Catalogue, pp. 2–3. Beach also refers to the placards as the “corrected proofs of Ulysses” in unpublished letters to Oscar A. Silverman and William A. Jackson, both dated 16 February 1960, that are now at the Poetry Collection, University at Buffalo. In these letters she also explicitly states that the placards belong to Johnson.

 

7.         Information taken from Harvard University’s Online Archival Search Information System (accessed 10 May 2008) and, for the Princeton material, from Howard C. Rice et. al., “Sylvia Beach Papers” (accessed 10 May 2008).

 

8.         Buffalo XIV.22: Darantiere to Beach; 12 August 1921. T. l. s.: 1l.

 

9.         Buffalo XIV.3: Darantiere to Beach; 18 April 1921. T. l. s.: 1l. and Buffalo XIV.51: Darantiere to Beach; 3 December 1921. T. l. s.: 1l.

 

10.       Joseph Prescott, “Stylistic Realism in Joyce’s Ulysses”, A James Joyce Miscellany (Second Series), Marvin Magalaner, ed. (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1959), p. 48.

 

11.       Joseph Prescott, “James Joyce’s Ulysses as a Work in Progress” (Ph.D dissertation: Harvard University, 1944). Portions of the dissertation have contributed to “Stylistic Realism in Joyce’s Ulysses,” pp. 1566 and a series of papers on characterization in Ulysses: Stephen in Letterature Moderne, IX (MarchApril, 1959), pp. 14563; a summary on Bloom in Literature and Psychology, IX (Winter 1959), pp. 34; and Molly in A James Joyce Miscellany (Third series), Marvin Magalaner, ed. (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1962), pp. 79126. All of the above appeared as chapters in Joseph Prescott, Exploring James Joyce (Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1964).

 

12.       Joseph Prescott, “Stylistic Realism in Joyce’s Ulysses,” p. 44.

 

 

 

Proof-finder: Placards

 

Text 1986

Setting

CSE Level

JJA

Marked Copies

Duplicates

1.0001–0292

Pl 1.i

1

17.002–010

Harvard

1 Yale, 1 Harvard

1.0293–0592

Pl 2.i

1

17.013–020

Harvard

2 Buffalo

1.0593–0744 & 2.0001–0146

Pl 3.i

1 & 1

17.023–030

Harvard

2 Buffalo

2.0146–0449

Pl 4.i

1

17.033–040

Harvard

2 Buffalo

3.0001–0304

Pl 5.i

1

17.043–052

Harvard

2 Harvard

3.3004–0505 & 4.0001–0076

Pl 6.i

1 & 1

17.055–062

Harvard

2 Buffalo

4.0077–0396

Pl 7.i

1

17.064–072

Harvard

2 Buffalo

4.0397–0551 & 5.0001–0168

Pl 8.i

1 & 1

17.075–082

Harvard

2 Buffalo

5.0169–0541

Pl 9.i

1

17.084–092

Harvard

2 Buffalo

5.0542–0572

Pl 9bis.i

1

17.093

Harvard

2 Buffalo

1.0001–0219   (1)

Pl I.i

4

17.096–104

Harvard

1 Buffalo

1.0220–0512

Pl II.i

4

17.107–114

Harvard

1 Buffalo

1.0513–0744 & 2.0001–0028

Pl III.i

4 & 4

17.117–124

Harvard

1 Buffalo

2.0028–0323

Pl IV.i

4

17.127–134

Harvard

1 Buffalo

2.0324–0449 & 3.0001–0131

Pl V.i

4 & 4

17.137–144

Harvard

2 Buffalo

3.0131–0434

Pl VI.i

4

17.147–154

Harvard

2 Buffalo

3.0435–0505 & 4.0001–0142 (2)

Pl VII.i

4 & 4

17.157–164

Harvard

2 Buffalo

4.0143–0441

Pl VIII.i

4

17.167–174

Harvard

2 Buffalo

4.0442–0551 & 5.0001–0179

Pl IX.i

4

17.177–184

Harvard

2 Buffalo

5.0179–0406  (3)

Pl X.i

4

17.187–195

Harvard

2 Buffalo

5.0406–0572  (4)

Pl XI.i

4

17.197–200

Harvard

2 Buffalo

Text 1986

Setting

CSE Level

JJA

Marked Copies

Duplicates

6.0001–0325

Pl 10.i

1

17.203–210

Harvard

2 Buffalo

6.0001–0325

Pl 10.ii

2

17.211–218

Harvard

2 Buffalo

6.0326–0683

Pl 11.i

1

17.220–228

Harvard

2 Buffalo

6.0326–0683

Pl 11.ii

2

17.229–236

Harvard

2 Buffalo

6.0326–0683

Pl 11.iii

3

17.237–244

Harvard

1 Harvard, 1 Buffalo

6.0684–1033

Pl 12.i

1

17.246–254

Harvard

2 Buffalo

6.0684–1033

Pl 12.ii

2

17.255–262

Harvard

2 Buffalo

6.0684–1033

Pl 12.iii

3

17.263–270

Harvard

2 Buffalo

7.0021–0372

Pl 13.i

1

18.003–010

Harvard

2 Buffalo

7.0001–0372

Pl 13.ii

2

18.012–020

Harvard

2 Buffalo

7.0001–0282   (5)

Pl 13.iii

3

18.021–028

Harvard

2 Buffalo

7.0283–0372

Pl 13bis.i

3

18.029–032

Harvard

2 Buffalo

7.0372–0702

Pl 14.i

1

18.034–042

Harvard

2 Buffalo

7.0372–0702

Pl 14.ii

2

18.043–050

Harvard

2 Buffalo

7.0372–0702

Pl 14.iii

3

18.051–058

Harvard

2 Buffalo

7.0702–1041

Pl 15.i

1

18.061–068

Harvard

2 Buffalo

7.0702–1041   (6)

Pl 15.ii

2

18.069–076

Harvard

2 Buffalo

7.0702–1041

Pl 15.iii

3

18.077–084

Harvard

2 Buffalo

7.1051–1075 & 8.0001–0279

Pl 16.i

1

18.087–094

Harvard

2 Buffalo

7.1042–1075 & 8.0001–0279

Pl 16.ii

2

18.095–102

Harvard

2 Buffalo

8.0280–0649

Pl 17.i

1

18.105–112

Harvard

2 Buffalo

8.0280–0649

Pl 17.ii

2

18.113–120

Harvard

2 Buffalo

8.0650–1006     

Pl 18.i

1

18.123–130

Harvard

2 Buffalo

8.0650–1006     

Pl 18.ii

2

18.131–138

Harvard

2 Buffalo

8.1007–1193 & 9.0001–0099 (7)

Pl 19.i

1

18.140–148

Harvard

2 Buffalo

8.1007–1193 & 9.0001–0099

Pl 19.ii

2

18.149–156

Harvard

2 Buffalo

9.0100–0405

Pl 20.i

1

18.159–166

Harvard

2 Buffalo

9.0100–0405

Pl 20.ii

2

18.167–174

Harvard

2 Buffalo

9.0406–0713

Pl 21.i

1

18.176–184

Harvard

2 Buffalo

9.0406–0713

Pl 21.ii

2

18.185–192

Harvard

2 Buffalo

9.0714–1022

Pl 22.i

1

18.195–202

Harvard

2 Buffalo

9.0714–1022

Pl 22.ii

2

18.203–210

Harvard

2 Buffalo

9.1022–1225   (8)

Pl 23.i

1

18.213–220

Harvard

2 Buffalo

9.1022–1225   (9)

Pl 23.ii

2

18.221–228

Harvard

2 Buffalo

Text 1986

Setting

CSE Level

JJA

Marked Copies

Duplicates

10.0001–0301

Pl 24.i

1

18.230–238

Harvard

2 Buffalo

10.0001–0301

Pl 24.ii

2

18.239–246

Harvard

2 Buffalo

10.0302–0607

Pl 25.i

1

18.249–256

Harvard

2 Buffalo

10.0302–0607

Pl 25.ii

2

18.257–264

Harvard

2 Buffalo

10.0608–0936

Pl 26.i

1

18.266–274

Harvard

2 Buffalo

10.0608–0936

Pl 26.ii

2

18.275–282

Harvard

2 Buffalo

10.0937–1257

Pl 27.i

1

18.285–292

Harvard

2 Buffalo

10.0937–1257

Pl 27.ii

2

18.293–300

Harvard

2 Buffalo

10.1198–1282 &

11.0001–0180

Pl 28.i

3 &

1

18.303–305 &

19.003–010

Harvard

2 Buffalo

10.1198–1282 &

11.0001–0180

Pl 28.ii

 4 &

2

18.306–308 &

19.011–018

Harvard

2 Buffalo

11.0181–0487

Pl 29.i

1

19.021–028

Harvard

1 Buffalo, 1 Princeton

11.0181–0487

Pl 29.ii

2

19.029–036

Harvard

1 Buffalo, 1 Princeton

11.0487–0801

Pl 30.i

1

19.039–046

Harvard

2 Princeton

11.0487–0801

Pl 30.ii

2

19.047–054

Harvard

2 Princeton

11.0802–1111

Pl 31.i.a

Pl 31.i.b

1

19.057–064

19.065–072

Harvard

Princeton

1 Harvard, 3 Princeton

11.0802–1111

Pl 31.ii

2

19.075–082

Princeton

2 Princeton

11.1112–1294 & 12.0001–0117

Pl 32.i

1 & 1

19.085–092

Harvard

2 Princeton

11.1112–1294 & 12.0001–0117

Pl 32.ii

2 & 2

19.093–100

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.0118–0442

Pl 33.i

1

19.103–110

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.0118–0442

Pl 33.ii

2

19.111–118

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.0443–0848

Pl 34.i

1

19.121–128

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.0443–0808

Pl 34.ii

2

19.129–136

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.0443–0808

Pl 34.iii

3

19.137–144

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.0808–0848

Pl 34bis.i

2

19.145

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.0808–0848

Pl 34bis.ii

3

19.146

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.0848–1183

Pl 35.i

1

19.149–156

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.0848–1183

Pl 35.ii

2

19.157–164

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.1184–1562

Pl 36.i

1

19.167–174

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.1184–1562   (10)

Pl 36.ii

2

19.175–182

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.1184–1518

Pl 36.iii

3

19.183–190

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.1184–1518

Pl 36.iv

4

19.191–198

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.1518–1562

Pl 36bis.i

3

19.199

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.1518–1561

Pl 36bis.ii

4

19.200

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.1562–1918   (11)

Pl 37.i

1

19.203–210

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.1562–1918

Pl 37.ii

2

19.211–218

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.1562–1918

Pl 37.iii

3

19.219–226

Harvard

2 Princeton

12.1562–1918

Pl 37.iv

4

19.227–234

Harvard

2 Princeton

Text 1986

Setting

CSE Level

JJA

Marked Copies

Duplicates

13.0001–0317

Pl 38.i

1

19.237–244

Harvard

2 Princeton

13.0001–0317

Pl 38.ii

2

19.245–252

Harvard

2 Princeton

13.0317–0639

Pl 39.i

1

19.255–262

Harvard

2 Princeton

13.0317–0639

Pl 39.ii

2

19.263–270

Harvard

2 Princeton

13.0639–0976

Pl 40.i

1

19.273–280

Harvard

2 Princeton

13.0639–0975

Pl 40.ii

2

19.281–288

Harvard

2 Princeton

13.0976–1306 & 14.001–0008

Pl 41.i

1 & 1

19.291–298

Harvard

2 Princeton

13.0975–1306

Pl 41.ii

2

19.299–306

Harvard

2 Princeton

14.0009–0327

Pl 42.i

1

19.309–316

Harvard

2 Princeton

14.0001–0302

Pl 42.ii

2

19.317–324

Harvard

5 Princeton

14.0302–0327

Pl 42bis.i

2

19.325

Harvard

5 Princeton

14.0327–0652

Pl 43.i

1

19.327–334

Harvard

2 Princeton

14.0327–0652

Pl 43.ii

2

19.335–342

Princeton

2 Princeton

14.0653–0976

Pl 44.i

1

19.345–352

Princeton

2 Princeton

14.0653–0975

Pl 44.ii

2

19.353–360

Harvard

2 Princeton

14.0976–1293

Pl 45.i

2

19.363–370

Harvard

2 Princeton

14.1293–1591   (12)

Pl 46.i

2

19.373–380

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.0001–0246

Pl 47.i

3

20.003–010

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.0247–0498

Pl 48.i

3

20.013–020

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.0499–0749

Pl 49.i

3

20.023–030

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.0755–1028

Pl 50.i

5

20.033–040

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.1028–1293

Pl 51.i

5

20.043–050

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.1294–1397   (13)

Pl 52.i

5

20.053–056

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.1398–1791   (14)

Pl Y.i

1

20.059–066

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.1398–1720

Pl Y.ii

2

20.067–074

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.1398–1720

Pl Y.iii

3

20.075–082

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.1398–1720

Pl Y.iv

4

20.083–090

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.1721–1791

Pl Ybis.i

2

20.091–092

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.1721–1791

Pl Ybis.ii

3

20.093–095

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.1721–1791

Pl Ybis.iii

4

20.096–097

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.1792–1954

Pl Z.i

1

20.099–102

Harvard

1 Harvard, 1 Princeton

15.1792–1955

Pl Z.ii

2

20.103–106

Harvard

1 Princeton

15.1792–1955

Pl Z.iii

3

20.107–110

Harvard

1 Princeton

15.1792–1955

Pl Z.iv

4

20.111–114

Harvard

4 Princeton

15.1957–2224

Pl 53.i.a

Pl 53.i.b

5

20.117–124

20.125–132

Harvard

Harvard

1 Princeton

15.2225–2509

Pl 54.i

5

20.135–142

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.2510–2773

Pl 55.i

5

20.145–152

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.2774–3054

Pl 56.i

5

20.155–162

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.3056–3132

Pl 56bis.i

5

20.163–164

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.3133–3400

Pl 57.i

7

20.167–174

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.3401–3653

Pl 58.i

7

20.177–184

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.3654–3918

Pl 59.i

7

20.187–194

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.3919–4178

Pl 60.i

7

20.197–204

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.4179–4424   (15)

Pl 61.i

7

20.207–214

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.4425–4727

Pl 62.i

7

20.217–224

Harvard

2 Princeton

15.4728–4967

Pl 63.i

7

20.227–234

Harvard

2 Princeton

Text 1986

Setting

CSE Level

JJA

Marked Copies

Duplicates

16.0001–0378

Pl III-1.i

1

20.237–244

Harvard

2 Princeton

16.0001–0378   (16)

Pl III-1.ii.a 

Pl III-1.ii.b

2

20.245–252

20.253–260

Harvard

Harvard

1 Princeton

16.0379–0738

Pl III-2.i

1

20.263–270

Harvard

2 Princeton

16.0379–0738

                                 (17)

Pl III-2.ii.a

Pl III-2.ii.b

2

20.271–278

20.279–286

Harvard

Harvard

1 Princeton

16.0739–1087   (18)

Pl III-3.i.a

Pl III-3.i.b

1

20.289–296

20.297–305

Harvard

Harvard

1 Harvard

16.0739–1087

Pl III-3.ii

2

20.307–314

Harvard

2 Princeton

16.1088–1455

Pl III-4.i.a

Pl III-4.i.b

1

20.317–324

20.325–332

Harvard

Harvard

1 Princeton

16.1088–1455

Pl III-4.ii

2

20.333–340

Harvard

2 Princeton

16.1456–1835

Pl III-5.i.a

Pl III-5.i.b

1

20.343–350

20.351–358

Harvard

Harvard

1 Princeton

16.1456–1835

Pl III-5.ii

2

20.359–366

Harvard

2 Princeton

16.1835–1891

Pl III-5bis.i.a

Pl III-5bis.i.b

1

20.367

20.368

Harvard

Harvard

1 Princeton

16.1835–1891

Pl III-5bis.ii

2

20.369–370

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.0001–0314

Pl III-6.i.a

Pl III-6.i.b

1

21.003–010

21.011–018

Harvard

Harvard

Princeton

17.0001–0314

Pl III-6.ii

2

21.019–026

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.0314–0611

Pl III-7.i

1

21.029–036

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.0314–0611

Pl III-7.ii

2

21.037–044

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.0612–0878

Pl III-8.i

1

21.047–054

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.0612–0878

Pl III-8.ii

2

21.055–062

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.0878–1212

Pl III-9.i

1

21.065–072

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.0878–1211

Pl III-9.ii

2

21.073–080

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.1212–1536

Pl III-10.i

1

21.083–090

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.1212–1536

Pl III-10.ii

2

21.091–098

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.1536–1862

Pl III-11.i

1

21.101–108

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.1536–1862

Pl III-11.ii

2

21.109–116

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.1862–2182

Pl III-12.i

1

21.119–126

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.1862–2182

Pl III-12.ii

2

21.127–134

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.2182–2332

Pl III-13.i

1

21.137–140

Harvard

2 Princeton

17.2182–2332

Pl III-13.ii

2

21.141–144

Harvard

2 Princeton

Text 1986

Setting

CSE Level

JJA

Marked Copies

Duplicates

18.0001–0364

Pl A.i.a

Pl A.i.b

1

21.147–154

21.155–162

Harvard

Harvard

1 Princeton

18.0001–0364

Pl A.ii.a

Pl A.ii.b

2

21.163–170

21.171–178

Harvard

Harvard

1 Princeton

18.0001–0364

Pl A.iii.a

Pl A.iii.b

3

21.179–186

21.187–194

Harvard

Harvard

 

18.0001–0320

Pl A.iv

4

21.195–202

Harvard

2 Princeton

18.0320–0364

Pl Abis.i

4

21.204

Harvard

2 Princeton

18.0364–0747

Pl B.i

1

21.207–214

Harvard

2 Princeton

18.0364–0747

Pl B.ii

2

21.215–222

21.223–230

Harvard

Harvard

1 Princeton

18.0364–0747

Pl B.iii.a

Pl B.iii.b

3

21.231–238

21.239–246

Harvard

Harvard

 

18.0364–0747

Pl B.iv

4

21.247–254

Harvard

1 Harvard, 1 Princeton

18.0748–1126

Pl C.i

1

21.257–264

Harvard

1 Harvard, 1 Princeton

18.0748–1126

Pl C.ii

2

21.265–272

Harvard

2 Princeton

18.0748–1126

Pl C.iii.a

Pl C.iii.b

3

21.273–280

21.281–288

Harvard

Harvard

 

18.0748–1126

Pl C.iv

4

21.289–296

Harvard

2 Princeton

18.1126–1521

Pl D.i.a

Pl D.i.b

Pl D.i.c

1

21.299–306

21.307–314

21.315–322

Harvard

Harvard

Harvard

 

18.1126–1521

Pl D.ii.a

Pl D.ii.b

2

21.323–330

21.331–338

Harvard

Harvard

1 Princeton

18.1126–1520

Pl D.iii.a

Pl D.iii.b

3

21.339–346

21.347–354

Harvard

Harvard

 

18.1126–1469

Pl D.iv

4

21.355–362

Harvard

2 Princeton

18.1521–1611

Pl E.i

1

21.365–366

Harvard

2 Princeton

18.1521–1611

Pl E.ii

2

21.367–368

Harvard

2 Princeton

18.1520–1611

Pl E.iii.a

Pl E.iii.b

3

21.369–370

21.371–372

Harvard

Harvard

 

18.1469–1611

Pl E.iv

4

21.373–376

Harvard

2 Princeton

 

 

1.         Placards I–XI are paginated. See the introduction to the placards-finder.

2.         Placard VII is a reset of PP 4.2.b.

3.         The seventh and eighth pages of Placard X are blank. Joyce’s additions continue into this portion of the sheet.

4.         Placard XI has only four pages. There are no blanks, however, as only a half sheet was pulled.

5.         The final page of Pl 13.iii is blank.

6.         The seventh and eighth pages of Pl 15.ii are set incorrectly. The Archive reproduces the two in the correct order (JJA 18.075–76).

7.         The fifth page of the placard has “19bis” written on the top of it (JJA 18.145). No such document was pulled.

8.         The last two pages of Pl 23.i are blank. The printers may have run out of typescript to set at this stage. Darantiere informed Beach on 12 August 1921 that the typesetters were nearing the end of the portion of typescript then in their possession. Buffalo XIV.22: Darantiere to Beach; 12 August 1921. T. l. s.: 1l.

9.         The last two pages of Pl 23.ii are blank.

10.       The fifth page of the placard has “Pla. 36 bis” written on the top of it (JJA 19.179).

11.       Pl 37.i contains the draft text of some material for Gathering 17. In the upper border of the third page of the placard, Joyce’s draft of two elements appears (JJA 19.205). The second of these has not been identified, but the first is Joyce’s sketch for “Siopold” (now U 11.0751).

 

Lionel

                        Leopold

                        Simon                          <Richsiopold> Siopold

                        Richie

The second exclamation was added to “Sirens” on PP 17.1––at the same time Joyce was working on the placards of “Cyclops” (i.e. early October 1921).

12.       The fifth page of the placard has “46bis” written on the top of it (JJA 19.377). No second setting of the placard (with or without a bis) was pulled.

13.       Placard 52 has only four pages. There are no blanks, however, as only a half sheet was pulled. On the final page, after the words “their reign is over for ever” (now U 15.1397), the printed instruction “(ICI, pl. Y, Y bis et Z)” appears (JJA 20.056).

14.       Placards Y and Z––the Messianic scene of “Circe”––were set and pulled out of sequence. Joyce had composed the scene long after “Circe” was completed and typed up, but before he had submitted the episode to Darantiere’s printers. Each of the two extant typescript exemplars of “Circe” contains a coloured line to denote the point of insertion of the Messianic scene typescript but, for whatever reason, the printers set this latter portion of the text first.

15.       Material was accidentally set twice at the end of Placard 61. The compositor, who was working through Darantiere’s copy of the typescript, came to page 135 (JJA 15.286) and halfway down the page––having set “that carman is waiting” (now U 15.4424)––went back a page and set the text U 15.4405–13 from “(To the crowd.) No, I was with the private” to “Noble art of self-pretence” a second time. Perhaps there had been a break in the setting and when the compositor resumed his work he started at the wrong place. The typescript page which covers the duplicate material (JJA 15.285) has a mark around the word “Personally,” which becomes the first word of the next placard, again duplicating material already set (U 15.4414–24) on the previous placard. Joyce crosses out the duplicate material at the end of Placard 61 and beginning of Placard 62.

16.       The two ‘b’ copies of the second setting of Placards III-1 and III-2 contain nothing more than the correction of a number of literals; no new material is added.

17.       On the fourth page of Placard III-2.ii.b Hirchwald has written Joyce all other spellings of this expression have been a propos without italics?” (JJA 20.282).

18.       The four ‘b’ copies of the first setting of Placards III-3, III-4, III-5 and III-5bis contain nothing more than the correction of a number of literals; no new material is added.

 

 

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